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How medical industry dealing with coronavirus



  1. 1.What challenges do they see facing of the company right now in this current crisis?
  2. 2.financial problems
  3. 3.look for new business, new strategy
  4. how did they this opportunity

questions/ strategy

1.Do you see this as an opportunity or as this Covid it as oppotunity or threat.

-threat cost


2.tell me more on this opportunity

3.what kind of strategy do you have

- may be purchase new equipment to run the Covid test in my company

4.Work with the government for grant

  1. telemidicine

6.what are the potential problems that you think can occur

  1. what kind of of problems do you foresee happening

literature (crisis management)

1.how to change the crisis

  1. how covid is affecting foreign worker coming in to Singapore

- from foreign worker testing shift to covid test

3.business strategy

4.iversification, or change of change of market,market that will change the markert (market development)

5.use ansoff matrix how to companies grow strategies (main theory)

-get more market

-market share

-different market

Singapore has been known to be an attractive destination for multi-national companies (MNCs) to establish their regional headquarters within the Asia Pacific region, due to its strategic location, ease of doing business, access to skilled talent, world-class infrastructure and a stable economic and political system (Singapore Economic Development Board, 2016)

According to KPMG, Singapore has more than 59% of technology MNCs as compared to the rest of the Asia Pacific Region (Singapore Business Review, 2018). A recent report form Glassdoor also shared that in November 2018, there were over 5,800 job posting in the tech industry sector, outpaced the usual hiring trends in Singapore (Seow, 2019). However, despite the growing job opportunities offered by the tech industry, Ministry of Manpower (MOM) Singapore reported that unemployment rate for the local still remaining high among the rest (MOM, 2019)

Referring to the hiring history in my opinion in my organization the situation mentioned above correlates to my current working environment. In my organization – one of the IT software MNC, our top management from the United States (us) Prefers to hire third country national (TCN) and parent country national (PCNs) for all of the middle and upper management roles, to responsible for the ASEAN businesses in Singapore regional office. Therefore, the main theme of this paper is to understand about the definition on global staffing for the topic of hiding preferences in MNCs. And, the motivation for this research is to investigate whether hiring preferences influence the MNCs hiring in local.

1.1 method and structure

This research was conducted reviewing global staffing and hiring presences of literature (in 2.0). Followed by evidence gathering (in3.0) through interviews with 4 participants within the IT industry. All of the qualitative responses will then be grouped into themes for coding purpose. On the other hand, secondary data gathered from studies, surveys and observations will also be included in the findings. Both of these primary and secondary data will code and captured with further analysis (in 4.0). Lastly, (in5.0) this research will be conducted with some recommendations.

2.0 literature review

Global staffing

For a number of decades, global staffing is always an interesting research theme for international management researchers to investigate and study, especially on the issues that are associated with the edds and flows of the staffs that moved internationally (drawling, Festing and engle, 2008). Moore and Lewis shred that entrepreneurs back in 1900 B.C acknowledge the importance of physically relocating mangers to the new or foreign subsidiaries where the business are operating (Moore and Lewis, 1999). Hence general global staffing happens with three common corporate motives – (1) fulfilling the position in subsidiary operations due to the shortages of skilled local personnel; (2) using global assignment to nurture and develop the competence of the individual manager; and (3) coordinating and controlling of organizational development (Edstrom and Galbraith 1977, Harzing 2001)

According to Scullion and Collings, global staffing is defined as the critical issues faces by MNCs in relation to the employment of PNC, host country national (employees from the subsidiary location) (HCNs) and TCNs (employees form a country other than the home or host country, but operating in the host country) to take the key position in their headquarter and subsidiary operations (scullion and Collings, 2016). On top of that, Torbiorn describes global staffing as a complex issue, due to the mixture of PCNs, HCNs and TCNs that need a stream of research effort to address the important of effective staffing strategies implementing successful international business strategies (Torbiorn, 1993), as well as the development and distribution of innovation across their operations which enables MNCs to achieve competitive advantages in the globalized business environment (Gupta and Govindarajan 1991, Schuleret al. 1993: Taylor , Beechler and Napier 1996; gammelaard and Perdersen 2004).

Nevertheless, a stream of research emphasized that MNCs are inderestimatingthr complexities that involved in global staffing Tung, 1998), particularly on strategies alliances and cross border mergers for those emerging and culturally distant market the decision points from the different approaches that are related to global staffing; the challenging of hiring international managers, mainly in emerging markets where intense competition between MNCs and local organization to recruit and retain high quality staff; provide necessary support in order to ensure satisfactory outcome from organization and individual perspectives; in conjunction with proper management and utilization of knowledge flows (Evans, Pucik, and Barsoux, 2002; minbaeva and Michailova, 2004; Schuler, Jackson and Luo, 2004). Hence, human resource managements is recognized as the key practice in MNCs to manage the global staffing issue that arise from the strategic and operation aspects, which including government and coordinate their spatially dispersed global operations to ensure organizations remain profitability and sustainability in their international business operation. (Dowling and Welch 1988, Dowling, P. and Welch, D. 1988).

Hiring Preferences

Hiring is a powerful way where organizations shape the labor market outcome through gatekeeping mechanisms in hiring practices to facilitate or blocking the career opportunity for certain group of jobs applicants (Elliot and Smith 2004). Sociologists often describe hiring as a matching process between organizational characteristics, job demands, and individuals’ skills set (Tilly and Tilly 1998), therefore, Holland and Herron believed that organizations relying on a set of implicit and explicit criteria to make their choices in hiring decision (Holland and Herron, 1982). Subsequently, through the years, the topic of hiring preferences for effective recruitment and selection attracted research to study and preferences for effective recruitment and selection attracted researchers to study and determine the criteria that are important to employers in general, or in specific industries when hiring individual for specific jobs, as well to employers in other countries (Peppas, 2006).

In 1981, a survey that was conducted by hafer and Hoth, targeted at managers from 5 different industries- manufacturing, distribution, finance, insurance, and government, to rate the important of 26 job selection attributes. As a result, oral communication, motivation and initiative were ranked highest, followed by assertiveness, and loyalty. (Hafer and Horth, 1981). In addition, for hiring that are focused in specific occupational fields, especially for a management position, McKendrick found that organization preferred individuals with communication skills, enthusiasm, motivational and work experience (McKendrick, 1986) moreover, based on a research that was conducted outside of the United States, researchers found that honesty, interpersonal skills, open-mindedness, strong technological skills and the ability to multi-task were the job applicants (Adams and McCuillan 2000).

On top of that, llgen and Pulakos shared that the changes in economic, social technology and global have influenced the motivation and hiring preference of organization (llgen and Pulakos, 1999). Hence, employers are expecting to recruit individual with competencies, especially skilled with cross-cultural experiences, to improve the productivity and organization growth objectives (murphy, 1999). Stroh added that employees with international experience able to lead organizations to integrate into the global market, as well as accelerate the acquisition of new technology, innovation and information transfer. Thus, the demand for hiring individuals with international experience has been increasing lately (Strah Black, and Mendenhall, 2005)

However, some argued that organizations should consider about the corporate culture, and not replying only on the attributes that owned by successful individual in specific fields when acquiring new hires in the same field (Silverhart and Hinchcliffe 1996, and Murray 1999). Chang and Cohen also agreed that organizations should look for individuals that can fit with the corporate culture as one of the import hiring criteria, while matching the attributes that are required for the specific jobs (Chang and Coben 2003). Furthermore, some of the study found that organization prefer to hire individuals who have the cultural similarities, particularly in experiences, self-presentation, leisure pursuits and “lifestyle market” (fundamental bases of social reproduction, social status and social closure), that serves as badges of inclusion or exclusion from desirable social opportunities (Dimaggio 1987, Lamont and Molnar 2002, Weber (1958); and Veblen (1899).

How hiring preferences affect global staffing in local hiring

In general, research define employers’ decision as the flow of evaluating individuals’ human capital such as hard and soft skill, demographic characteristics, and social capital; as well as valuing the residual variances that associated with the combination of discrimination and error (Pager and Shepherd ). According to Saha Managerial belief and value are the important factors that influence the hiring decision, as managers might have their own assumption on certain facts of statements, and preferences for one state of affairs over another (Saha, 2012). Likewise, Jensen and Meckling, 1976). In that event, PCNs were offered with superior position and conditions while local were perceived as interior and restricted with lower position and duties (Moore and Lewis, 1999).


Despite a surge of search on employers’ hiring on the years, the knowledge of employer decision making and hiring preference remain incomplete (Heckman and Siegelman, 1993), and the measurement of TCNs hiring is still a mystery to research. I argue that much of this gap can be attributed to methodological and data limitation, as most of this sociological research of hiring were conducted more than 10 years ago, which might not suitable for the current hiring condition. In addition, this bulk of research is often constrained to easily observable individuals and organization. Thus, to understand completely on employers’ hiring, further research for the process of decision making is needed to analyze the way employers evaluate, compare and select new hires. By conducting an in-depth research, more subtle factors might discover from employers decision which illuminate new mechanism that generate hiring outcomes (Gross, 2009).

3.0 research and Evidence

Research paradigm

According to Mackenzie and Knipe, the term paradigm is used to explain a researcher`'s worldview-the thought, perspective, and beliefs that express the interpretation of research data (Mackenzie and Knipe, 2006).

Richards defined ontology as the nature of our belief, whether it is the assumptions or implications about reality (Richards, 2003). On the other hand, epistemology is described as the concerned toward the nature of knowledge, as well as the process of acquiring and validating knowledge (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2003). Furthermore methodology refers to the study and critical analysis of data production techniques such as research design, methods, approaches and procedures that is well planned in an investigation (Crotty, 1998).

[Methods were explained earlier less than 1.1].

Thus, these four components – ontology, epistemology, methodology and methods, were used in this research to increase the understanding of global staffing for the topic of hiring preferences in MNCs. I have also applied interpretive paradigm to this research, as I believed there is no single reality or truth, however, reality is being subjective and vary from different perspectives. On top of that, I have included qualitative research methods by conducting 4 interviews with small sample size of subjects, to connect, dialogue, and interpret, as well as collect rich or in-depth data that describe the individual experiences towards the social phenomena they interact with (Schreier, 2018).

3.1 Evidence

3.1.1 Primary evidence

Selecting Participants

Qualitative research was conducted by interviewing 4 participants that are currently working in MNC within the IT industry, with their background and details as below:

Participant 1

Participant 2

Participant 3

Participant 4







APAC Channel and Marketing Senior Director

Head of Sales for ASEAN + India

ASEAN Channels Manager – Team Leader

APAC Renewal Inside Sales Representative

Management levels and types

Top-level Management

Middle–level Management

Lower-level Management

Non- management

Number of years working in MNCs Environment

50 years

16 years

21 years

8 years






Status in Singapore

Personalized employment pass

Singapore citizen

Permanent resident

Singapore citizen

Figure 2: Background details of the participants

Collection of Data

Semi-structured interviews are the technique that used for data-collection in this research, with the purpose of understanding the variations in each participant`'s experience by looking through the participants’ eyes when they explained their point of view based on their unique lived experiences. Open-ended questions and unstructured follow-up probes were used to orient the participant to the phenomenon that being tested.

Before the interview, the purpose and objective of this research were explained to all of the participants. The participants are aware that the whole interview will be recorded, and they are agreed to participate in this interview by acknowledging the Participant Consent Form.

Open-ended Question

1. What is your thought of foreign holding higher position or management position in MNCs?

2. Referring to your working experience with MNCs which owned a subsidiary in Singapore, can you briefly share with me what are the percentages in between local and foreign that is holding higher position or management position in your organization?

3. In your opinion, what are the factors that lead to this?

4. Based on your observation, please kindly describe what are the measurements that your organization when is using to hire a management position?

5. How satisfied or dissatisfied are you with the criteria or preferences that practiced by your organization when hiring a management position?

6. If you are given a chance to decide on the hiring criteria or preferences for hiring the management position, what will you expect from the applicants?

Follow-up question

1. Tell me more about that

2. How did that make you feel

3. Is there anything else you want to add regarding your experience?

Data Analysis

Thematic analysis is a qualitative research method that commonly used for identifying, examining, consolidating, describing and reporting the themes that was found within a data set (Braun and Clarke, 2006; and Boyatzis, 1998). Hence, a thematic analysis was used to analyze the semi-structured interviews to identify the patterns of themes in the interview data:






Most of the MNCs already have the attributes that they want for a specific role, by referring to the previous hires in the US or Europe, where they’re headquartered.

MNCs are comfortable hiring individuals that they are familiar with, communicate well with, and understand the culture within the organization, to ensure the culture in an organization is maintained.

MNCs perceptions where foreigners probably more trustworthy and knowledgeable, having a broader view and bigger perspective of the marker, thinking that they have the capability to execute, to plan and strategize better.

MNCs prefer individual with regional experience, deep understanding of the market and business; to strategies and to execute the plan for the organization to grow in the next three, five or eight years.

MNCs are looking for skill will matrix; the skills of individual bring to the organization and the willingness to grow.

Figure 3: data from the interview was conducted with 4 participants.

Other factors that influence MNCs hiring in local






Due to the nature of Singapore which being opened when comes to attracting talent.

Maturity and the size of the MNCs subsidiary in Singapore.

MNCs should consider the capability of local that have a better visibility of the local culture and market, as well as the ability to communicate in local language, but not just English.

MNCs using Singapore to leapfrog into other countries within Southern Asia, such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and etc.

Defined specific roles, scope and responsibilities then only decide on the necessary attributes that would be a good fit for that particular scope.

Background of the individuals, understanding of the local market and requirement, and the relationship with the local customer and partner.

MNCs are struggling to employ locally due to lack of understanding towards the local culture and the people in another part of the world.

MNC`'s will not hire senior management roles in learning role.


1. * Each of the colours represents a theme from the qualities response that was gathered from the interview.

2. P1, P2, P3, and P4 represent participant 1, participant 2, participant 3, and participant 4.

3. Please refer Appendix 1 for all of the qualitative responses that was gathered from the interviews.

Figure 4: data from the interview was conducted with 4 participants.

Secondary evidence

A recent ‘MyExpatriate Market Pay survey’, that was publish yearly by ECA (Employment Condition Abroad) International reported that the value of a typical annual compensation and benefits package for an expat (a foreign Professional) middle manager in Singapore stands at US$223,095 (S$298,500), which resulted Singapore in one of the 20 most expensive countries for hiring expatriate staff (Lynette, 2018). On top of that, based on the HSBC`'s annual Expat Explorer report (which survey 22,318) expats about their jobs, salaries and lives overseas), Singapore was voted as the best city for working abroad (kate, 2018), with the highest employment of foreign profession in global, whereby 31% of the expats in Singapore are holding manager position and above (Danielle, 2018).

Factors that influence MNCs hiring in Singapore:

Business dynamics and national of MNCs behind the hiring process

An article that was published by the Singapore Business Review, shared about the experience of Joshua Yim, who is the founder and CEO of Achieve Group – a Human Resource consultancy that provides human capital solution for national conglomerates and MNCs in Asia Pacific since 1990. Based on his experience in the business of talent acquisition, he pointed out the challenges that MNCs are facing during their business expanded to foreign land, especially working directly with a brand new team where the entire organization only hired local employment. He added, for Singapore companies that ventures overseas, they practiced the similar methods like MNCs, by sending a few of the key Singapore – trained individuals to the new county to be part of the management team to establish the new subsidiary. Therefore, MNCs would naturally want to hire individuals whom the management team is comfortable and trust with, to responsibilities and lead this local output (Joshua, 2014).

Local photo to work and live abroad to the increasing of competitiveness in Singapore In every 100 Singaporean 6 are residing abroad, this figure is extremely higher as compared to the rest of the countries such as Australia (close to 3 in 100), the US (1 in 100), and Japan (less than 1 in 100). According to Channel New Asia, the numbers of Singaporeans who choose to work and live abroad have increased dramatically, from a total of 157,800 Singaporeans in 2004 to 2013, 400 in 2017. On top of that, a survey that was conducted by the institute for policy Studies showed that 58.3% of Singaporean between the age of 19 becomes more competitive and stressful (Leong, 2017).

Bad impression and perception of Singaporean capability

In the year of 2013, under the fair Consideration Framework (FCS), MOM Singapore demanded employers to consider Singapore fairly before hiring foreigners. Therefore, employers who want to recruit foreign professional need to prove their effort in hiring local by advertise the vacancies for 14 days in the national jobs bank, which is administered by the Singapore Workforce Development Agency (Toh, 2013). Despite this new policy that implemented to address the issues, the resentment towards the grow of foreign professions in Singapore still remaining high, as Singapore believed that foreigners continue to fill the jobs that they think should be theirs (Lima, 2014). Professor Tan Ern Ser, who is a sociologist from National University of Singapore (NUS), added that policymaker should ensure good opportunities are reserved for Singaporean for greater sense of belonging to attract them to stay in the impacts of FCF that could affect Singapore growth and hurt the economy (Lima, 2014), due to the unfriendly business environment that being protective towards Singapore that might discourage foreign firms to move away from setting up business in Singapore (Chew, 2018).

Shortage of skills

The announcement of “Singapore Budget 2019” by Singapore Finance Minister Heng Swee Keat, urged business to focus on accelerating the development of digital skills and adoption of innovative solution, as well as straight cyber security, and reskilling the current workforces (Grace, 2019). However, referring to a research that was accomplished by the Manpower Group, 56% of Singapore employers reported that they are facing difficulties in recruiting suitable candidates due to Singapore talent shortages. Among all of the reasons provided, 28% of the employers think that lack of necessary experience of applicants, is the main reason that they can’t fill up the roles. Furthermore, as business transform into digitalize, 22% of the employers commented that they have experienced hard time finding applicants with the right blend of technical skills and human strength to apply for the roles (Manpower Group, 2019).

Hiring pattern in Singapore

As digital transformation takes place in the economy, business and employment understand the need to prepare workforces for the changes and challengers in their business models that are evolving rapidly. However, the existing skill sets in Singapore are insufficient addressing the constant change in business imperatives. Hence, it is important for business hiring individual with a new set of core skills that enable them to work differently (Derrick, 2017), especially for senior- level of professional, Singapore needs to attract and hire individuals with broad global experience from experience form competing countries such as San Francisco, New York, London, Dubai and Hong Kong (Mastufa, 2019).

According to Hays Asia Salary Guide 2019 (a survey that was conducted by HAYS Research to track recruiting trends and salary in Asia), due to talent shortages, more than 65% of Singapore employers prefer technical skills over soft skills, which is more practical I handing “know-how” challenges as compared to emotional aptitude. Among all the technical skills, project management (56%), statistical analysis and data mining (47%), as well as computer skills (37%) were the most in demand. For soft skills, Singapore employers are interested in problem solving (81%), term working (80%), and communication (74%) (Ng, 2019).

Furthermore, Dr David Deming, who is the associate professor of education and economics at Harvard University, emphasized that social skills are equally important in the modern workplace. He believed that the ability to “play well” with others helps individuals to build meaningful relationship and connection a deeper level, which include the proficiency to empathize and interact with people on multiple levels. On the other hand, considering the constant changing of business environment, Singapore employers are shifting away from hiring individuals with a single or specific role to acquiring flexible and highly versatile individuals, who are willing to rotate their roles flexible job description (Derrick, 2017).

4.0 Critical Commentary

There are total of 12 themes based on the finding from the primary evidence. Among all of these themes, 5 themes that were mentioned by the participants during the interview matched the theories and facts in the literature review. Meanwhile, the rest of the 8 themes were added based on the participants working experience with MNCs, and observation towards the MNCs hiring patterns or preferences that are practiced in the real world.

On the other hand, by viewing the results from the secondary evidence, there is only 1 themes that is matched the literature review, the remaining 4 themes are factors that influence MNCs hiring in local, based on the business environment and hiring patterns in Singapore.

All of these will be then grouped and split into 2 sets of arguments with further analysis.

4.1 Argument FOR the theory Statement

MNCs preferred to hire and utilize that they are familiar with


Source of Data

MNCs are comfortable hiring individuals that they are familiar with, communicate well with, and understand the culture within the organization, to ensure the culture in an organization is maintained.

Primary evidence

MNCs perceptions where foreign probably more trustworthy and knowledgeable, having a broader view and bigger perspective of the market thinking that they have the capability to execute, to plan and to strategize better.

Primary evidence

Business dynamics and rational of MNCs behind the hiring process.

Secondary evidence

Figure 8: theme 1- data from Primary and secondary evidence are categories different themes

The rational of MNCs hiring in a foreign subsidiary can be related t the Edstroem and Galbraith framework, where they believed there are several reasons that influence MNCs preferences that favour of hiring foreign profession compared to HCNs in their foreign subsidiary (this were mentioned earlier in the literature review). The second motive of this framework shared tats MNCs using global assignment for management development, therefore, MNCs still prefer to send PCNs to train and develop them, even if qualified host country managers are available in the country where the subsidiary is located. On the other hand, organizational development is the third motive that suggests MNC headquarters sending PNCs aboard to coordinate and control the business activities of the their overseas affiliate (Edstoem, and Galbraith, 1977). Referring to the data collected from the interview, 2 of the participants think that MNCs are comfort working with individuals that they are familiar with, who already understand the organizational culture, and having the capability to execute and maintain the organizational culture in their overseas affiliates.

Besides, a recent study expressed that employers are likely to understand their relative position, as well as accessing other people`'s status and power in the social hierarchy within a MNC (Smith and Galinsky, 2010; and Srivastava and Anderson, 2011). Thus, this understanding likely influences the perceptions, sense-making and behaviors in various ways. For example, in the social hierarchy of the MNCs, PCNs often occupy a higher position than HCNs and TCNs due to their home country nationally, which benefit them from accessing to cultural capital rooted knowledge and adeptness in the home country culture; along with the social capital rooted in communication and trust based on shared culture and language (Harvey, Reiche and Moeller, 2011). As a result, MNCs perceived PCNs as the highest status groups among the rest and should structurally positioned in the social hierarchy (Frener, Edwards and Tempel, 2012)

Lack of qualified of HCNs based on the attributes and preferences that MNCs prefer


Source of Data

Most of the MNCs already have attributes that they want for a specific role, by referring to the previous hires in the US or Europe, where they’re headquartered.

Primary evidence

MNCs prefer individual with regional experience, deep understanding of the market and business to strategies and to execute the plan for the organizational to growth in the net three, five or eight years.

Primary evidence

MNCs are looking for skill will matrix; the skills of individuals bring to the organization and the willingness to grow.

Primary evidence

Shortages of skills

Secondary evidence

Figure 9: theme 2- data from Primary and secondary evidence are categories different themes

Based on the data collected from the primary evidence, all of the participants agreed that these is a list of attributes or criteria that MNCs use to measure individuals, which matched the idea of Holland and Herron in the literature review, where MNCs are relying on these measurements to make the their choices in hiring decision (Holland and Herron, 1982) Some of the participants with the experiences of hiring foreign professionals or expats in Singapore mentioned that MNCs usually will refer to the previous hires from the headquartered and use them as references to decides that they want for a specific role. However, reviewing the result from the secondary evidence, the research that was accomplished by the Manpower Group reported that Singapore Is facing talent shortages, whereby 56% of the employment are facing difficulties in recruiting suitable candidates to fill up the roles, particularly on the necessary experience and technical skills. Therefore, due to the a lack of technical expertise in the host country, Edstroem and Galbraith framework suggest MNCs to send foreign professionals to fill the position since there is no suitable MNCs available (Edstroem, and Galbraith, 1977).

4.2 Argument AGAINST theory Statement

Affiliate Factors


Source of Data

Maturity and the size of the MNC`'s subsidiaries in Singapore.

Primary evidence

MNCs using Singapore to leapfrog into other countries within Southeast Asia, such as Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand and etc.

Primary evidence

Business dynamic and rational of MNCs behind the hiring process

Secondary evidence

Figure 10: theme 3- data from Primary and secondary evidence are categories different themes

During the interview, one of the participants pointed out and that affiliate factors are one of the critical factor that influences the MNCs hiring decision, particularly on the size of the affiliate, as it might relate to the tendency of MNCs sending foreign professionals to fill up the executive position. According to Boyacigiller anf Hamil, the bigger the affiliates, the amount of investment will be higher, hence, MNCs would be more interested in controlling the affiliate by sending a PCN to manage it (BOyacigiller, 1900 and Hamil, 1989). Moreover, organizational development becomes important when the size of the affiliate increases, therefore, sending a skilled and experienced PCN will reduce the risks that associated with larger amount of investment (Edstoroem, and Galbraith, 1977).

MNCs often overlook the important of culture in Global business.


Source of Data

MNCs are struggling to employ locally due to lack of understanding

Primary evidence

MNCs should consider the capability of local that have a better visibility of the local culture and market, as well as the ability to communicate in local language, but not just English.

Primary evidence

Bad impression and perception of Singaporean capability.

Secondary evidence

Figure 11: theme 4- data from Primary and secondary evidence are categories different themes

The cost of sending foreign professionals to manage foreign subsidiaries is expensive, and the total package of the foreign professional are usually three times compare to the manager`'s cost in the country. As mentioned by Black and Gregersen, during the hiring, MNCs look for individuals with skills that matched with the attributes and profile, but, often neglect the important of cross-cultural abilities of the global leadership skills. Hence, one of the major challenges that MNCs facing in international business operations is the effective and efficiency of the PCNs or TNCs that are sent to manage their foreign subsidiaries, as many studies show that these foreign professional have a high failure rate due to lack of understanding and inability to adopt the local culture (Black and Gregersen,1999). In addition to this, Harzing motivates MNCs to find HCNs to fill the top position rather than sending foreign professionals to manage their foreign subsidiaries, because HCNs are familiar with the local market and business practices, compares to foreign professionals also who are technically skilled but are culturally illiterate. Harzing emphasized those foreign professionals are at disadvantages as they are costly, lack of familiarity with the host country environment, and the ability to adjust to different customs, perspectives, and, subsidiaries (Harzing, 2001)

Different expectations and requirement between the hiring in MNCs


Source of Data

Defined specific roles, scope and responbilities then only decide on the necessary attributes that would be good fit for that particular scope.

Primary evidence

Background of the individual, understanding of the local market and requirement, and the relationship with the local customers and partners.

Primary evidence

MNC`'s will not hire senior management roles in a learning role.

Primary ecidence

Hiring pattern in Singapore

Secondary evidence

Figure 12: theme 5- data from Primary and secondary evidence are categories different themes

The data gathered from the primary evidence complement the review f the related literature where MNCs measure individual with a list of attributes or criteria during hiring. However most of the participant feedback that MNCs should include different approaches aside from usual hiring preferences and practices. In order to match the hiring pattern in Singapore, 50% of the participant suggested that MNCs should define specific roles, scope and responsibilities for a position. Moreover, some of the participant mentioned about the need of MNCs conducting a background screening to investigate the qualification and experience of the applicants, before making any hiring decision. Furthermore, a research that conducted by HAYS Research stated that Singapore employers acknowledge the power of word-of-mouth job referrals, as they feel comfortable knowing a friend or a acquaintance of a current employment someone in their circle applies for a job, as the applicant`'s friends are good indicator of the qualifications and character of the applicant (HAYS, 2016). Therefore, before making any hiring decision, MNCs should look into hiring pattern in their foreign subsidiaries as this might be part of the business practices in the local market.

5.0 Conclusions

This research work represents only the start in the series of examining whether hiring preferences influence the MNCs’ hiring in local. Based on the finding, 40% of the data agreed that hiring in local was directly affected by the hiring preferences, attributes and criteria that were pre-determined the MNCs. On the other hand, 60% of the data argued that, aside the hiring preferences, there are lots of factors that could influence MNCs’ hiring decision in local. In spite of the limitations, however, this research provides valuable insights into the differences of the hiring patterns and practices between MNCs and local, which contributing to further understanding about the theory. In conclusion, due to the factors that mentioned about, I propose for further investigations and studies to identify the variables in the international business environment, particularly in Singapore, in order to complete a better framework of the research in regard to this issue.

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