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CHCCCS007 Develop And Implement Service Program

CHCCCS007

Develop and implement service programs

Learner Guide v1.2

CHCCCS007

Develop and implement service programs

Application

This unit describes the skills and knowledge required to engage consumers, analyse service needs of particular groups and develop programs and services to meet those needs.

This unit applies to workers coordinating or managing teams and operations in varied service delivery contexts.

The skills in this unit must be applied in accordance with Commonwealth and State/Territory legislation, Australian/New Zealand standards and industry codes of practice.

Performance Criteria

Element

Elements describe the essential outcomes.

Performance Criteria

Performance criteria describe the performance needed to demonstrate achievement of the element.

1. Engage consumers in the analysis of service needs

  • Develop a plan for consumer participation and engagement in decisions about service provision
  • Investigate the needs of individuals as the basis for service provision in line with consumer participation and engagement plan
  • Recognise processes and communications that may be a barrier to consumer participation and develop mechanisms to overcome these
  • Interact and consult with people accessing the service to monitor changing needs so that they can be addressed
  • Consult and collaborate with other services and networks to address multi-faced needs of individuals and client groups
  • Evaluate broader organisation context and its impact on service delivery

2. Develop programs

  • Facilitate input to program development from internal and external stakeholders
  • Engage people accessing programs in management processes and develop formal arrangements as required
  • Incorporate consideration of individual differences, rights, needs and preferences in the planning processes
  • Integrate both internal and external services as required
  • Determine financial, human and physical resource requirements
  • Develop supporting systems and procedures
  • Develop and integrate service evaluation methods, including mechanisms for feedback from people accessing service programs
  • Document program identifying priorities, timelines and responsibilities

3. Implement and monitor programs

  • Communicate roles and responsibilities to relevant stakeholders
  • Facilitate provision of training to support implementation
  • Monitor service delivery against agreed objectives and budgetary frameworks
  • Make user interactions and feedback an integral part of ongoing monitoring
  • Identify and address problems in addressing the needs of service users in accordance with organisation procedures
  • Maintain relevant program and service delivery documentation

CHCCCS007 – Learner guide Version 1.2 – November 2018 Southern Cross Education Institute

4. Evaluate programs

4.1 Assess capacity of programs to meet objectives

4.2 Seek and evaluate feedback from those using the service and other stakeholders

4.3 Modify programs as needed to meet changing requirements within policy and budgetary frameworks

Assessment Requirements

Performance Evidence

The candidate must show evidence of the ability to complete tasks outlined in elements and performance criteria of this unit, manage tasks and manage contingencies in the context of the job role. There must be demonstrated evidence that the candidate has:

  • Developed, implemented and evaluated at least 1 community sector service program

Knowledge Evidence

The candidate must be able to demonstrate essential knowledge required to effectively complete tasks outlined in elements and performance criteria of this unit, manage tasks and manage contingencies in the context of the work role. This includes knowledge of:

  • Program planning principles and processes, including:
    • program design
    • program resourcing
    • implementation systems and procedures
    • feedback and complaints procedures
    • evaluation and continuous improvement
    • accountability and governance
    • funding framework, including not-for-profit, government funding
  • Supports needed for effective consumer participation at all levels of program planning
  • Requirements of specific service user groups and individuals, including:
    • diverse and multi-faceted needs and issues service user participation opportunities and barriers
    • opportunities for collaboration and service partnerships
    • risk, regulatory and sustainability considerations
    • standards, codes and legislation compliance

Assessment Conditions

Skills must have been demonstrated in the workplace or in a simulated environment that reflects workplace conditions. The following conditions must be met for this unit:

  • Use of suitable facilities, equipment and resources, including organisation policies and procedures
  • Modelling typical workplace conditions and contingencies, including interactions with users of the service and co-workers from a range of diverse backgrounds

Assessors must satisfy the Standards for Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) 2015/AQTF mandatory competency requirements for assessors

Links

Companion volumes from the CS&HISC website – http://www.cshisc.com.au

Housekeeping Items

Your trainer will inform you of the following:

  • Where the toilets and fire exits are located, what the emergency procedures are and where the breakout and refreshment areas
  • Any rules, for example asking that all mobile phones are set to silent and of any security issues they need to be aware
  • What times the breaks will be held and what the smoking policy
  • That this is an interactive course and you should ask
  • That to get the most out of this workshop, we must all work together, listen to each other, explore new ideas, and make After all, that’s how we learn.
  • Ground rules for participation:
  • Smile
  • Support and encourage other participants
  • When someone is contributing everyone else is quiet
  • Be patient with others who may not be grasping the ideas
  • Be on time
  • Focus discussion on the topic
  • Speak to the trainer if you have any concerns

Objectives

  • Discover how to engage consumers in the analysis of service needs
  • Know how to develop programs
  • Learn how to implement and monitor programs
  • Understand how to evaluate programs
  • Gain skills and knowledge required for this unit
  1. Engage consumers in the analysis of service needs
  • – Develop a plan for consumer participation and engagement in decisions about service provision

Defining your plan

When you want to address service provision for consumers, you need detailed information about the needs of individuals and the organisations that serve them, as well as what resources are available. In order to so this, it's a good idea to develop a plan for identifying consumer needs and resources.

A need can be defined as the space between what a service is and what it could be. A need can be felt by an individual, a group, or an entire community. It can be a solid thing such as food, water or a building or an immaterial concept like friendship or feeling part of a team.

A resource, or assets, can be defined as individuals, institutions and organisations, buildings, areas, equipment – anything which can be used to help provide a service.

➢ Why create a plan?

  • It allows you to involve consumers and the people you are targeting from the very start of the process. This encourages both trust in the process and support, not only of plan but of the actions going forward. Being a part of the process helps foster engagement and gives voice to those who might not otherwise be
  • A well-made plan will provide a path for conducting accurate work. Planning ahead will save time and effort in the long run of carrying out the
  • A planning process will give individuals the opportunity to speak their opinions, hopes, and fears about the decisions about service provision. Their priorities and ideas might be different from yours and others, but they should be

Who to involve

The planning process benefits the most when there is full participation from consumers.

➢ Among others, consider the following:

  • Those experiencing needs that your service will be addressing – It's both fair and logical to involve those who will be the most directly affected. They have a large amount of input and experience on what the current situation is, and including them in the planning process is more likely to produce a plan that creates a more purposeful service.
  • People who will be implementing your program – The people who will be actively implementing whatever you decide to do will have a unique and practical view about what can be done and how
  • Health and human service providers – These individuals and organisations, especially those that are based in the community and working with individuals, often have both a deep understanding of the community and a strong empathic connection with the people they They can be helpful by sharing their knowledge and expertise in service provision.
  • People with influence – This can include individuals who are identified as leaders because of their position, job or status or because they are known to be people of intelligence, integrity, and good will who are able to exert
  • People who will be indirectly affected by your program – These may include teachers, police and other emergency services, landlords, and others whose work may be affected by yours
  • Local community – People who are in the local area will likely have ideas and be affected by what you do so it may be a good idea to listen to

How to engage consumers

In order to engage consumers in the analysis of service needs, you should first develop a plan for how to connect with consumers and learn how to engage with them. Having a suitable plan in place allows you to focus on the correct steps in turn to ensure you are working correctly towards consumer participation and engagement.

Before interacting with consumers, a useful strategy is to try and think as to what they would be looking for in terms of consumer participation and engagement. Try to put yourself in their shoes. How would you be engaged through the entirety of a progress that takes a long time? How would you decide what keeps your attention and effort?

There is no one size fits all strategy for consumer participation and engagement, which is why you investigate the needs of individuals, but in order to get the most out of any plan, you should:

Be enthusiastic

The first step to consumer engagement is for you to be excited and engaged about what you do. If you are not, why should they be? If possible, knowing and believing what you are doing is positive and has a good influence over the long term will reflect in your actions and feelings, and encourage customer engagement.

Two way communication

When you are trying to engage consumers in decisions, you may find that you can overwhelm consumers, either through information overload or an eagerness for them to understand what you are trying to communicate. It is important to give people the opportunity to communicate back to you, as what they say may help you, and will help them feel engaged. Remember to respond to any praise or criticism in a genuine, empathetic way, as you would want to be treated.

Be assertive, not aggressive

Assertive communicators take care and listen well to what people are saying, then build off what they’ve heard to proactively understand and be able to solve potential issues that consumers may have. Choose clear, jargon-free language when communicating with people and say what you mean. Being genuine, honest and communicative will help your build a stronger relationship with consumers.

Have a genuine interest

How do you know what information is helpful to your consumers? What better way than asking directly? You should be prepared for any response, and take care to not react inappropriately if you get negative responses. Negativity gives you a great chance to proactively fix and address consumer issues. This can often result in someone who is more engaged in satisfied than if they did not have an issue.

Make a commitment

Whether this be engaging with consumers directly or planning and performing services, be prepared to dedicate time to your goals and regularly follow and check up on progress. Regular contact with consumers makes them feel valued and committing to your task will result in better performance.

Work together

You will not be the only person communicating with consumers, so it is important that your fellow colleagues or team members are on the same wavelength as you. Engaging with your colleagues will help good working methods spread and be able to amplify the effect of engagement to consumers.

Empower the consumer

Empowerment in this context means customers options and personalised, actionable information with the capability to respond and be listened to. Consumers are more satisfied and feel more valued and engaged when we give them options and know there is interactivity, even if they don't select the options.

  • – Investigate the needs of individuals as the basis for service provision in line with consumer participation and engagement plan

Things to consider

In order for you to investigate the needs of individuals, you should always take into account individual rights, community requirements and any organisation statutory and legislative requirements. These may differ depending on the type of client, your state and your organisation.

Individual rights

➢ There are five individual rights in Australia’s constitution. These are:

  • The right to vote
  • Protection against acquisition of property on unjust terms
  • The right to trial by jury
  • Freedom of religion
  • Prohibition of discrimination on the basis of state residency

Source: https://www.humanrights.gov.au/how-are-human-rights-protected-australian-law

Individual needs

The needs of individuals are often based or influenced by what community they are from.

The most common definition of community is a group of people living together in one place or, sharing a common characteristic such as religion, race, profession or other factors. The community may have social values or responsibilities that allow them to be seen or thought of collectively that an individual feels a part of.

➢ Examples of communities:

  • The LGBT community
  • The Aboriginal community
  • The Christian community
  • The gaming community
  • The disabled community
  • The elderly

The term 'community' can be ideological in nature – in other words, society has a collective view of what it means to be a community.

Even just by looking at the example communities given above, you can imagine that the requirements for each, others and the people within it would be vastly different. That is why it is important to investigate, connect and engage with individuals in line with your engagement plan.

➢ There are many things that can affect the needs, issues and priorities of an individual– these can include:

  • The cultures, concerns, beliefs and aspirations of that person
  • Cultural or community attitudes on appropriate roles, relationships and approaches of the worker
  • The impact of cultural and community attitudes
  • Differences in values and attitudes
  • Social, community and youth issues
  • Nature of community development work
  • How they define their community
  • Physical and mental issues
  • Personal values, family and community
  • Emergence of community development
  • Contemporary community development practice
  • Social movements

Individual values and legislation

➢ When working with different people and cultures, you need to adopt a set of shared values – these include:

  • Equality, dignity and freedom for everyone
  • Freedom of speech/association
  • Religious freedom
  • An inclusive government
  • Democracy and the rule of law
  • Equality under the law
  • Gender equality
  • Equal opportunities
  • Peace
  • Tolerance
  • Mutual respect
  • Compassion
  • Equal

There is a whole array of legislation that you may need to apply to your service. This will depend on your role and the needs of the individuals you work with.

➢ Legislation that may have an impact service provision could include:

  • Aboriginals Councils and Associations Act 1976
  • Age Discrimination Act 2003
  • Anti-discrimination Act 1991
  • Children, Youth and Families Act 2005
  • Child Care Act 2002
  • Child Protection Act 1999
  • Disability services Act 1986
  • Disability Discrimination Act 1992
  • Domestic and Family Violence Protection Act 1989
  • Education Act 1989
  • Family Assistance Laws 2006
  • Freedom of Information Act 1992
  • Health Practitioner Registration Boards (Administration) Act 1999
  • Health Practitioners (Professional Standards) Act 1999
  • Mental Health Act 1974
  • Nursing Act 1992
  • Occupational Therapists Registration Act 2001
  • Physiotherapists Registration Act 2001
  • Powers of Attorney Act 1998
  • Privacy Act 1988
  • Psychologists Registration Act 2001
  • Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 1999
  • Racial Discrimination Act 1975
  • Sex Discrimination Act 1984
  • Social Security Act 1991
  • – Recognise processes and communications that may be a barrier to consumer participation and develop mechanisms to overcome these

Identifying a problem

The first step to solving a problem is to identify it, then analyse it. Every process and communication as well as issues can benefit from analysis. The only time this may be different is when there is an immediate crisis that must be addressed. Even then, taking the time to look back later would help for the future.

In over to recognise and overcome barriers to consumer participation, analysis is especially important.

➢ Some barriers are:

  • When the problems are not defined very clearly
  • When little is known about service problems or possible consequences
  • When people do not wish to engage with you
  • A lack of communication
  • When you want to find causes that may improve the chance of successfully addressing the problem
  • When people are jumping to conclusions or trying to finish things too early
  • When you need to identify actions to address the problem, and find the right people for taking

Analysing a problem

Our aim is to understand the problem better and to deal with it more effectively, so the method you choose in order to address it should follow that aim.

➢ Let’s consider some methods here and go over a couple of specific ways to examine the problem and its causes:

  • Justify the choice of the problem– Why have you chosen the process as a problem? Is it a minor or serious issue? Will you be able to solve it? Ask yourself honestly whether you are able to combat it effectively, in order to decide whether the problem is one that you should focus
  • Describe the problem – Describe the problem without implying a solution or placing blame, so that it can be analysed without any assumptions and work towards a consensus for a solution. A useful way to phrase it is in terms of a lack of a positive behaviour or condition, or due to the presence of a negative behaviour or
  • Identify the change – This may be easier said than done depending on what the barrier is, but often change comes about once it has been identified and said out loud. What may seem obvious to one person may not be to another. It may be a gradual process but the important thing is to change to start for the problem to begin to
  • Analyse the root cause – The real cause of a problem may not be immediately obvious. It could be a social or political cause, or a situation or behaviour may be responsible that may at first look seem unrelated to In order to discover the underlying cause, you may have to use one or more analytical methods, including critical thinking. The difference between recognising a problem and finding out what caused it is similar to the difference between a doctor’s treating symptoms and curing something. Once you understand the root causes of a problem, you may be able to not only solve it, but to put in places processes, communications or systems that prevent it similar things from happening again.
  • Identify contributing factors – This means looking at the restraining forces that act to stop change from happening (e.g. social structures, peer pressure, social or cultural traditions, ideology, politics, lack of knowledge, lack of access, etc.) and the forces that move towards change (dissatisfaction with current service, public opinion, policy change, education, promotion of alternatives, etc.) Consider how you can use your understanding of these forces in devising solutions to the
  • Identify relationships between this problem and other problems – It may be that as part of your analysis you have already done this. It could be the case that other problems may also stem from the same root cause. Understanding the relationships between issues can help you to resolve
  • Identify agents of change – Agents of change are the people who you should focus your efforts

on in order to improve the situation. This may be either the people the process is targeting, or the people performing that process, or sometimes they are the same. In other cases, your targets may be people whose behaviour or circumstances require change, and you may need to recruit help to work with you in your effort. The point of this step is to understand how to direct your work most effectively and efficiently.

  • What do you conclude? We hope you'll find analysis useful in recognising problems and barriers, whatever they may

Committing to a solution

Analysing problems can be hard work. It takes real mental effort, time and reflection.

Real problems are likely to be complex. You may have opposition, either from individuals themselves, people resistant to change or those looking after their own interests.

When you go looking for the underlying cause and reasons for issues, you are likely to find more than one. There may be many different reasons influencing the problem at the same time to varying degrees. It may not be an easy task to untangle all the reasons and their relative strengths, but it may be necessary in order to reach a solution.

While a problem may not only have more than one reason; it may have more than one solution too. Problems often call for multi-pronged solutions. This means that difficult problems can be approached from more than one direction. So if you were interested in boosting custom to a shop for example, you might want to (a) beautify the shop; (b) recruit and train new staff; (c) offer sales and deals; (d) run new advertisements and promotion; and (e) improve the experience. These are all different solutions come together to address the original problem.

When analysing the problems that you see, the analysis may identify multiple reasons behind the problem. The analysis may not always be easy. The solution may be more difficult still.

Don’t be disheartened that there are problems and barriers. They persist despite our efforts. They can be real challenges.

With good analysis, some resources, and enough commitment and determination, even the most troublesome problems can be addressed, and ultimately, solved.

  • – Interact and consult with people accessing the service to monitor changing needs so that they can be addressed

Monitoring

Monitoring is an assessment that continues to provide stakeholders with early detailed information on an assessment of the work and how it is performing. It is something that should be done during the implementation stage of work or any alterations or information that may affect it. Its purpose is to determine if the outputs, priorities and aims planned have been achieved so that any action needed to correct the implementations can be done as quickly as possible.

Monitoring is probably something you already do in your day to day work; it’s just that the label isn’t something you think about. Monitoring is the consistent, every day analysis and thought about what is taking place within the community. When you talk with people and find out what they think about the work, or values in the community, or what needs to be done – you are monitoring. When you take notes and make records and discuss the work you are performing – you are monitoring. Monitoring is the regular collection of information. Correct monitoring allows you to make decisions on how your work should be going forward and give you the opportunity to make changes if you wish.

What and how you perform monitoring is dependent on what community you are working in, what their values and priorities are and what you hope to achieve.

➢ Consider:

  • What am I monitoring?
  • How will I judge the monitoring? What criteria am I using?
  • How would I decide if adjustments need to be made?
  • What evidence will indicate a good performance?
  • What information has the monitoring provided and how can I use it?

Client feedback

You should aim to collect client feedback regularly to assess whether you are providing a satisfactory service. Feedback may be positive and negative and can help you improve in the areas you are weakest.

➢ There are a range of tools to help you gain feedback including:

  • Surveys
  • Suggestion boxes
  • Space for comments on website
  • Face-to-face communication/interviews.

The tools above can be standardised so that the same types of questions can be asked of all clients or tailored to individuals. It is a good idea to have a mixture of methods for example, both informal communication e.g. a chat and formal e.g. survey, so that clients feel they have the opportunity to be heard. All forms of communication should be documented according to organisational guidelines so that they can be referred to.

Record and analyse feedback

You may need to record or analyse feedback to ensure that any problems are resolved and improvements implemented. To record feedback may involve listening to a client and either filling in a form manually or via a computer. In some cases, the feedback will have been written by a client, so you may not need to record, just analyse it.

To analyse the feedback you should assign a coding system to the answers. For example if you have gained feedback through a questionnaire, you could input the questions into heading cells in a spreadsheet to segregate them. Then, using the code (e.g. a scale: 1 is strongly disagree, 2 is disagree, 3 is unsure/don’t know, 4 is agree and 5 is strongly agree), you could group the answers. The information can be put into a graph or chart to show a general correlation.

Active listening

Active listening is a form of communicating that requires the listener to feed back what they hear to the speaker, by way of restating or paraphrasing what they have heard in their own words. This helps both parties clarify and confirm what is being communicated. This is a good technique to use if talking to a client face to face to retrieve feedback. Knowing when to use closed and open-ended questions is also good practice. In addition, active listening is the most effective form of communication between people in a professional context – it is functional, mechanical and leaves little room for assumptions/interpretation. It is therefore a good method to use when reporting to appropriate personnel.

Reporting to appropriate personnel

You should know who to report feedback to at your organisation and the process for reporting as per organisational guidelines.

➢ Communication methods may include:

➢ Written:

  • Email
  • Letter
  • Form/Feedback
    • Verbal:
      • Face-to-face
      • Telephone
      • Presentation
  • – Consult and collaborate with other services and networks to address multi-faced needs of individuals and client groups

Connecting with other services

In order to achieve the most benefit from working with individuals it is important to identify suitable organisations, services and structures within any groups that would be able to help you. As part of this process, you will also need to clarify their role or potential role and approach in working with the consumer to maximise the potential outcome. The other services and networks you identify will vary in suitability and availability depending on what community, area or program you are working in.

The co-ordination of service delivery initiatives may be different in various ways depending on the specific needs of particular communities. Sometimes, initiatives may simply involve linking two or more service providers together to promote information sharing and/or referrals. In contrast, some highly complicated and aggregated service deliveries require formal procedures to ensure agencies help each other and work together in an organised and well-structured way.

➢ Other relevant services may include:

  • Health care providers
  • Schools, colleges and universities
  • Charities
  • Law enforcement agencies
  • Social services
  • Security agencies
  • Building contractors
  • Catering companies
  • Other service

All of the services and organisations featured in the above list will be affected by the same economic, social, political, environmental and other factors that affect the individuals, client groups and communities they are part of. The issues that the community face will directly affect which services and organisations are available or suitable. For example, in times of economic instability a lack of funding may mean a decline in the amount of charity work.

➢ Organisations and services may address issues in the following ways:

  • Funding
  • Care
  • Health care
  • Facilities
  • Education
  • Training
  • Respite
  • Counselling
  • Meetings/information sharing

What organisations do and how they do it depend on what the community issues are and how they are being addressed.

The services and organisations you identify will also differ in another important way – their role and approach to addressing community issues will vary.

➢ Questions you may need to ask to evaluate are:

  • Which issue(s) does the organisation or service address?
  • Which members of the community does the organisation or service target?
  • What is the organisation’s approach to access and equity?
  • What information is there available to the community about the organisation or service?
  • How does the organisation or service process any requests for support?
  • Is there a referral system in place?
  • How does the organisation or service work with other organisations and services in the community?
  • What are the organisation’s resources?
  • How is the organisation funded?
  • What is the organisation’s reputation?

When identifying the role and approach of the different organisations or services, you need to look closely at what they do and how they do it. The above questions, and any others you deem appropriate,

will provide you with an overview of the organisation or service in which to evaluate and identify if they are suitable.

Networking

As part of undertaking community sector work, we have established that you will need to apply appropriate service protocols and models. As part of this, establishing and maintaining networks with relevant organisations and services is vital for providing a greater service for the community. Why is this?

It is the idea that a framework of organisations, people and services working together bring different skills and knowledge to the table. It also opens doors, breaking down

the barriers for access to the various services an individual may need. As a result, the individual should receive the help they need faster and with fewer obstacles. It therefore works closely with the principles of access, equity and consistency of service.

When working in the community, individuals will often require more than one service. For example, let’s say your work involves helping children within the community. On a daily basis, those children may also require services from welfare agencies, education services, the police and many other services. That is because one service cannot address all of the issues and needs. You can therefore see how important it is to maintain networks with these agencies.

➢ Agencies and associated services may include:

  • Government health services
  • Welfare agencies
  • Emergency services
  • Police
  • Education and training organisations

➢ How can you establish and maintain networks?

  • Non-government and private enterprise
  • Community Government Councils
  • Elected community organisations
  • Establish the name and contact number for the main contacts you may need
  • Maintain a professional approach during all communications
  • Establish a process for referrals
  • Maintain client

Individual need

While you are assisting and working in the community, there will be individuals who have personal and individual needs that may need specialist or additional help that differentiates from those of the community as a whole. You should be aware of the needs of these individuals and be able to refer them for additional help when required.

➢ Occasions to refer individuals may include:

  • Issues that are not part of program priorities
  • Private matters
  • Public matters that are already being addressed
  • A lack of resources for you to help them

When referring individuals to organisations or people from your network, you should make sure that they are both aware of the referral and well equipped and able to deal with it. They should also be able to help in a timely and convenient manner. This includes being financially affordable, having the appropriate information to help and the overall process being accessible, simple and stress free.

Other services

When you cannot or are unable to fulfil the needs of an individual within your community work you will need to refer them to other services and individuals. When you refer them and who you refer them to will depend on the type and level of their need.

➢ Referring will depend on:

  • Service availability
  • Service links
  • Service cost
  • The consent of the referral

Referral will depend on your organisation's relationship with other service providers–if there are specific partnerships in place, you should abide by them. Your organisation may have a list of referral organisations that you can use, complete with contact details and referral procedures. However, you may need to network and establish new relationships in order to obtain the support that individuals require.

Another factor that will determine who you refer people to is time that would be spent waiting – for example, if an individual requires a service within a month, it is no good referring them to one with a waiting time of six months.

  • – Evaluate broader organisation context and its impact on service delivery

Evaluating service delivery

The delivery of different services will be governed by protocols which are unique to that service. Protocols vary according to the nature of the service and the community it is working within. However, a protocol for service delivery should cover all aspects of working within the community and providing a good service.

➢ How might you evaluate service delivery?

  • Funding
  • Legal and regulatory requirements
  • Access and equity considerations
  • Cultural considerations
  • Ethical considerations
  • Aims, goals and/or mission statement
  • Information about the service
  • Service delivery guidelines
  • Scope of service, capacity and/or limits
  • Feedback

It is possible that existing services and protocols require alterations to be more effective in achieving the goals of their services. It also may be possible that the delivery of the service is being hindered by existing protocols or issues and conflicts. Issues and conflicts will arise with the delivery of services when that delivery is at odds with issues that affect the community and the people within it.

➢ What potential issues and conflicts might relate to service delivery?

  • Ineffectiveness: Is the service meeting an issue that is relevant to this community?
  • Funding: How is it allocated between the various different services?
  • Legal, regulatory and moral requirements: Does the framework cover these?
  • Access to/referral from different services: Are access and equity principles upheld?
  • Relationships with other service deliverers: Is there a supportive network?

Choosing the right method

This is about promoting and selecting certain services and approaches that fit within the community and have the correct protocols. Whichever you will choose to promote and select will depend on a number of factors. Firstly, it will be governed by the issues within and the needs of your community. This will be governed by which services are appropriate for this particular community, determined by their culture, society, history, economy and environment where appropriate. You may also consider how different services are delivered and whether the protocols for delivery are meeting the need and demand for that service and any issues that would relate to service delivery as above. Finally, you should promote and select services which support individuals and the community to be self-determining and empowered.

➢ What do the terms ‘self-determining’ and ‘empowered’ mean?

  • Self-determination – this is the process by which an individual or a community determine anything that relates to their own lives or community themselves. This might include which services they want or need and how delivery should be
  • Empowerment–this means giving individuals and the community the power and responsibility to make their own decisions. Individuals, and the community as a whole, should be treated with dignity and respect – acknowledge their individual differences and beliefs, as well as their cultural
  • Commitment to peoples' participation –this means that people are involved beyond the democracy side of things. This can be involving them in the implementation of community Self-determination and empowerment ultimately lead

The effect of promoting and selecting services that support individuals and the community to be self- determining and empowered will help a community and the people within it to be and feel more self- determined and empowered. In turn, the effect of this will be that the community and the people within it will determine the services that they need and which meet the issues within their community.

  1. Develop programs
    • – Facilitate input to program development from internal and external stakeholders

Internal and external stakeholders

Engagement with relevant stakeholders and encouraging their input helps the program to be open, accountable and responsive to their needs. Being able to communicate with stakeholders can bring a number of benefits to the delivery of the service program. A stakeholder is an individual or group that has an interest in a program or organisation. Stakeholders are both internal and external. For example, within a program or organisation, internal stakeholders include managers and staff. Outside the program or organisation, external stakeholders may include those served by the program, the local community, standards agencies and anyone affected by the work.

➢ Benefits of communicating with stakeholders include:

  • Ensuring the program continues to meet stakeholders needs and allows any concerns to be addressed
  • Stakeholders can inform people of changing environments or requirements and contribute directly to program development
  • Stakeholder engagement and support is increased
  • Higher capacity for innovation, risk management and decision making skills

It is therefore worth considering who the internal and external stakeholders are for your program and how you plan to receive their input.

➢ Stakeholders will vary according to the nature of the service program, may include the following:

  • Program users
  • Suppliers
  • Beneficiaries of the program and their family/friends
  • Members or supporters
  • Partner organisations
  • Local community
  • Staff and volunteers

There are no strict rules in engaging stakeholders. It can either be important to be as open and inclusive as you can, or at other times, it may be important to be more specific and to create a cohesive group that builds strong relationships and collaboration. The variety of stakeholders will change depending on the purpose of the engagement and the wider program and what it encompasses.

Achieving engagement

To achieve the highest-quality, consistent and representative service program, you should aim to work collaboratively and create and foster healthy working relationships with internal and external stakeholders. Engaging stakeholders with vast experience, knowledge and diversity will help you do more than you can achieve alone.

➢ Consider how you can engage with stakeholders:

Communication

  • Newsletters (printed, email or poster format)
  • Reports
  • Publishing the plans/aims/mission statement
  • Updates on specific developments
  • Publications list
  • Website or social media
  • Articles in local newspapers or media

Consultation

  • Regular meetings
  • Surveys and interviews
  • Methods where stakeholders can provide feedback to the program on its services or activities (e.g. evaluations, feedback forms, phone number, e-mail, etc).

Involvement

  • Consider how stakeholders can be more involved in the management process
  • Advisory groups to involve stakeholders more closely in the programs planning and decision making
  • Inviting stakeholders into group meetings for specific and relevant purposes
  • – Engage people accessing programs in management processes and develop formal arrangements as required

Involvement in the management process

Following on from the previous section describing stakeholder engagement, we mentioned involvement in the management process. Let’s expand on that.

➢ Involvement:

  • Consider how stakeholders can be more involved in the management process
  • Advisory groups to involve stakeholders more closely in the programs planning and decision making
  • Inviting stakeholders into group meetings for specific and relevant purposes

➢ Encouraging involvement in management processes cannot simply be a token gesture, it is a commitment to effective stakeholder engagement with the belief that involving people in management processes will:

  • Result in more effective collaboration and partnerships
  • Result in more knowledge sharing and collaboration
  • Encourage discussion of achievable, aligned goals
  • Help show transparency in management processes

How can you be sure these things are taking place and that people are engaged in management processes? By creating open, transparent formal guidelines for engagement and commitment to the processes involved.

  • Select the most suitable method of engagement
  • Plan logistics for engagement (timing, resourcing and responsibilities or when, where, how )
  • Create and record formal process for topics/processes discussed such as written notes and reports

Aims of engagement

As you have committed to engaging people in management processes, you should specify an objective of the management process, be clear on why you are engaging particular stakeholders and share with them what you hope to achieve. The context and the overarching goals for the engagement and

involvement in the management process should reflect the overall aims of the program and service delivery.

  • What is it you hope to have achieved end of the process? (e.g. seeking experience or knowledge, connections with other stakeholders, development f goals)
  • What tangible output, results or proof do you hope to have at the end of the process? (

e.g. notes, letters, research, a report)

  • – Incorporate consideration of individual differences, rights, needs and preferences in the planning processes

What are a client’s rights?

➢ Social rights may include:

  • Freedom of association

➢ Rights may include:

  • The right of participation or non-participation to the degree desired
  • The right to receive quality service
  • The right to refuse

➢ Legal rights:

  • Rights of common law
  • Rights outlined under relevant outcomes standards
  • Rights under the constitution
  • Rights under

➢ Individual differences:

  • The cultures, concerns, beliefs and aspirations of that person
  • Cultural or community attitudes
  • Social and individual attitudes
  • Physical and mental issues
  • Personal values, family and community
  • Personal experience

Knowing your job role and responsibilities

You should never attempt to carry out or provide professional advice on something that you are not qualified to. You should also know what to do when you are unsure of your job role and work instructions.

➢ In order to ensure that you know you specific job role and responsibilities, you can practice the following:

  • Seek regular support and supervision from your supervisor and team leader, using structured sessions
  • Seek advice from colleagues during staff meetings and through consultation
  • Check professional guidelines when you are unsure
  • Clarify your position description or have it refer to professional standards/legislation
  • Perform a competency assessment
  • Document all major work activities
  • Consult with unions and professional bodies regarding your job role and appropriate

Duty of care

You have a responsibility to ensure a safe environment for the client. You may want to try and empower the client and have them make decisions for themselves and help to give them some independence.

However you must be careful not be negligent of the risks involved in increased independence. For example if a client enjoys gardening and there is a garden centre nearby, but the client is suffering from dementia, it would not be appropriate for you to suggest the client goes to the garden centre by themselves as you would be neglecting your duty of care.

Duty of care is written legally into the Workplace Health and Safety Act 1995 – it is a moral duty to anticipate possible hazards and causes of injury and do everything reasonably practicable to prevent/remove/minimise these causes. This means that duty of care cannot be delegated – all adults in the workplace are responsible for health and safety.

➢ Courts will determine breaches of duty of care based on the following criteria:

  • What is typically expected of another person in the same situation
  • The person's roles and responsibilities within their organisation
  • The experience/level of training for the individual
  • The practicalities of the situation
  • What is deemed acceptable practice within the community
  • Generally acceptable standards in the situation
  • Relevant laws e.g. the Workplace Health and Safety Act

Consider others

The values, priorities and considerations people have are based on the way we share common experiences that shape the way we understand the world. They can come from groups that we are born into, such as gender, race, nationality, or religion. It can also include groups we join or become part of. For example, our values and priorities may change by moving to a new area, by a change in our employment status, by becoming a parent or by becoming disabled. Our experiences change our values, priorities and considerations, so it is good to keep this in mind when engaging with different people and consider their differences, needs and preferences when we are planning our service delivery.

➢ Steps to help consider individual differences when planning include:

  • Make a conscious decision to establish friendships with people from other communities, groups and
  • Meet and get to know people of other communities, groups and cultures by putting yourself ‘out there’ in
  • Examine your way of thinking and possible biases about people from other communities, groups and
  • Ask people questions about their communities, cultures, customs, and
  • Read about other people's communities, culture's and histories
  • Talk to people and listen to their stories
  • Notice differences in communication styles and values; don't force yours upon them
  • Risk making mistakes
  • Demonstrate you want to work
  • – Integrate both internal and external services as required

Internal and external services

Just as there are internal and external consumers and stakeholders, there are internal and external services. Internal services are those delivered in the same organisation or program, such as between colleagues or departments. External services are those delivered to external consumers and are what we typically think of as “providing a service”.

  • Internal service – A service delivered between people within the same organisation or program, such as between colleagues or work departments
    • Internal services are groups of related activities and resources that are administered to support the needs of programs
  • External service – A service delivered to external consumers
  • External services are the activities and workings that are thought of as service delivery

The reason for differentiating between internal and external services is to differentiate between services that help support internal workings of the program, and those that actually achieve the program outcomes. The difference between the two may appear to be similar, since the activity to deliver the services often has similar processes. However, it is important to recognise that internal services have to be linked to external services before their input can be recognised.

Promoting a full-range of services

First, you should aim to create a strategy in line with the direction and values of the organisation. This will help to build your reputation allowing for the development of a loyal customer base.

If you want people to understand what range of services you provide, you should try to incorporate as much information as possible without boring a potential client. You should try to tailor your approach to individual needs by targeting existing clients in different ways. Potential clients may not know a lot about the organisation and may need more of an introduction than existing customers. Both want to hear about what you can offer them and the details so that they can get involved. One of the best ways to achieve this is through a website that has all the organisation information available to browse. You may also like to set up links for further information about topics or to different pages within the site.

For existing customers, a newsletter could be a good option – this could be sent via email or post to provide them with the relevant information about upcoming events and services.

Develop marketing strategies

Your marketing strategy helps to achieve your end goals or long-term objectives. It proposes how you can achieve these. For example if your one

of your organisation’s objectives is to introduce a new service in six months’ time your strategy will plan how this can be achieved.

Using new technologies and media for marketing activities is very important. More and more people are using social media to market products and services. You can use it to research customers and competition, advertise services.

  • You could consider using Tweet deck and Google alerts and set up searches that pick up key phrases that you could use to your advantage
  • Join groups in forums like LinkedIn that you think have the right qualities/profiles
  • Offer your opinions e.g. on related blogs to demonstrate your knowledge and get your organisation
  • Advertise online
  • Learn more about your audience and their habits
  • Direct marketing through SMS messaging is popular
  • Set up a website that is useable on a range of media devices e.g. laptop or PC, iPad and phone
  • Research what people are saying about your work g. via online surveys, comments, likes etc.
  • – Determine financial, human and physical resource requirements

Assessing resource requirements

In order to perform delivery of your service or program, you need as much detailed information from the planning process, including the needs of individuals, stakeholders, communities and organisations in order to determine what resources are available for your program and what you need.

To find this information out, you will have to assess the areas that will be involved in the program, and again, engagement with consumers and stakeholders will help you to more accurately and effectively create your program.

Assessment will help you gain better knowledge of the individuals within a community. Each community has its own resources and needs, as well as its own experiences, structure and culture -- a unique history of relationships, experience, strengths, and conflicts that defines it. Whilst you are finding out about needs and resource requirements, it also helps you earn how to best address the community's needs in the delivery of your program

An assessment will encourage people involved in the program to consider how to best use resources for the community's requirements and how to address them.

Knowing resource requirements can make decisions about priorities for program improvement. It would obviously be foolhardy to try to address problems without fully understanding what they are, why they exist and how they came to be. In a similar manner, not using available resources not only represents trying to solve a problem without all the available help, but misses an opportunity to use what is already there – likely connected to the aims of the program and by or for the people you want to engage with.

Determining needs and resources before starting a program means that have a better idea of what to expect and how to deal with it, and be less likely to have any unpleasant surprises.

When you have engaged with the relevant people and found out the resources and requirements, you can construct a resource plan, identifying all the resources you will need to complete the program, e.g: staff, equipment, funding and materials. You should also produce a schedule stating when and how each resource will be used and note any thoughts, restrictions or caveats on how resources should be or will have to be used. Being as thorough and detailed as possible allows for better implementation.

Start by listing each of the resource groups and then list the individual components of each group.

Regular assessment

➢ Assessment of needs and resource requirements should be done regularly throughout the stages of your program:

  • During the development of the program – This gives those developing the program and those being served an idea of how to improve
  • During the implementation of the program – It is important to ensure that you are aware of the situation not just at the beginning and the end of a project, but also during its implementation. Knowing the situation at the beginning and the end may mean you miss something in the middle. Identifying needs and resources ensures you know what is happening throughout the entire
  • On a routine basis – During monitoring and evaluation, during or after a specific activity, it is important to celebrate successes and to see whether resources are being used
  • – Develop supporting systems and procedures

The importance of support

An important aspect of developing a program is having a structure in place that allows people to receive help, support and advice. This can be for any number of reasons: in order to help address a potential problem, for advice and reassurance or to provide feedback, whether it be positive or negative

A well maintained and respectful support system can help to minimise negative influences and possibilities, ensure a high standard of service delivery as well as make people feel listened to, valued and engaged.

Arguably the most important factor within a support system is the creation of policies that project a supporting, procedural influence across the program so that people know where they stand and what to do.

When creating a policy:

➢ Policies and procedures can be developed:

  • In anticipation of need (e.g. confidentiality policy in place before the collection of confidential data)
  • In response to need (e.g. a procedure may be developed in response to an unforeseen event)

➢ The programs activities, responsibilities, staff, resources and environment should be considered when creating policy and procedures:

  • Delegate the creation of policy – Use the expertise of people in specific areas of your program to help develop procedure. Who knows the most about a given topic? Consider individuals, communities, stakeholders, working groups and committees as well as outside knowledge
  • Do your research – Are there legal responsibilities in this area? Is your knowledge accurate and up to date? Are there other programs or organisations policies you can look at? Are there examples or templates for creating policy? Who can you ask for help?
  • Draft policies and procedures – Make sure that the wording, length and complexity of the policy are appropriate to those who will be working with it. People may struggle to follow it if it is needlessly long or
  • Consult with appropriate stakeholders – Policies and procedures are most effective if those that will be influenced by it are consulted and have the opportunity to consider and discuss the potential implications of the policy. Which stakeholders you consult with will depend on the type of policy, if it is for internal working of the organisation or external work, for example:
  • Program users or beneficiaries
  • Staff and volunteers
  • Management
  • Partner organisations or groups
  • Local community
  • Approve the policy – Who will approve the policy? Is it a new topic that requires the attention of management or a minor revision?
  • Consider whether procedures are required– Consider Ask whether there is a need for clear guidance regarding how the policy will be implemented or if it is self-explanatory. Is the policy enough or does there need to be a procedure to follow (e.g. a policy regarding how to handle complaints will information about what to do when dealing with complaints). Who is responsible for creating these procedures? What is the timeframe for this? What will be the pathways for consultation, approval and implementation?
  • Implement policy – How will the policy be given to staff? Will training be required to support the implementation? Does the policy need to be publicised internally or externally?
  • Monitoring, reviewing – What monitoring and reporting systems are in place to make sure that policy is being followed and implemented? How can you make sure it is working? How will you determine if policy is successful and how would it be reviewed or revised?

  • – Develop and integrate service evaluation methods, including mechanisms for feedback from people accessing service programs

Complete documentation

A uniform approach to completing documentation ensures that documentation can be easily accessed and read by everyone. Organisational policies and protocols are implemented to ensure that this is the case for as much paperwork as possible and can benefit everyone involved.

➢ It is important to follow organisational standards as this ensures that:

  • Documents are received correctly
  • Documents are sent to the right person
  • All required documents are gathered
  • Documents are in the appropriate format and include all required information
  • Documents are handled

Reviewing client services

You will need to review your client services regularly so that you can offer the best service to clients. You may have organisational or best practice guidelines in place that would be helpful when measuring your standard of service.

➢ Best practice may include the following principles:

  • Respecting individual differences
  • Respect for cultures and indigenous heritage
  • Quality of work environment
  • Integrity
  • Empowerment
  • Fairness and impartiality
  • Privacy and confidentiality
  • Social
  • Listening to feedback

You may need to think how you compare to the above best practice ideals and think of areas that you could improve.

You should also offer avenues or pathways for people to provide feedback. This can be in the form of a survey or questionnaire, face to face meetings or contact addresses or numbers (post, phone, e-mail etc.). This should be easy to access to ensure no-one is excluded from giving their opinion.

How to evaluate

➢ Before you evaluate your service, you should ask yourself questions that you want your evaluation to answer:

  • What am I evaluating?
  • How will I judge the evaluation? What criteria am I using?
  • How would I evaluate if the work has been successful or not?
  • What evidence will indicate a good performance?
  • What information has the evaluation provided and how can I use it?
  • How can people provide feedback and how will it be used?
  • – Document program identifying priorities, timelines and responsibilities

Formal documentation

Similarly to creating policies and creatures, documenting the priorities of your program and the timelines and responsibilities within it can help direct the program towards its goals. When priorities, timelines and responsibilities are clearly defined, people know what is expected of them and when, helping to maintain focus and provide motivation.

While the specific priorities, timelines and responsibilities vary for your program and the stakeholders involved, there are a number of steps you can take to ensure they are in the best position to perform.

Mission statement

One of the most commonly used ways for publishing or promoting program or organisational priorities and responsibilities are mission statements. Mission statements are statements describing the reasons a program or organisation exists and are used to help guide and inform planning and decisions about priorities, action and responsibilities.

Mission statements are an opportunity to define the programs goals, ethics, responsibilities, culture, and decision making. A well-made mission statement is a great way to understand, develop and communicate priorities, timelines and responsibilities and should be concise and easily understood.

➢ Consider the following:

  • What is your program
  • What do you do? Why are you doing it? What do you believe?
  • What are your priorities and your goals?
  • Who are you working for and what are you doing for them?
  • What are your responsibilities?
  • What kind of environment are you providing?

3. Implement and monitor programs

  • – Communicate roles and responsibilities to relevant stakeholders

Identifying and engaging with stakeholders

Actively engaging with relevant stakeholders helps the program to be open, accountable and responsive to their needs. Being able to communicate with stakeholders can bring a number of benefits to the delivery of the service program.

➢ Benefits of communicating with stakeholders include:

  • Ensuring the program continues to meet stakeholders needs and allows any concerns to be addressed
  • Stakeholders can inform people of changing environments or requirements
  • Stakeholder engagement and support is increased
  • Stakeholders are more aware of what is expected of them

It is therefore worth looking at who the stakeholders are for your program and how you engage with them.

➢ Stakeholders will vary according to the nature of the service program, may include the

following:

  • Program users
  • Suppliers
  • Beneficiaries of the program and their family/friends
  • Members or supporters
  • Partner organisations
  • Local community
  • Staff and volunteers

Methods of engagement

➢ Communication:

  • Newsletters (printed, email or poster format)
  • Reports
  • Publishing the plans/aims/mission statement
  • Updates on specific developments
  • Publications list
  • Website or social media
  • Articles in local newspapers or media

➢ Consultation:

  • Regular meetings
  • Surveys and interviews
  • Methods where stakeholders can provide feedback to the program on its services or activities (e.g. evaluations, feedback forms, phone number, e-mail, etc).

➢ Involvement:

  • Consider how stakeholders can be more involved in the management process
  • Advisory groups to involve stakeholders more closely in the programs planning and decision making
  • Inviting stakeholders into group meetings for specific and relevant purposes

Stakeholder roles and responsibilities

In the implementation and monitoring of programs, stakeholders are normally people who typically come from your organisation or work with you, or are people who have identified or planned the program. Stakeholders may also be external clients who will be affected during the program or as a result of it.

Stakeholders have to be identified before the planning stage of the program and by this point should be aware and ready to receive in depth communication about their roles and responsibilities and have taken the necessary steps to be prepared, such as training, communication and support.

The success of your program relies upon the skills and effectiveness of your stakeholders. Communicating their roles and responsibilities is something you can do to ensure a high standard is set.

While the specific roles and responsibilities vary for your program and the stakeholders involved, there are a number of steps you can take to ensure they are in the best position to perform.

➢ Things to include in communication include:

  • Understanding the strategy – Ensure the stakeholder knows what the program is about and what part they are playing in implementing
  • Requirements and planning – What expectations you have for them to do and how they should achieve
  • Resources and commitment – What is being used and provided by the program, what is needed. Stakeholders are valuable in determining what needs to be done and how in specific areas as you cannot do everything
  • Responsibility and communication – Making sure they know what aspects of the program they are part of or responsible for and how this information is relayed. Information for meetings, progress reports,
  • Training and support – Any requirements for training and support should be identified by the stakeholder and requested so they can be
  • Teamwork – The strongest programs are always the ones where people work together and help each other. Communication is vital in order for different parts to work more efficiently and The implementation stage is the most important stage for

communication as any missteps in implementing the program can be taken care of before there are any adverse effects.

  • – Facilitate provision of training to support implementation

Employee training

The facilitation of employee training is the responsibility of the organisation. The development of the employee is shared between themselves and the organisation. It is the responsibility of management to provide the correct resources and an environment that supports the learning, growth and development needs of individual employees

➢ For employee training to help support implementation be successful, management should:

  • Provide a well-made job description with roles and responsibilities – This enables an employee to know what they are doing and what is expected of them and provides a solid foundation for personal growth
  • Provide training – Anything that needs to be known by employees in order to provide service delivery or implementation of the plan should be
  • Inform employees of the knowledge, abilities and skills they will need in the future – What are the long term aims of the program? The organisation? Stakeholders? The more an employee knows (as long as it is relevant) as part of training the more committed they will be as they develop an understanding of the overall picture or
  • Look to teach from everyday activities – Was there a situation with a client that everyone could learn from? Is there a new report or policy being announced with implications for the program?
  • Guide and support staff– This may be when they identify potential learning activities that improve their development or if they are having difficulty with a concept or situation, they should be supported through both positive and negative

➢ Individual employees should:

  • Look for opportunities to learn every day
  • Identify goals and activities in which to develop personally

Roles and responsibilities

Similar to your stakeholders, staff must be informed as to their roles and responsibilities in implementing a service program. This is logical as the people trained to deliver and implement the program are representing it and are a massively invested stakeholder. The importance of training is difficult to overstate as the correct implementation of the service program and its delivery depends on the capability of correctly trained staff.

Training tips

Dependant on the service being delivered, the trainee should be able to regularly engage with stakeholders to discuss needs and aims, as well as fostering a sense of community and engagement. These represent opportunities for the trainee to better understand the service they are providing, their mission and goals, the work they will encounter on a regular basis and how they may interact with stakeholders.

➢ The following are guideline questions that can be asked:

  • What are your goals?
  • How are you going to accomplish your goals?
  • How can I contribute to them?
  • How do you use our service?
  • How can our service be improved?
  • How do you measure success?
  • – Monitor service delivery against agreed objectives and budgetary frameworks

Monitoring

Monitoring is an assessment that continues to provide stakeholders with early detailed information on an assessment of the work and how it is performing. It is something that should be done during the implementation stage of work or any new alterations or information that may affect it. Its purpose is to determine if the outputs, priorities and aims planned have been achieved so that any action needed to correct the implementations can be done as quickly as possible.

Monitoring is probably something you already do in your day to day work in the community; it’s just that the label isn’t something you think about. Monitoring is the consistent, every day analysis and thought about what is taking place within the community. When you talk with people and find out what they think about the work, or values in the community, or what needs to be done – you are monitoring. When you take notes and make records and discuss the work you are performing – you are monitoring. Monitoring is the regular collection of information, opposed to the periodic review that is evaluation.

Correct monitoring allows you to make decisions on how your work should be going forward and give you the opportunity to make changes if you wish.

➢ Benefits of monitoring include:

  • To find out about the progress of community work, and to support planning and development
  • Monitoring service delivery against objectives
  • Stakeholder accountability

How to monitor

➢ What and how you perform monitoring is dependent on what program you are working in and what service you are providing, what their values and priorities there are and what you hope to achieve:

  • What am I monitoring?
  • How will I judge the monitoring? What criteria am I using?
  • How would I decide if adjustments need to be made?
  • What evidence will indicate a good performance? What are the objectives?
  • What information has the monitoring provided and how can I use it?
  • How do I gather feedback?

➢ Remember that a monitoring is regular and systematic and so does not need to be as in depth as an assessment in terms of data collection or extensive analysis, it is to be performed so that adjustments can be made immediately if necessary or if improvements can be made:

  • Stakeholder engagement
  • Those involved in program work
  • Those affected by the program work
  • What improvements can be made?
    • Outline the program work
  • What are the priorities and goals?
  • What are the intended results?
  • How are we working to achieve this?
  • What resources do we have? Are they enough?
  • Context – are our aims suitable?
    • Decide what is to be monitored and why?
  • To gain knowledge?
  • Assessing the wants and needs of the program
  • Identifying problems with the program and engagement
  • To learn how to best improve community work
  • Improving existing working methods
  • Refining how work is done
    • Seeing how things have been implemented
    • Protecting the rights of the community
    • Enhancing cultural sensitivity and knowledge
    • Prioritising staff
    • Making adjustments
    • Improving communication
    • Improving community support for the work
  • Community/client satisfaction
  • To see the effects of the work
  • Assess development of the community
  • Compare changes in behaviour/actions
  • Document the level of the success
    • Gather credible evidence
  • Think about what is suitable given the context. E.g. Observations would be more suitable to find out the relationship between workers and the community because asking questions may introduce potential bias
  • Use indicators
  • How well work is being performed
  • Participation rate in the community
  • Community satisfaction
  • Changes in behaviour
  • Use different sources
  • People, documents or observations
  • Surveys and questionnaires
  • Interviews
  • Different perspectives reduce bias
  • More information provides a more complete picture
    • Justify conclusions
  • Create justifiable conclusions from the evidence
  • Standards – what do people think?
  • Analysis and interpretation of evidence – Draw on the information and perspectives of stakeholders
  • Judgements – Statements about how good the work is
    • Ensure use and share lessons learned
  • Action needed to learn lessons from monitoring
  • Preparation for changes
  • Feedback – to the community and to workers
  • Follow up
  • – Make user interactions and feedback an integral part of ongoing monitoring

User feedback

Monitoring is something we do all the time when we are working to providing services. In fact, we assess the impact of our work all the time when we ask questions, consult partners, make assessments, receive feedback and then use those judgments to improve our work. This type of monitoring is informal, continuous and ongoing. Therefore it makes sense to use this regular, easily available and constant information and interaction as part of our monitoring.

➢ Reasons to use user feedback for include:

  • Determining levels for behaviours you wish to You can compare the change in behaviour your program has brought about from the start with the help of users.
  • Find out and focus on the impact your program is
  • Constant revision and the ability to update and service
  • Keeping users engagement and supports the aims of the

Before you start asking for feedback from consumers,

you need to make sure you know why you are seeking feedback and that it is clearly defined.

Carefully consider the method of feedback you are receiving as even good feedback in a way that you cannot make use of (for example, you may discuss working methods with a member of the program but not write it down) is not particularly useful. Do not be afraid of complaints or negative feedback – it is extremely unlikely that a program or service will be perfect first time.

Feedback methods

Matching stakeholder feedback to what we seeing in our assessment allows us to get a much clearer picture of the situation, putting us in a better position to know how to fix problems and achieve our goals.

In order to do this you may need to establish a variety of feedback methods so that you can collect customer feedback day in and day out. This way, you’ll always know what your stakeholders are thinking and how things may be changing.

➢ Consider using the below feedback methods:

Surveys

Surveys are a simple and effective method for gathering feedback. They’re easy to set up, easy to send out, easy to analyse, and scale well. Many people get poor results when they send out surveys. Either nobody finishes the survey or the responses aren’t helpful. You can help lessen this chance by keeping surveys short – down to a few key questions with a few open ended questions to allow them to tell you what they are thinking.

Interviews

Reaching out directly to stakeholders can be invaluable in terms of feedback. Sometimes, just talking to them is all that is needed, as long as you ask the right questions. This can be face to face, on the phone or by e-mail. What is important is what is being asked.

  • Focus on attitude – Explore how stakeholders think about topics and issues. Ask how they think and what they feel about it rather than being too literal. Asking them how a specific process works might not be helpful but understanding their thoughts and feelings about it (“This feature is too complicated”) will allow you to address the
  • Focus on memorable moments – Ask stakeholders to recall specific instances in which they faced a challenge or when something worked well rather than talking in general
  • Ask about habits – Asking stakeholders how they perform services or tasks can reveal problems they may not have been aware of. If someone is missing a step in a key process, is unaware of a certain pathway or doesn’t know how to do something, you can find the missing link by asking them how they do

Regular meetings

Scheduling regular meetings helps communication with stakeholders and sponsors about their roles in the project. Stakeholders are also able to hear the thoughts and perspectives of other people, who may not always be in agreement. Rules for meetings should be established such as encouraging participation, discouraging interruptions, maintaining an agenda, ensuring everyone is courteous and having a plan of action. Avoid scheduling meetings just for the sake of meeting but that stakeholders are able to use the meetings productively. Bear in mind the ability for email updates, phone calls or one to one meetings if someone does not want to speak in a group.

3.5 – Identify and address problems in addressing the needs of service users in accordance with organisation procedures

Identifying a problem

Effective coordination of program service delivery can improve the quality of service and help both those benefitted by the service and those delivering it. These improvements can include more efficient use of resources and the fostering and engagement of good working relationships. Conversely, where service delivery is not addressing the needs of service users, resources are wasted, quality of service suffers and working relationships deteriorate, so it is important to address any problems or issues in the needs of service users as soon as possible.

➢ Previous evidence from process evaluations, assessments and documented practice experience suggest that in order for service delivery to be effective it must:

  • Involve time and resources into individual and community consultation and engagement
  • Be culturally appropriate
  • Look at strengths during implementation
  • Focus on results
  • Target a specific area, problem or issue

Does your service delivery meet these guidelines? If not, why not? How can it be improved? If it does, perhaps it is missing something or there are other structural barriers involved.

➢ The service delivery may have an issue such as:

  • A lack of time or resources (people, funding, other resources, )
  • A lack of skilled leaders, staff or program deliverers
  • Inflexible organisational or program structures
  • “One size fits all” styles that ignore local, individual, community or diverse needs
  • Stakeholders that lack defined roles and responsibilities
  • Overly ambitious service delivery plan
  • Lack of communication

Addressing the problem

Only once a problem has been identified can it be addressed. Evaluate whether the issue is with the implementation of the service program or of the overall plan. If it is with the overall plan then it needs to be altered in accordance with organisational procedures, whereas if it is with the implementation of the service program the issue can be isolated and addressed.

  • –Maintain relevant program and service delivery documentation

Service delivery documentation

Service delivery documents are a set of clear criteria with explicit indicators that define the performance by which the service delivery can be monitored and reviewed.

These documents define the quality of service that the service program provides, and as such are set at a level that can be achieved within the current resources and with clear, targeted and measurable improvement goals.

➢ The purpose of documentation is to:

  • Support the aim of consistent and high quality program service delivery
  • Foster the idea of continuous improvement and identify specific areas for improving service
  • Help empower service providers with the ability to assess the quality of their service
  • Foster a collective commitment to quality through a common set of clear, measurable criteria, aims and
  • Assisting others in knowing what to expect from service providers
  • Improve staff satisfaction, engagement and self-confidence with the service delivery
  • Help meet reporting and accountability requirements
  • Assist with monitoring, assessment and evaluation processes

Complete documentation

A uniform approach to completing documentation across the program ensures that documentation can be easily accessed and read by everyone. Organisational policies and protocols are implemented to ensure that this is the case for as much paperwork as possible and can benefit everyone involved.

➢ It is important to follow organisational standards as this ensures that:

  • Documents are received correctly
  • Documents are sent to the right person
  • All required documents are gathered
  • Documents are in the appropriate format and include all required information
  • Documents are handled
  • This helps documentation to be located and organised better, be maintained for

evaluation and assessment purposes and helps your program look and feel more effective. Knowing you have well organised and well written service documentation allows you to take pride in using it and following the steps within it for service delivery.

Filing security and confidentiality

Personal information should be protected and only disclosed professionally. Medical records are an example of confidential information. It is part of duty of care and applies to all clients, regardless of their status. The only situation where this private information can be disclosed is when there is a serious threat or risk of injury to the client or others. The client may choose to disclose their information, but it has to be their choice.

➢ Organisation policy on confidentiality may relate to:

  • Access to records
  • Carriage and storage of records
  • Collection and use of client's personal and health information
  • Destruction of records
  • Release of

➢ Ways to ensure confidential information is kept safe include:

  • Keeping it in locked filing cabinets
  • Keeping it away from unauthorised people
  • Keeping it in locked rooms
  • Having it password protected on computers
  • Refraining from naming clients in public discussion
  • Discussing things in soundproof

4. Evaluate programs

  • – Assess capacity of programs to meet objectives

Program assessment

Program assessment is an essential practice for all types of programs that work with and for people. It is a way to evaluate the specific activities and projects individuals are involved in, instead of evaluating an entire organisation or entire community initiative.

Stakeholders are people who are invested in the program or effort. These may people that benefit from the service provided (e.g. children and their parents or guardians, people with disabilities, the elderly),

those who have influence or those with a special role (e.g., officials, managers, community workers), and people who would appreciate the benefits of the service. When thinking about stakeholders, ask: Who cares? What is it they care about? Why do they care about it?

The emphasis from an evaluation is on practical, ongoing analysis that involves members of staff, people in the community and relevant community stakeholders, rather than just “experts.” This is because this type of evaluation offers many advantages for the communities and people that work in them.

➢ The benefits of program assessment include:

  • Clarifying plans and priorities
  • Improving communication among people and the community
  • Seeing how well the program is performing
  • Being able to potentially make improvements
  • Gathering the feedback which can be used improve and be accountable for work effectiveness

It's important to remember that evaluation is not a new or special activity for people working in communities or providing services. In fact, we assess the impact of our work all the time when we ask questions, consult partners, make assessments, receive feedback and then use those judgments to improve our work. This type of evaluation is informal, continuous and ongoing. However, it makes additional sense to then use procedures for evaluation that are more formal, visible, and justifiable so that you can be sure your ways of working are proper and effective.

How to assess

➢ Before you assess your work, you should ask yourself questions that you want your assessment to answer:

  • What am I assessing?
  • How will I judge the assessment? What criteria am I using?
  • What are the objectives?
  • How would I evaluate if the work has been successful or not?
  • What evidence will indicate a good performance?
  • What information has the evaluation provided and how can I use it?
  • How do I gather feedback?
  • Are there new policies or frameworks to consider?

➢ Use the below as an aid to help you as you work through the following guidelines to assessment:

  • Stakeholder engagement
  • Those involved in programs
  • Those affected by the program work
  • Those who would implement the effects of the evaluation
    • Outline the program work
  • What are the priorities and goals?
  • What are the intended results?
  • How are we working to achieve this?
  • What resources do we have? Are they enough?
  • Context – are our aims suitable?
    • Decide what is to be evaluated and why?
  • To gain knowledge?
  • Assessing the wants and needs of the community
  • Identifying problems with the program and engagement
  • To learn how to best improve program work
  • Improving existing working methods
  • Refining how work is done
  • Seeing how things have been implemented
  • Protecting the rights of the community
  • Enhancing cultural sensitivity and knowledge
  • Prioritising staff
  • Making adjustments
  • Improving communication
  • Improving community support for the work
  • Community/client satisfaction
  • New frameworks
  • To see the effects of the work
  • Assess development of the program
  • Compare changes in behaviour/actions
  • Document the level of the success
    • Gather credible evidence
  • Think about what is suitable given the context. E.g. Observations would be more suitable to find out the relationship between workers and the program because asking questions may introduce potential bias
  • Use indicators
  • How well work is being performed
  • Participation rate in the community
  • Community satisfaction
  • Changes in behaviour
  • Use different sources
  • People, documents or observations
  • Surveys and questionnaires
  • Interviews
  • Different perspectives reduce bias
  • More information provides a more complete picture
    • Justify conclusions
  • Create justifiable conclusions from the evidence
  • Standards – what do people think?
  • Analysis and interpretation of evidence – Draw on the information and perspectives of stakeholders
  • Judgements – Statements about how good the work is
  • Ensure use and share lessons learned
  • Action needed to learn lessons from evaluation
  • Preparation for changes
  • Feedback – to the community and to workers
  • Follow up
  • – Seek and evaluate feedback from those using the service and other stakeholders

Stakeholder feedback

It's important to remember that evaluation is not a new or special activity for people working in providing services. In fact, we assess the impact of our work all the time when we ask questions, consult partners, make assessments, receive feedback and then use those judgments to improve our work. This type of evaluation is informal, continuous and ongoing. However, it makes additional sense to then use and make this procedure more formal, visible and justifiable so that you can be sure your ways of working are proper and effective.

➢ Reasons to use stakeholder feedback for include:

  • Determining levels for behaviours you wish to change. You can compare the change in behaviour your program has brought about from the start with

the help of stakeholders.

  • Find out and focus on the impact your program is
  • Continue revising and updating the program and service deliver
  • Keeping stakeholders strong and focused on the aims of the programme. You may want to use a survey that assesses the aims of your program, and use the feedback modify or alter your programs priorities

Before you start asking for feedback from consumers, you need to make sure you know why you are seeking feedback and that it is clearly defined.

Outlining the process as well as desired outcomes is essential for gathering customer feedback or you may be blindly asking for feedback that will not help you understand the situation

➢ Before you start, consider:

  • What part of the program do you want to improve?
  • What will you do with the information you receive?
  • Which is the best method of collection?

Feedback methods

Matching stakeholder feedback to what we seeing in our assessment allows us to get a much clearer picture of the situation, putting us in a better position to know how to fix problems and go achieve our goals.

In order to do this you may need to establish a variety of feedback methods so that you can collect customer feedback day in and day out. This way, you’ll always know what your stakeholders are thinking and how things may be changing.

➢ Consider using the below feedback methods:

Surveys

Surveys are a simple and effective method for gathering feedback. They’re easy to set up, easy to send out, easy to analyse, and scale well. Many people get poor results when they send out surveys. Either nobody finishes the survey or the responses aren’t helpful. You can help lessen this chance by keeping surveys short – down to a few key questions with a few open ended questions to allow them to tell you what they are thinking.

Interviews

Reaching out directly to stakeholders can be invaluable in terms of feedback. Sometimes, just talking to them is all that is needed, as long as you ask the right questions. This can be face to face, on the phone or by e-mail. What is important is what is being asked.

  • Focus on attitude – Explore how stakeholders think about topics and issues. Ask how they think and what they feel about it rather than being too literal. Asking them how a specific process works might not be helpful but understanding their thoughts and feelings about it (“This feature is too complicated”) will allow you to address the
  • Focus on memorable moments – Ask stakeholders to recall specific instances in which they faced a challenge or when something worked well rather than talking in general
  • Ask about habits – Asking stakeholders how they perform services or tasks can reveal problems they may not have been aware of. If someone is missing a step in a key process, is unaware of a certain pathway or doesn’t know how to do something, you can find the missing link by asking them how they do

Regular meetings

Scheduling regular meetings helps communication with stakeholders and

sponsors about their roles in the project. Stakeholders are also able to hear the thoughts and perspectives of other people, who may not always be in agreement. Rules for meetings should be established such as encouraging participation, discouraging interruptions, maintaining an agenda, ensuring everyone is courteous and having a plan of action. Avoid scheduling meetings just for the sake of meeting but that stakeholders are able to use the meetings productively. Bear in mind the ability for email updates, phone calls or one to one meetings if someone does not want to speak in a group.

4.3 – Modify programs as needed to meet changing requirements within policy and budgetary frameworks

Relating the evaluation

In the previous sections we have discussed evaluation, so you are aware of how important it is to your efforts. It can help you in a number of ways – in improving your methods, in engaging with the program and guiding staff –but the main aim is to understand and improve the effort in relation to the people involved.

Changes or improvements and responsiveness to the community priorities are often overlooked in evaluations. They may analyse the output or processes involved, but they often fail to link and understand the effects, if any, and how much, from the evaluation to the community priorities.

The evaluation and monitoring process are obviously important in order to know whether your methods are successful and to what extent and whether your intervention or workings accomplished their aims. You can then modify programs as needed, in accordance with the findings of your evaluation or any new frameworks. Additionally, however, you can analyse whether your work changed community conditions, and whether it seems to be leading toward changes in the community relative to their priorities.

➢ Assessment reflection questions that you might consider:

  • What are we seeing?(e.g., amount and kind of activities implemented; results shown – increases, decreases, trends)
  • What does it mean?(e.g., what effect did the program have?)
  • What are the implications for the future? (e.g., do the results suggest that the program should be sustained, changed, stopped; what changes should/could be made)

The reflection questions you ask will depend on the nature of your program, but the above set of questions is a good starting point. Consider

holding a meeting or create a space where the assessment results can be presented and talked through and key questions can be discussed. Such a meeting might benefit from an experienced facilitator to keep the operation moving toward the aim of recommending modifications to improve the program.

Modifying the program is the process of making your work more effective by using information and feedback collected from your assessment.

➢ Depending on what you have found out from your assessment, you may consider:

  • Increase or strengthen your program in certain areas or with particular groups
  • Change or eliminate elements of the program that didn’t work well
  • Adjust your program to changing conditions or needs

Collaborative action

In order to ensure that your assessment is analysing whether any changes in priorities in the community you are working in are actually taking place, what they are and whether and how your work has influenced them, you can use key questions to assess your assessment. If your evaluation fits the framework, you can be confident that the modifications you have made are appropriate to the priorities of the program.

➢ For the logic of collaborative action, Fawcett and Schultz (2008) recommend using the four key evaluation questions below:

  • Is your working serving as a catalyst for community change related to its mission? Is your effort, while doing its intended job, setting in motion other forces in the community (new or modified programs, policies and practices) that lead to longer – term change related to the issue you’re concerned with?
  • What factors or processes are associated with the rate of community or system change? What encourages or gets in the way of change? Can you identify specific community events, actions by individuals or by your or another organisation, or other factors that accelerate or impede the process of change in a community or system?
  • How are community or system changes contributing to efforts to promote service program or other priority – related goals? Are the

changes you observe in the program in fact helping to bring about the realisation of your goals – or related ones – or are they having little or no effect (or even a negative effect)?

  • Are community or system changes associated with improvements in population – level outcomes? Can you see connections between changes in the community (programs or policies for instance) and the kinds of positive changes in measuring success that you hope your work and efforts will achieve?
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