Evidence of the ability to:
➢ Identify learning needs and plan and implement learning activities to enable personnel to use information or knowledge management system, including:
➢ Monitor performance and address issues and contingencies as they arise, including:
➢ Recommend improvements to systems, policies and practices as appropriate
To complete the unit requirements safely and effectively, the individual must:
➢ Outline relevant legislation, codes of practice and national standards relevant to privacy, freedom of information and knowledge management
➢ Explain organisational policies and procedures including:
➢ Describe the organisational operations and existing data and information systems
Assessment must be conducted in a safe environment where evidence gathered demonstrates consistent performance of typical activities experienced in the knowledge management – information management field of work and include access to:
Assessors must satisfy NVR/AQTF assessor requirements.
Your trainer will inform you of the following:
1.1. Identify learning needs of relevant personnel and stakeholders for input into and use of an information or knowledge management system
1.2. Identify and secure human, financial and physical resources required for learning activities to use an information or knowledge management system
1.3. Organise and facilitate learning activities
1.4. Promote and support use of the system throughout the organisation
1.5. Monitor and document effectiveness of learning activities
1.1 – Identify learning needs of relevant personnel and stakeholders for input into, and use of, an information or knowledge management system
Knowledge and information management systems
Information and knowledge management systems are designed to store, verify and distribute information and knowledge throughout an organisation to enable problem solving and shared knowledge.
A general definition for an information or knowledge management system is:
➢ Equipment, strategies, methods, activities and techniques used formally and informally by individuals and the organisation to identify, collect, organise, store, retrieve, analyse, share and draw on information and knowledge valuable to the work of the organisation.
The knowledge or information system:
➢ Comprises policies, protocols, procedures and practices to manage information or knowledge within the organisation and among relevant stakeholders.
In order to use an information or knowledge management system competently and effectively, all users should be trained to a certain degree, according to their role.
People who may have cause to use an organisation’s information or knowledge management system may be:
➢ Organisational personnel:
o managers, leaders, supervisors and coordinators
o staff, team members and other colleagues
o clients and customers
o employee representatives
o funding bodies
o industry, professional and trade associations
o regulatory bodies and authorities
o tenderers, suppliers and contractors.
Training and learning needs
How people are trained, and to what extent, will depend upon their:
➢ Level of authority
➢ Existing knowledge
➢ Existing experience.
Ideally, training records should be kept for all staff that detail:
➢ What training they have received
➢ When they received the training
➢ What further training they require
➢ Scheduled refresher sessions
➢ Areas for development
➢ Whether the training was successful.
This will enable you to keep records of training and to understand when further sessions and refreshers should be scheduled.
You can determine the learning needs of relevant individuals by:
➢ Keeping and referring to training records
➢ Establishing what training and experience the individual already has
➢ Understanding and being aware of any learning disabilities and special needs
➢ Asking them directly.
You need to understand the needs of groups and individuals in order to arrange and implement a successful training programme or session.
When organising and / or implementing learning activities you will need to understand how to identify and secure adequate human, financial and physical resources for the training to be successful and even possible.
Learning activities vary and may be:
➢ Coaching and mentoring programs
➢ Help desks
➢ Information sessions, briefings, workshops and training programs
➢ Paper-based or electronic (including intranet) learning opportunities
➢ Use of expert workers, such as coaches and mentors, to help other personnel use the system.
In order to provide these activities and sessions for personnel, you need to ensure that you identify and provide relevant resources to meet all requirements.
Human resources relate to the people required to carry out an activity; in this case:
Financial resources relate to the money needed to implement training sessions:
➢ Room hire
➢ Equipment hire
➢ Equipment use
➢ Learning materials
➢ Instructor fees, where applicable
➢ Learner wages, where applicable.
Physical resources are the resources needed to carry out the activity:
➢ Tables and chairs
➢ Internet connectivity.
You should identify resource needs by taking into account the learners as a group or as individuals:
➢ Size of class
➢ Learning needs
You will need to follow your organisational procedures and protocols for arranging and securing the resources you require and may have to keep a record of what you have used, when and why.
Learning resources and materials
Learning materials may be used and provided by the company; these may be created by your organisation and be specific to your organisational system and needs, or may be a standard information pack, such as AS 5037:2005 Knowledge Management: A Guide. This guide explains what knowledge management is and provides a basic framework that can be applied to any organisational system.
Organise and facilitate activities
How you contribute to organising and facilitating learning activities will depend upon your job role and level of authority and responsibility.
However much authority and input you have, you should always ensure that you adhere to all organisational policies and protocols.
Organising activities generally involves steps such as:
➢ Recognising the need for an activity to take place
➢ Gaining the approval of superiors for the activity to go ahead
➢ Planning the activity and the date, time and location
➢ Arranging the activity and securing the use of all required resources
➢ Notifying attendees
➢ Advertising, where required
➢ Preparing the activity
➢ Holding the event.
How you implement these steps and any others you take will be governed by organisational protocols; for example, some organisations inform their employees of training sessions in writing and state that they are compulsory.
The extent to which you can facilitate activities will also vary on your role and level of authority; you may do things of your own initiative or because you have been asked or told to do so.
Facilitating activities may refer to:
➢ Helping to promote the activity
➢ Assisting in the delivery of the activity
➢ Helping to organise the event.
You may be responsible for any number of steps involved in organising and facilitating learning activities.
Promote and support system use
Information and knowledge management systems are designed and maintained in order to enable and facilitate the communication and distribution of knowledge and information throughout an organisation and approved third parties.
The communication and distribution of information and knowledge can be invaluable and an integral part of an organisation; for this reason, amongst others, its use should be promoted and supported throughout the organisation.
You can promote and support the use of knowledge and information management systems in several ways, such as:
➢ Using it yourself to find information
➢ Recording knowledge and information and submitting it to the system
➢ Referring others to the system
➢ Training others how to use the system
➢ Seeking training to enable you to use the system correctly and efficiently
➢ Ensuring access is available
➢ Inducting new users and employees into the system
➢ Maintaining the system
➢ Reporting and tackling any issues.
You can promote the knowledge and/or information management system, as well as its protocols, to anyone who is permitted to access and use the system and the information within, such as:
➢ Existing employees
➢ New employees
➢ Approved stakeholders.
The more people use the system effectively, the better communication will be throughout the organisation. Effective use of the system is desirable within the organisation because it enables workers to access and use the information they need to avoid errors, misinformation and missing information.
Once learning activities have been arranged and implemented, you should monitor and document the effectiveness of the training.
Observing how the sessions are delivered:
➢ Are the learners able to pay attention?
➢ Does the instructor ensure that everyone understands?
➢ Is everyone able to learn?
➢ Is the pace suitable?
➢ Is jargon explained?
➢ Are the learners’ needs met?
➢ Can the learners ask for explanations and clarifications?
➢ Are different learning needs catered for?
➢ Do they learn how to use the system?
➢ Do they learn what the system is for?
➢ Do they learn what the system is not for?
➢ Do they understand how the system works?
➢ Do the learners understand the material?
➢ Are they able to refer to handouts or to clarify information?
➢ Do they leave the session with a working knowledge and understanding of how to use the system?
You can monitor and gauge the effectiveness of learning activities by:
➢ Observing sessions
➢ Gathering feedback from learners
➢ Gathering feedback from instructors
➢ Quizzing or testing learners
➢ Having learners demonstrate their skills and knowledge.
Some methods may be of your own choosing and preference, or may be stipulated by your organisation. Whichever methods you choose and use should be able to gauge the effectiveness of the learning activity.
It is good practice and may be required by your organisation that you keep a record of the above points or any others that you use. Recording what is good and what is bad about training sessions, as well as areas for development, will enable you to make targeted and general improvements to the delivery of learning activities.
Highlighted issues or areas of weakness can be developed upon and then checked to ensure that they have been addressed and are constantly improved upon and maintained
2.1. Ensure implementation of policies and procedures for the information or knowledge management system are monitored for compliance, effectiveness and efficiency
2.1 – Ensure implementation of policies and procedures for the information or knowledge management system are monitored for compliance, effectiveness and efficiency
Policies and procedures
Organisations generally apply policies and procedures to the use of information and knowledge management systems.
Policies and procedures may be applied to:
➢ Complying with legislative requirements (such as privacy, confidentiality, Freedom of Information and defamation requirements) and other policies and procedures
o The Freedom of Information (FOI) Act “provides a legally enforceable right of access to government documents” (http://www.oaic.gov.au/freedom-of-information/about-freedom-of-information access date: 19.10.2015). Government agencies and offices are subject to the FOI and must honour all requests; if your organisation is considered a government office or agency, you will likely be subject to FOI requests. If this is the case, you need to make yourself aware of what this means to you and your organisation and of the policies, procedures and protocols applied to meeting requests.
➢ Content guidelines
➢ Ensuring accuracy and relevance of knowledge input into the system
➢ Mechanisms, formats and styles of input to system, including appropriate alternative formats for people with a disability
➢ Permissions for input
➢ Removing out-of-date, inaccurate and content that is no longer relevant
➢ Selecting, maintaining and disposing of knowledge in the system
➢ Sharing knowledge in the system.
The organisation may require users of the system to ensure that the policies and procedures are adhered to by others; if you notice anyone using the system improperly, you may have to follow a reporting procedure. This will be explained clearly by the organisation.
Monitoring system use for compliance involves making sure that users follow the policies and procedures applied to the use of the system and do not misuse and abuse the system and the information within. For example, if you identify that someone is breaching privacy or confidentiality requirements, you will need to take immediate action.
Effectiveness and efficiency
Monitoring the effectiveness and efficiency of the policies and procedures applied to using the system may mean examining the actions and methods governed by policy and gauging whether they are still suitable, effective and efficient. For example, monitoring input methods and procedures may reveal that a slow, outdated method is being used, which could be overhauled or updated to increase efficiency and useability.
Monitoring system use
Monitoring the use of knowledge and information management systems for compliance, effectiveness and efficiency can be done by:
➢ Observing work rates and outputs
➢ Communicating with system users and gathering their feedback
➢ Identifying, tackling and resolving issues, problems and incidents of non-compliance
➢ Ensuring that appropriate modern technology is
Monitoring system use is essential to maintain efficiency, effectiveness and compliance and to avoid the problems associated with failing to do so.
2.2 – Address implementation issues and problems as they arise
The implementation of policies and procedures applied to the use of knowledge and information management systems can encounter different issues and problems, for several reasons.
➢ Misuse of the system:
o such as for inappropriate uses
➢ Breakdown in communication:
o such as if staff are unaware of a change or new policy
➢ Untrained staff:
o staff who have not been trained to follow procedure
o staff who are unsure
o staff who choose to ignore the rules and do things their own way
➢ Malicious intent:
o users who are deliberately seeking to abuse the system, with the intention of personal gain or damage to the company
When you identify that there is a problem, as covered in the previous section, 2.1, you will need to address the issue.
This may mean:
➢ Determining the nature of the issue
➢ Determining the cause of the issue
➢ Determining who is responsible
➢ Determining whether the problem was caused by accident or intent
➢ Tackling the issue yourself
➢ Reporting the issue to a manager or supervisor
➢ Gathering evidence
➢ Ascertaining what action you should take.
2.3 – Monitor integration and alignment with data and information systems
Integration and alignment
The knowledge and information systems used by your organisation play a role in achieving business objectives and should therefore be aligned with and integrated into daily activities.
Where information systems are not aligned correctly, an issue occurs whereby the organisation possesses a potentially very expensive system that is not used properly or is used incorrectly, thus not providing a return on investment and even causing more problems than the system actually solves.
Successful and effective alignment generally exists where business strategy drives information and organisational strategy.
The way that systems are aligned and integrated should be monitored, similar to the way that the compliance, effectiveness and efficiency of policies and procedures are monitored; this is to detect any issues and problems that have developed. If you detect that there is an issue with the integration and alignment of information systems, you will need to initiate a process to address and resolve identified problems.
Case study: An example of a problem with alignment may be:
➢ Staff need to access information on peak laptop product selling times, but the information does not exist on the system.
This information is vital in achieving business goals and objectives; if the staff member could see when the annual peaks in laptop sales is, then they could ensure that sufficient stock is available and advertised, as well as relevant promotions managed.
The information on the system is more concerned with the types of laptop sold by the business, so doesn’t help with this objective.
This instant of misalignment can be identified by the staff member trying to search this information and being unable to access it.
If the information was to be gathered, collated and entered onto the system, then the system would be more aligned with employee needs and business objectives.
You can combat issues with alignment by identifying business objectives and worker needs and ensuring that the relevant information is available on the system.
2.4 – Collect information on achievement of performance measures
Performance of employees is often measured within an organisation in order to evaluate employee competency and monitor output.
High levels of performance in individuals could mean that the employee may qualify for:
➢ Pay rise
➢ Award, such as employee of the month
➢ Increased responsibility
➢ Increased hours
➢ Permanent contract.
Low levels of performance in individuals could mean that the employee:
➢ Is disillusioned
➢ Is a poor match for their role
➢ Should consider an alternative role
➢ May not meet required performance targets
➢ Has not been trained adequately
➢ Should not have their contract renewed
➢ May be laid off in the event of company downsizing.
Performance measures may be:
➢ Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
➢ Other systems and measures to enable assessment of how, when, where and why outcomes are being achieved
➢ Performance objectives
➢ Performance standards (including codes of conduct)
➢ Qualitative or quantitative mechanisms to measure individual performance.
The method of evaluating performance will determine how you collect and record information about performance; for example, if staff performance is measured in terms of output, such as:
➢ Keystrokes per hour
➢ Products processed per hour
➢ Sales figures
➢ Stock processed per hour.
Then information will be accumulated, such as:
➢ Keystrokes measured by the computer the employee is using
➢ Number or amount of product(s) processed
➢ Number of sales made, amount of money collected
➢ Amount of stock processed.
This information will enable you to judge performance, when the results are compared to:
➢ The output of other employees doing the same job / task:
o For example, Sophie processes 204 items per hour, whereas Tom only processes 148 on average, despite the fact that they are on the same line. This indicates that Sophie is a much more efficient and competent worker than Tom.
➢ Given targets:
o For example, workers on the line are expected to process around 170 items per hour on average. This means that Sophie is exceeding expectations, whilst Tom is failing to meet them.
The purpose of collecting information on performance is generally to determine how good or how bad performances are, so the information that is collected is important and needs to be:
➢ In the right format
➢ Collected for all people /elements to be examined.
You need to be aware of expectations, requirements and target figures so that you can determine whether performances are good or bad and identify areas and needs for improvement.
2.5 – Manage contingencies such as system failure or technical difficulties by accessing technical specialist help as required
Dealing with disaster
System failure and technical difficulties are an ever-present threat to anyone who relies upon or uses technology; although system crashes and similar disasters may be less frequent in modern times, when a problem does occur, it tends to be much more catastrophic.
This may be due to:
➢ Reliance on technology for data storage and organisational operation:
o How would you buy your groceries or items if the checkout system was down?
o How would you access comprehensive sales figures from eight years ago if the hard drives and servers failed?
o How could you access thousands of customer records if the database was irreversibly corrupted?
➢ The sheer volume of data involved:
o Terabytes and petabytes of data
o Hard drives.
➢ Cost of repair
➢ Threat of theft and compromise of:
o Organisation’s financial and private records
o Customer financial and private records
o Valuable documents and digital products.
➢ Incidence of targeted malicious attacks:
o Distributed Denial of Service attack (DDoS)
o Sensitive data theft
o Website hacking.
➢ Permanent loss of data.
Analysing the system
The primary objective of system analysis is to identify strengths and limitations.
Strengths should be either:
➢ Developed upon, or
Limitations should be:
➢ Examined, and
➢ Improved upon.
This Learner Guide has examined several ways of analysing a knowledge or information management system, such as:
➢ Communicating with individuals who use the system
➢ Collecting feedback
➢ Implementing and monitoring policies and procedures applied to the use of the system
➢ Monitoring compliance, effectiveness and efficiency
➢ Investigating and addressing implementation issues
➢ Monitoring alignment
➢ Learning about contingencies and other technical difficulties.
The strengths and limitations that you identify through your analysis of the system should be reported to the appropriate person or department so that the information can be logged and acted upon, where required.
3.2 – Review business and operational plan and determine how effectively the system is contributing to intended outcomes
Overall plans and aims
As explained in Section 2.3: Monitor Integration and Alignment with Data and Information Systems, information and knowledge management systems need to be aligned with the organisation’s short-term and long-term goals in order to be considered effective and relevant; if staff cannot access the information that they need, then they cannot do the work that they need to do to help the organisation achieve given goals.
In order to determine how effectively the system is contributing to the organisation’s intended outcomes, you should regularly review the plans and how the information and knowledge management systems complement these; any discrepancies or unfulfilled needs should be addressed as soon as possible, to make the system effective.
Improving the system
This Learner Guide has made many references to improving the system, policy and practices and suggested ways of identifying a requirement for improvement.
When you have identified a need and designed a possible solution, or multiple solutions, for issues related to the system, policy or work practices, you will likely be required to recommend these to a relevant individual, department or team, so that they can be refined, where required, and implemented.
You may need to submit a report, complete with:
➢ A description of the area to be improved
➢ Evidence of the need for improvement
➢ An explanation of your proposed solution(s).
Your organisation or the intended recipient may make stipulations about how they would like to receive the information; some may prefer a written report and proposal, whilst some may prefer to have a discussion and a demonstration. Whatever the requirements and requests are, you will need to adhere to them, out of necessity and/or professional courtesy.
The system, policies and practices may be reviewed at set times, such as annually or every six months, or continuously. Depending on how your organisation operates, you may be able to submit recommendations as and when you notice an issue or only when the system is reviewed, in line with the given timeframes.
Major Activity – An opportunity to revise the unit
At the end of your Learner Workbook, you will find an activity titled ‘Major Activity’. This is an opportunity to revise the entire unit and allows your trainer to check your knowledge and understanding of what you have covered. It should take between 1-2 hours to complete and your trainer will let you know whether they wish for you to complete it in your own time or during session. Once this is completed, you will have finished this unit and be ready to move onto the next, well done!