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Linguistics 2100E Exam 1

Ling 2100E - Exam 1 (Module 1, 2, 3)

Study online at quizlet.com/_6uztyr

  1. [a] low back lax unrounded

2. [æ]

low front lax unrounded

3. alveolar approximants

[ɹ, l]

4. alveolar obstruents

t, d, s, z

5. Another term for the velum is 'soft palate'. When it comes to consonant characteristics, which term is better to have memorized?

velum

6. Around

əɹɑʊnd

7. aspiration

cat

/kæt/ > [kʰæt]

8. Aspiration is, inherently, also what type of Phonological Change?

Strenghtening

9. [b]

voiced bilabial stop

10. [b]

11. batch

bætʃ

12. batch

[bætʃ]

13. Before high front vowels

More information:

[y] = high front tense rounded

[t3] = voiceless alveolar affricate

Canadian French

[tu] = 'all'

[t3ɪt] = 'title'

[tεl] 'such'

[t3imId] 'timid'

[t3y] 'you'

[abut3i] 'ended'

[trε] 'very'

[tεb] 'stamp'

 

Canadian French

In the dialect of French (an Indo-European language of the Romance family) spoken in Canada, consider the distribution of

[t] and [t3] (a voiceless alveolar affricate) in the data below. State their distribution (what environments they occur in), and Determine if they are allophones of one phoneme or of separate phonemes. [y] and [Y] are high, front, rounded vowels, tense and lax, respectively. a. [tu] 'all'

  1. [abut3i] 'ended'
  2. [tεl] 'such'
  3. [tεb] 'stamp'
  4. [t3imId] 'timid'
  5. [t3It] 'title'
  6. [telegram] 'telegram'
  7. [trε] 'very'
  8. [kYlt3yr] 'culture'
  9. [minYt] 'minute'

  • [t3y] 'you'
  1. [t3Yb]'tube'

Where does [t3] occur (what environment)?

Using the image above, or p. 140 in Language Files, compare [n] and [ŋ] and state what the environment is in which [ŋ] occurs.

  1. Between voiceless sounds

Using the image above, or p. 140 in Language Files, state in which environment [u̥ ] occurs. Remember, you want the most concise environment (i.e. one that encompasses all variables).

Hint: Think of Natural Classes

16. Between you and me is grammatical. Between you and I is a hypercorrection that some speakers of English resort to because they were taught it is better to say he and I than me and him.

a) True

b) False

True

17. Bilabials

p, b, m

18. bush (IPA)

[bʊʃ]

19. ç

More information:

[c]= voiceless palatal stop

[ç]= voiceless palatal fricative [x]= voiceless velar fricative

Modern Greek is an Indo-European language spoken in Greece. Examine the sounds [ x ], [ k ], [ ç ], and [ c ] in the following data. [ k ] represents a voiceless velar stop, [ x ] a voiceless velar fricative, [ ç ] a voiceless palatal fricative, and [ c ] a voiceless palatal stop. Which of these sounds are in contrastive distribution, and which are in complementary distribution? State the distribution of the allophones. a. [kano] 'do' j. [kori] 'daughter'

b. [xano] 'lose' k.[xori] 'dances'

c. [Çino] 'pour' l. [xrima] 'money'

d. [Cino] 'move' m.[krima] 'shame'

e. [kali] 'charms' n. [xufta] 'handful'

f. [xali] 'plight' o. [kufeta] 'bonbons'

g. [Çeli] 'eel' p. [Çina] 'goose'

h. [Ceri] 'candle' q. [Cina] 'China'

i. [Çeri] 'hand'

What sound is missing? [_ira] 'widow'

  1. [c] and [ç] before front vowels

More information:

[c]= voiceless palatal stop

[ç]= voiceless palatal fricative [x]= voiceless velar fricative

Modern Greek is an Indo-European language spoken in Greece. Examine the sounds [ x ], [ k ], [ ç ], and [ c ] in the following data. [ k ] represents a voiceless velar stop, [ x ] a voiceless velar fricative, [ ç ] a voiceless palatal fricative, and [ c ] a voiceless palatal stop. Which of these sounds are in contrastive distribution, and which are in complementary distribution? State the distribution of the allophones.

  1. [kano] 'do' j. [kori] 'daughter'
  2. [xano] 'lose' k.[xori] 'dances'
  3. [Çino] 'pour' l. [xrima] 'money'
  4. [Cino] 'move' m.[krima] 'shame'
  5. [kali] 'charms' n. [xufta] 'handful'
  6. [xali] 'plight' o. [kufeta] 'bonbons'
  7. [Çeli] 'eel' p. [Çina] 'goose'
  8. [Ceri] 'candle' q. [Cina] 'China'
  9. [Çeri] 'hand'

21. catch

kætʃ

22. cat (IPA)

[kæt]

23. Complementary

Using the image above, or p. 140 in Language Files, compare [n] and [ŋ] and state what type of distribution they have in Italian.

24. congratulations

ənz kəngɹædʒuleɪʃ

25. cough

kɑf

26. cough

[kɑf]

27. cringe

kɹ ɪndʒ

28. crowd

[kɹɑʊd]

29. crowd

kɹɑʊd

30. crude

kɹud

31. crumb

kɹʌm

What are the determining sounds (the environment)?

  1. [d]

33. [d]

voiced alveolar stop

34. [ð]

35. [ðæts gɹeɪt]

thats great

36. Deletion

costs

/kast/ > [kas]

37. deletion

car

/kaɹ/ > [ka]

38. [dʒʌmp ðəʃɑɹk]

jump the shark

39. easy

izi

40. easy

[izi]

  1. elsewhere More information:

[y] = high front tense rounded

[t3] = voiceless alveolar affricate

Canadian French

[tu] = 'all'

[t3ɪt] = 'title'

[tεl] 'such'

[t3imId] 'timid'

[t3y] 'you'

[abut3i] 'ended'

[trε] 'very'

[tεb] 'stamp'

Canadian French

42. English has more Tense vowels than Lax vowels.

false

43. erosion (IPA)

[ɪɹoʊʒʌn]

44. everywhere else

Using the image above, or p. 140 in Language Files, state in which environment [i] occurs. Remember, you want the most concise environment (i.e. one that encompasses all variables).

Hint: Think of Natural Classes

In the dialect of French (an Indo-European language of the Romance family) spoken in Canada, consider the distribution of [t] and [t3] (a voiceless alveolar affricate) in the data below. State their distribution (what environments they occur in), and Determine if they are allophones of one phoneme or of separate phonemes. [y] and [Y] are high, front, rounded vowels, tense and lax, respectively. a. [tu] 'all'

  1. [abut3i] 'ended'
  2. [tεl] 'such'
  3. [tεb] 'stamp'
  4. [t3imId] 'timid'
  5. [t3It] 'title'
  6. [telegram] 'telegram'
  7. [trε] 'very'
  8. [kYlt3yr] 'culture'
  9. [minYt] 'minute'
  10. [t3y] 'you'
  11. [t3Yb]'tube'

Where does [t] occur (what environment)?

  1. everywhere else

Using the image above, or p. 140 in Language Files, state in which environment [u] occurs.

Remember, you want the most concise environment (i.e. one that encompasses all variables).

Hint: Think of Natural Classes

46. [əɹɑʊnd ðə hɔɹn]

around the horn

47. [ɛ]

mid front lax unrounded

48. [f]

49. [f]

voiceless labiodental fricative

50. film

fɪlm

51. flapping

bottle

/batl̩/ > [baɾl ]

52. Flapping is, inherently, also what type of Phonological change?

Weakening

53. [foʊn]

phone

54. Given [spæt] and [pʰæt], what type of distribution do [p] and [pʰ] have?

complementary

55. Given [tɑp] and [tɑl], what type of distribution do [p] and [l] have?

contrastive

56. great

gɹeɪt

57. grumpy

gɹʌmpi

58. [gɹʌmpi]

grumpy

59. [h]

voiceless glottal fricative

60. help (IPA)

[hɛlp]

61. high front tense unrounded

[i]

  1. horn hɔɹn

63. How do you transcribe, judge, in IPA?

[dʒʌdʒ]

64. How do you transcribe, Sunday, in IPA?

[sʌndeɪ]

65. hungry (IPA)

[hʌŋgɹi]

66. [i]

high front tense unrounded

67. [i] and [] are allophones of the same phoneme

Using the image above, or p. 140 in Language Files, choose which of the following is True about [i] and [i̥].

68. In English, [p] and [pʰ] are allophones of the same phoneme.

Using the image above, or p. 140 in Language Files, state which of the following sentences is true about American English and the three sounds: [p], [pʰ], and [b].

69. Insertion

answer

/ænsɹ̩ /> [æntsɹ̩ ]

70. In some ways, affricates can be thought of as a combination of what two other Manners of Articulation

stop and fricative

71. interdental fricatives

θ, ð

72. it's her car: /ɪts hɹ̩ kɑɹ/ > [ɪts ɹ̩ kɑɹ]

deletion

73. It's me is not ungrammatical. It is just informal. a) True

b) False

True

74. [ɪ]

high front lax unrounded

75. [j]

voiced palatal glide

76. judge (IPA)

[dʒʌdʒ]

77. Jump

dʒʌmp

78. jump (IPA)

[dʒʌmp]

  1. [juz] use

80. K

More information:

[c]= voiceless palatal stop

[ç]= voiceless palatal fricative

[x]= voiceless velar fricative

Modern Greek is an Indo-European language spoken in Greece. Examine the sounds [ x ], [ k ], [ ç ], and [ c ] in the following data. [ k ] represents a voiceless velar stop, [ x ] a voiceless velar fricative, [ ç ] a voiceless palatal fricative, and [ c ] a voiceless palatal stop. Which of these sounds are in contrastive distribution, and which are in complementary distribution? State the distribution of the allophones.

a. [kano] 'do' j. [kori] 'daughter'

b. [xano] 'lose' k.[xori] 'dances'

c. [Çino] 'pour' l. [xrima] 'money'

d. [Cino] 'move' m.[krima] 'shame'

e. [kali] 'charms' n. [xufta] 'handful'

f. [xali] 'plight' o. [kufeta] 'bonbons'

g. [Çeli] 'eel' p. [Çina] 'goose'

h. [Ceri] 'candle' q. [Cina] 'China'

i. [Çeri] 'hand'

Which sound is missing? [_aliniçta] 'goodnight'

81. [k]

voiceless velar stop

82. K and

C X and

Ç

More information:

[c]= voiceless palatal stop

[ç]= voiceless palatal fricative

[x]= voiceless velar fricative

Modern Greek is an Indo-European language spoken in Greece. Examine the sounds [ x ], [ k ], [ ç ], and [ c ] in the following data. [ k ] represents a voiceless velar stop, [ x ] a voiceless velar fricative, [ ç ] a voiceless palatal fricative, and [ c ] a voiceless palatal stop. Which of these sounds are in contrastive distribution, and which are in complementary distribution? State the distribution of the allophones.

a. [kano] 'do' j. [kori] 'daughter'

b. [xano] 'lose' k.[xori] 'dances'

c. [Çino] 'pour' l. [xrima] 'money'

d. [Cino] 'move' m.[krima] 'shame'

e. [kali] 'charms' n. [xufta] 'handful'

f. [xali] 'plight' o. [kufeta] 'bonbons'

g. [Çeli] 'eel' p. [Çina] 'goose'

h. [Ceri] 'candle' q. [Cina] 'China'

i. [Çeri] 'hand'

Which sounds are complementary (allophones)?

83. K and X

C and Ç

More information:

[c]= voiceless palatal stop

[ç]= voiceless palatal fricative [x]= voiceless velar fricative

Modern Greek is an Indo-European language spoken in Greece. Examine the sounds [ x ], [ k ], [ ç ], and [ c ] in the following data. [ k ] represents a voiceless velar stop, [ x ] a voiceless velar fricative, [ ç ] a voiceless palatal fricative, and [ c ] a voiceless palatal stop. Which of these sounds are in contrastive distribution, and which are in complementary distribution? State the distribution of the allophones. a. [kano] 'do' j. [kori] 'daughter'

b. [xano] 'lose' k.[xori] 'dances'

c. [Çino] 'pour' l. [xrima] 'money'

d. [Cino] 'move' m.[krima] 'shame'

e. [kali] 'charms' n. [xufta] 'handful'

f. [xali] 'plight' o. [kufeta] 'bonbons'

g. [Çeli] 'eel' p. [Çina] 'goose'

h. [Ceri] 'candle' q. [Cina] 'China'

i. [Çeri] 'hand'

Which sounds are in contrastive distribution (phonemes)?

84. K and X

C and Ç

More information:

[c]= voiceless palatal stop

[ç]= voiceless palatal fricative [x]= voiceless velar fricative

Modern Greek is an Indo-European language spoken in Greece. Examine the sounds [ x ], [ k ], [ ç ], and [ c ] in the following data. [ k ] represents a voiceless velar stop, [ x ] a voiceless velar fricative, [ ç ] a voiceless palatal fricative, and [ c ] a voiceless palatal stop. Which of these sounds are in contrastive distribution, and which are in complementary distribution? State the distribution of the allophones. a. [kano] 'do' j. [kori] 'daughter'

b. [xano] 'lose' k.[xori] 'dances'

c. [Çino] 'pour' l. [xrima] 'money'

d. [Cino] 'move' m.[krima] 'shame'

e. [kali] 'charms' n. [xufta] 'handful'

f. [xali] 'plight' o. [kufeta] 'bonbons'

g. [Çeli] 'eel' p. [Çina] 'goose'

h. [Ceri] 'candle' q. [Cina] 'China'

i. [Çeri] 'hand'

Which sounds are in contrastive distribution (phonemes)?

85. [kəngɹædʒuleɪʃənz]

congratulations

86. [k] [g] and [ɳ] are all 'velar' sounds.

true

87. [kɹɪndʒ]

cringe

88. [kɹud]

crude

89. ladder (IPA)

[lædər] weakened: [læɾɹ̩ ]

90. lance: /læns/ > [lænts]

insertion

  1. late bell: /leɪt bɛl/ > [leɪp bɛl] place assimilation

92. Leisure

liʒɹˌ

93. litter

lɪɾɹ̩

94. little /lɪt/ > [lɪɾl̩ ]

flapping

95. [liʒɹˌ]

leisure

96. [lɪɾɹ̩ ]

litter

97. [lɪʃ]

[lɪsʲ]

[lɪs]

There is a Minimal Triplet in the data. Select which three words make up the Minimal Triplet.

98. low back lax unrounded

[ɑ]

99. [m]

100. [m]

voiced bilabial nasal stop

101. [mætʃəz]

matches

102. The main distinction between a consonant and a vowel is air flow/constriction.

true

103. matches

mætʃəz

104. [mɑp]

mop

105. Metathesis

ask

/æsk/ > [æks]

106. Metathesis

asterisk

/æstəɹɪsk/> [æstəɹɪks]

107. mid back lax rounded

[ɔ]

108. mid front lax unrounded

[ɛ]

109. mop

mɑp

110. [n]

voiced alveolar nasal stop

111. Name

neɪm

112. noses

noses noʊzəz

113. [ŋ]

114. [p]

115. [p]

voiceless bilabial stop

116. palatalization

that you

/ðæt ju/> [ðætʃu]

117. park: /pɑɹk/ > [pʰɑɹk]

aspiration

118. People who say Ain't nothing wrong with this to mean 'There's nothing wrong with this' are being illogical because two negatives make a positive. a) True

b) False

False

  1. [pənu]

[bənu]

[pʰənu]

Using the image above, or p. 140 in Language Files, state which of the following words are in Contrastive Distribution (i.e. Minimal pairs - or triplets) Choose all that apply!

120. phone

fon

121. place assimilation

unplug

/ənplʌg/ > [əmplʌg]

122. place assimilation

tin cup

/tɪn kʌp/ > [tɪŋkʌp]

123. The place of articulation in the English language that is the furthest back is 'velar'.

false

124. prays

pɹeɪz

125. prays

[pɹeɪz]

126. punch (IPA)

[pʌntʃ]

127. rather

ɹæðɹˌ

128. reach

ɹitʃ

129. ridge

ɹɪdʒ

130. rings (IPA)

[rɪŋz] or [ɹɪŋz]

131. root

ɹut

132. [ɹæðɹˌ]

rather

133. [ɹitʃ]

reach

134. [ɹɪdʒ]

ridge

135. [ɹut]

root

136. [sændi]

sandy

137. sail

seɪl

138. Sandy

sændi

139. [sɑʊnd]

sound

140. searched

sɹˌtʃt

141. [seɪl]

sail

142. Select the characteristics (there are 3) of the following IPA symbol:

[f]

- voiceless

- labiodental

- fricative

  1. Select the characteristics (there are 3) of the following IPA symbol: - voiceless

[ʃ]

- post-alveolar

- fricative

144. Select the characteristics (there are 3) of the following IPA symbol:

[z]

- voiced

- alveolar

- fricative

145. Select the characteristics (there are 4) of the following IPA symbol:

[n]

- voiced

- nasal

- alveolar

- stop

146. Select the characteristics (there are 4) of the following IPA symbol:

[ŋ]

- voiced

- nasal

- velar

- stop

147. Select the characteristics (there are 4) of the following vowel sound:

[æ]

- low

- front

- unrounded

- lax

148. Select the characteristics (there are 4) of the following vowel sound:

[ɛ]

- mid

- front

- unrounded

- lax

149. Select the characteristics (there are 4) of the following vowel sound:

[ɪ]

- high

- front

- unrounded

- lax

150. Select the characteristics (there are 4) of the following vowel sound:

[u]

- high

- back

- rounded

- tense

151. Select the characteristics (there are 4) of the following vowel sound:

[ʊ]

- high

- back

- rounded

- lax

152. Select the characteristics (there are 4) of the following vowel sound:

[ʌ]

- mid

- central

- unrounded

- lax

153. The sentence My mother pizza likes is descriptively grammatical. a) True

b) False

False

154. shark

ʃɑɹk

155. shave (IPA)

[ʃeɪv]

156. shut (IPA)

[ʃʌt]

157. simple

sɪmplˌ

158. [sɪmplˌ]

simple

  1. [sʲ]

[s]

[ʃ]

Which three (3) of the following sounds are in Contrastive Distribution?

160. slope

sloʊp

161. [sloʊp]

slope

162. sound

sɑʊnd

163. The sounds [t] and [t3] are in complementary

distribution***, since the sound [t3] appears only before high front vowels, while [t] occurs elsewhere.

They are allophones of the same phoneme, since they

are in predictable, complementary distribution.

Same Phonemes

More information:

[y] = high front tense rounded

[t3] = voiceless alveolar affricate

Canadian French

[tu] = 'all'

[t3ɪt] = 'title'

[tεl] 'such'

[t3imId] 'timid'

[t3y] 'you'

[abut3i] 'ended'

[trε] 'very'

[tεb] 'stamp'

Canadian French

In the dialect of French (an Indo-European language of the Romance family) spoken in Canada, consider the distribution of [t] and [t3] (a voiceless alveolar affricate) in the data below. State their distribution (what environments they occur in), and Determine if they are allophones of one phoneme or of separate phonemes. [y] and [Y] are high, front, rounded vowels, tense and lax, respectively. a. [tu] 'all'

b. [abut3i] 'ended'

c. [tεl] 'such'

d. [tεb] 'stamp'

e. [t3imId] 'timid'

f. [t3It] 'title'

g. [telegram] 'telegram'

h. [trε] 'very'

i. [kYlt3yr] 'culture'

j. [minYt] 'minute'

k. [t3y] 'you'

l. [t3Yb]'tube'

Are [t] and [t3] separate phonemes?

164. [sɹˌtʃt]

searched

  1. [sudɪ] and

[sʲudɪ]

[sɪla]

and

[ʃɪla]

166. sunny

sʌni

167. [sʌni]

sunny

168. [ʃ]

voiceless post-alveolar fricative

169. t

More information:

[y] = high front tense rounded

[t3] = voiceless alveolar affricate

Canadian French

[tu] = 'all'

[t3ɪt] = 'title'

[tεl] 'such'

[t3imId] 'timid'

[t3y] 'you'

[abut3i] 'ended'

[trε] 'very'

[tεb] 'stamp'

Canadian French

In the dialect of French (an Indo-European language of the Romance family) spoken in Canada, consider the distribution of

[t] and [t3] (a voiceless alveolar affricate) in the data below. State their distribution (what environments they occur in), and Determine if they are allophones of one phoneme or of separate phonemes. [y] and [Y] are high, front, rounded vowels, tense and lax, respectively. a. [tu] 'all'

b. [abut3i] 'ended'

c. [tεl] 'such'

d. [tεb] 'stamp'

e. [t3imId] 'timid'

f. [t3It] 'title'

g. [telegram] 'telegram'

h. [trε] 'very'

i. [kYlt3yr] 'culture'

j. [minYt] 'minute'

k. [t3y] 'you'

l. [t3Yb]'tube'

What sound is missing?

[_εknik] technique 'technique'

Using the data from the image (or, from p. 136 in Language Files) select which of the following are Minimal Pairs.

[lɪsʲ] and

[lɪʃ]

[lɪs] and

[lɪʃ]

  1. [t]

171. t3

More information:

[y] = high front tense rounded

[t3] = voiceless alveolar affricate

Canadian French

[tu] = 'all'

[t3ɪt] = 'title'

[tεl] 'such'

[t3imId] 'timid'

[t3y] 'you'

[abut3i] 'ended'

[trε] 'very'

[tεb] 'stamp'

Canadian French

In the dialect of French (an Indo-European language of the Romance family) spoken in Canada, consider the distribution of [t] and [t3] (a voiceless alveolar affricate) in the data below. State their distribution (what environments they occur in), and Determine if they are allophones of one phoneme or of separate phonemes. [y] and [Y] are high, front, rounded vowels, tense and lax, respectively. a. [tu] 'all'

b. [abut3i] 'ended'

c. [tεl] 'such'

d. [tεb] 'stamp'

e. [t3imId] 'timid'

f. [t3It] 'title'

g. [telegram] 'telegram'

h. [trε] 'very'

i. [kYlt3yr] 'culture'

j. [minYt] 'minute'

k. [t3y] 'you'

l. [t3Yb]'tube'

What sound is missing

[_ipik] typique 'typical'

172. ten pages:

/tɛn peɪdʒz/ > [tɛm peɪdʒəz]

insertion

place assimilation

173. that

that ðæt

  1. That's ðæts

175. the

ðə

176. They are allophones of different phonemes

Using the image above, or p. 140 in Language Files, choose which of the following is True about [p], [pʰ], and [b].

177. thin

θɪn

178. thumb (IPA)

[θʌm]

179. [tiŋgo] ~ [tɛŋgo]

[fɑŋgo] ~ [fuŋgo]

Using the image above, or p. 140 in Language Files, choose which of the following could be minimal pairs. Choose all that apply!

180. The tongue is not important in sound production.

false

181. touch

tʌtʃ

182. touch

[tʌtʃ]

183. train (IPA)

[tɹeɪn]

184. two cups: /tu kʌpz/ > [tʰu kʰʌps]

voicing assimilation aspiration

185. [u]

high back tense rounded

  1. [u] and [] are allophones of the same phoneme

Using the image above, or p. 140 in Language Files, choose which of the following is True about [u] and [u̥ ].

187. use

juz

188. [ʊ]

high back lax rounded

189. [v]

190. velar oral stops

k, g

191. vision

vɪʒɪn

192. vision

[vɪʒɪn]

193. The Vocal Tract contains both the Oral and Nasal Cavities.

true

194. voiced alveolar lateral liquid

[l]

195. voiced interdental fricative

[ð]

196. voiced labial consonants

b, m, w, v

197. voiced labiodental fricative

[v]

198. voiced post-alveolar affricate

[dʒ]

199. voiced post-alveolar fricative

[ʒ]

200. voiced velar nasal stop

[ŋ]

201. voiceless fricatives

f, θ, s, ʃ, h

202. voiceless glottal fricative

[h]

203. warm

wɔɹm

204. What are the characteristics (categories) used in describing a vowel?

- Tongue height

- Tongue Advancement

- Lip Rounding

- Tenseness

  1. What are the characteristics (categories) used to describe consonants? (Select all that apply) - State of the Glottis
  • Place of

Articulation

  • Manner of Articulation

206. What English consonant is being described:

voiced interdental fricative

[ð]

207. What English consonant is being described:

voiceless post-alveolar fricative

[ʃ]

208. What English consonant is being described:

voiceless velar stop

[k]

209. What English vowel is being described:

high back tense rounded

[u]

210. What English vowel is being described:

low front lax unrounded

[æ]

211. What English vowel is being described:

mid back lax rounded

[ɔ]

212. What English word is transcribed here in IPA:

[dɪtʃ]

ditch

213. What English word is transcribed here in IPA:

[dʌndʒɪn]

dungeon

214. What is the best IPA transcription for the vowel sound in the following word: boat?

[oʊ]

215. What phonological rule describes the following:

ask /æsk/ > [æks]

Metathesis

216. What phonological rule describes the following:

pumpkin /pʌmpkɪn/ > [pʌmkɪn]

Deletion

217. When speaking, English speakers frequently end sentences with prepositions; in formal writing, this is usually avoided.

a) True

b) False

True

218. When the vocal folds are vibrating a speaker produces what type of sound?

voiced

219. The words [kip] and [kæp] form a Minimal Pair.

true

220. The words [pul] and [pʊt] form a Minimal Pair.

false

221. [wɔɹm]

warm

222. y'all (IPA)

[jal]

  1. [z]

224. [z]

voiced alveolar fricative

225. [ʒ]

voiced post-alveolar fricative

226. [θ]

voiceless interdental fricative

227. [θ]

228. [θɪn]

thin

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