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Laws5027 International Trade Law : Assessment Answers

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1. Identify a multinational company operating in Australia. Provide a brief description of the company including the following 

3. Identify any treaties, conventions or agreements that have impacted on the products or services that multinational company provides in Australia. How does it impact the goods/services? 


1. On 5th December 1924, first store of Woolworth’s was opened in Imperial Arcade of Sydney for conducting business. As per the wording of founding CEO of Woolworths “Every city needs a Woolworths: Sydney has it now. Every man, woman and child needs a handy place where good things are cheap”. That founding CEO does not know that his words become the values of his team after 92 years. Company never has intention to develop any chain for this business but there intention changes after the opening and success of store on Queen Street in Brisbane. Businesses are shutting down at global level during depression, but in case of Woolworth’s business are continuously growing. In 1929, new store was established by Woolworth’s in New Zealand, and company opened almost 16 stores by the year 1930 in New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia (Woolworth’s n.d.).

  1. For achieving set goal the main aim of the company is to build customers, store-led culture, and efficient teams for working.
  2. Woolworth’s Group try to generate sales in products related to food, but that sale must be sustainable.
  3. For providing convenience and values to the customers, company tries to evolving their drinks business.
  4. Company sets various other businesses and these businesses are known as portfolio business, and these business are handled by management of the company for the purpose of implementation of strategies and also returning the value of amount invested by shareholders.
  5. Company wants to become the retailer of all products by ensuring the development of their system excellence and end-to-end process (Woolworth’s, n.d.).

In Bella Vista, Australia, headquarter of the company was established.

2. Australian government introduces various policies and framework for reducing the emissions and need of these policies are recognized by government almost before 2 decades. These policies and regulatory frameworks stated various provisions for labeling as well as minimum performance. In 2011, legislation was passed by the government of Australia and this legislation was known as a cap-and-trade emissions trading scheme. For the implementation of direct action plan, government introduces this legislation. There are some important provisions which are introduced by this Act and these provisions are Emissions Reduction Fund. This fund is used to purchase emissions reductions through a reverse auction. In Australia, various policy initiatives are introduced by the government for the purpose of reducing emissions. These initiatives set up various policy measures for deal with various concerns of changes occurred in climate, and it also states different new policies proposed by government of Australia (Australian Government, n.d.).

Target set by Australia for 2030 is achieved by Direct Action, and target for 2020 set by Australia is meeting through the policies related to direct actions that help in reducing emissions, increase the productivity related to energy, and improve the health of environment and soils. These policies are successful, and Australia uses these policies in meeting the target set for 2030. Australia ensures $2.55 billion fund emissions Reduction Fund and Safeguard Mechanism for meeting their targets. These targets are complemented by the target related to Renewable Energy, improvements for energy efficiency, phasing out very potent synthetic greenhouse gases, and direct support for investment in low emissions technologies and practices (Australian Government, n.d.).

3. Some international agreements and treaties are stated below which directly or indirectly affect the activities conducted by Woolworth’s:

  1. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change– this agreement was created by the parties of UN in 1992, and this treaty is considered as important treaty in context of climate change, and it is also known as UNFCCC and FCCC. The purpose of introduction of this treaty is to protect the environment from greenhouse gas concentrations, and reach it up to that level so that it will prevent the atmosphere from
  1. Cancum Agreements: Cancum Agreements are those agreements which contain significant set of decisions which are taken by the international community, and these decisions are related to challenges of climate change for long time period. These agreements also include the provisions which state that some serious action must be taken on this issue. Cancum Agreements are adopted in Cancun, Mexico at United Nations Climate Change Conference on 11thDecember 2010. These agreements not only contain the plans for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions in future but it also states the plans which help out the developing countries against the adverse effects of changes occurred in climate. Following are some objectives of this agreement stated below:
  • These agreements stated various objectives which directly or indirectly relates with the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions caused by the activities of human beings from many years, and these goals are created for keeping the average temperature below two degrees at global level.
  • All countries are encouraged by these agreements for participating in the goal of reducing these emissions. These countries are encouraged by imposing different responsibilities on them, and these responsibilities are divided as per the capability of these countries.
  • Transparency in the operations conducted by countries is ensured by the provisions of these agreements, and these agreements also reviewing their goal on time to time and make necessary amendments in their goals.
  • Funds are arranged by the members of these agreements for helping the developing countries, and by these funds these countries achieve the objectives set by the agreements. Funds are provided by both long term as well as short term objectives.
  • Agreements get assistance of experts at global level for making the necessary amendments in the objectives and strategies of these agreements.
  • The main objectives of these agreements are also included protection of global forests, and it is necessary because forest’s and trees are the most important source of carbon repository. These agreements not only protect forest but it also builds the capacities of developing countries in meeting their challenges.
  • These objectives are achieved and for making sure that these objectives are achieved, different effective institutions and systems are established by the parties of the agreement (UNFCCC, n.d.; UN, n.d.).
  1. Paris Agreement- 195 countries are agreed to adopt this agreement in December of 2015 at Paris climate conference (COP21). Paris agreements are legally binding on those parties who signed it, and it is recognized as the source which covers the gap between policies framed at present time and neutrality level of climate before the end of the century. Some important factors of this agreement are stated below:
  • Mitigation (Reducing Emissions):in Paris agreements all parties of this agreement are agreed to goal which is achievable in long run for raising the average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels in global context. They also decided to raise the limit up to 1.5 degree Celsius for the purpose of reducing the risk occurred because of climate change, and lastly parties decide to reduce the emissions with the help of latest technologies.
  • Transparency: parties to the agreement decided to gather in every five years for the purpose of stating the targets as per the changes occurred in science, and every party report to other party as well as public on the methods used by them to achieve the targets.
  • Adaptation: governments agreed that they take actions to increase the society’s capability for dealing with the changes occurred in climate, and for this purpose developing countries receive public support as well as international support (UNFCCC, n.d.).


Australian Government. Australia’s 2030 climate change target. Available at: Accessed on 26th April 2017.

Australian Government. Chapter 5 Australia’s action on climate change. Available at: Accessed on 26th April 2017.

  1. UN and Climate Change. Available at: Accessed on 26thApril 2017.

Woolworth’s Group. How we do business. Available at: Accessed on 26th April 2017.

Woolworth’s Group. Our History. Available at: Accessed on 26th April 2017.

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