Guide to Grading ARM – 2019
Question – this should be in the format, ‘What is the impact of X (Intervention) on Y (Outcome) in Z (population).
For example, ‘What is the impact of reality orientation on the incidence of falls in older people in residential care’
The students have been asked to refine their question into this format so all the students should have this type of question.
Background – The student will have to write 1000 words on the background to their question. Using the example above this could involve the student giving some figures about the numbers of older people in residential care, older person health problems, fall incidence and the cost of falls to the person, family and service. There should be plenty of up to date references in this part of the essay.
The student will then write 400 words on the intervention. So using the above example the student would write 400 words on what the evidence says about the use of RO in relation to falls in older person residential care. The student should demonstrate that he/she has read around the intervention. An in-depth knowledge is not expected but the student should show they have read and that there is enough evidence to review.
The final part of the background section involves the student writing 450 words on why this proposed review is needed whilst also writing about what Systematic Reviews are. They should show that they have read some research methods papers about what a SR entails.
Objectives – The student should write 2 or 3 objectives that closely reflect what the question is looking at, for example, ‘to explore the impact of reality orientation on the incidence of falls etc’.
Methods – First of all the student will write on the types of papers they will seek to use in their review. The student may decide and justify they want to use RCT papers only, or all types of papers, or say they will try to get RCT papers first and failing that other papers. In this section the student should show they understand what they are on about, for example, if they say they will use all methodological type papers in their review then they should write a piece about the research methodologies (Quant, Qual, Mixed methods).
The student will then write about the type of samples they want in their selected papers. For example, using the example above, the student would say that each paper they use should have a sample of older people over 65 in residential care. The student should also show an overall understanding of what sampling is in research.
The student will then write about primary and secondary outcomes. Using the example above the primary outcome would be incidence of falls. The student needs to understand that the primary outcome is a very clear measurement that will underpin the review. The student can say that secondary outcomes will emerge as the full review unfolds but for now can give some example, for example, cost, QoL, pain etc. The student should also define what primary and secondary outcomes are.
The student will then write approx. 400 words on their propose search strategy.
The student will write 1000 words on data collection and analysis hitting the following points:
Conclusion – this should be about 250 words in length