School/ Department Name 
School of Engineering / Mechanical Engineering 
Program Code and Title: 
EDMF15  Diploma of Mechanical Engineering 
Course Code and Title: 
15FMCE211 – Engineering Fluids and Applications 
Assessment Number and Title: 
Experiment no. 1  Title 
Assessment Type: 
Lab Report 
Section (s): 
P3M1 
Assessment General Instructions: 
e.g. All questions must be answered correctly in order to meet assessment requirements. Please use black or blue pen, not pencil e.g If you require any assistance during the assessment please raise your hand and the supervisor will attend to you. e.g Talking, cheating, using mobile phones are not allowed during the assessment. 
I. OBJECTIVES
(1 Mark)
The objectives of this Bernoulli’s Theorem experiment are;
The relation among the pressure, velocity and elevation in a moving fluid (liquid or gas), the compressibility and viscosity (internal friction) of which are negligible and the flow of which is steady or laminar is indicated in Bernoulli’s theorem.
II. INTRODUCTION AND THEORY
(2 Marks)
Bernoulli's Principle is a physical principle formulated that states that "as the speed of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases”. Bernoulli's principle is named after the Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli who published his principle in his book Hydrodynamica in 1738.
Bernoulli's law states that if a nonviscous fluid is flowing along a pipe of varying cross section, then the pressure is lower at constrictions where the velocity is higher, and the pressure is higher where the pipe opens out and the fluid stagnate. Many people find this situation paradoxical when they first encounter it (higher velocity, lower pressure).
In a steady streamline flow of an ideal liquid, the sum of all energies present remains constant, provided no work isdone by the airflow or on it. In other words, in a horizontal flow the sum of kinetic energy and pressure energy isconstant or P + 1/2 ρV^{2}^{ }= K where P is the static pressure, ρ is the density, V is the air speed, and K is a constant. From this law, it follows that where there is a velocity increase in a fluid flow, there must be a corresponding pressuredecrease.
III. APPARATUS
(1 Mark)
Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration Unit (Fig.1)
Tap water
Bernoulli’s Demonstration Unit. Fig. 1
IV. METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE
(1 Mark)
1. General Startup Procedures
The Bernoulli’s Theorem Demonstration (Model: FM 24) is supplied ready for use and only requires connection to the Hydraulic Bench (Model: FM 110) as follows:
Note:
To remove air bubbles, you will have to bleed the air out as follow:
Allow sufficient time for bleeding until all bubbles escape.
Note: The water level can be adjusted facilitate by the air bleed valve.
Note:
The manometer tube connected to the tapping adjacent to the outlet flow control valve is used as a datum when setting up equivalent conditions for flow through test section.
2. Experiment
3. General Shutdown Procedures
V. DATA AND CALCULATIONS
(5 Marks)
Hdyn = Htot – Hstat
= 180 – 180
= 0m
H1 mm ws 
H2 mm ws 
h3 mm ws 
h4 mm ws 
h5 mm ws 
h6 mm ws 
t 10l/sec 
q l/sec 

hstat 
180 
160 
50 
110 
120 
130 
68 
0.147 
htot 
180 
180 
180 
180 
180 
180 
1.47*10 

hdyn 
0 
20 
130 
70 
60 
50 
h1 mm ws 
h2 mm ws 
h3 mm ws 
h4 mm ws 
h5 mm ws 
h6 mm ws 

vmea. 
0 
0.626 
1.597 
1.172 
1.085 
0.99 
vcal. 
0.434 
0.630 
1.738 
0.864 
0.576 
0.441 
VI. RESULTS AND GRAPHS
(5 Marks)
VII. SAMPLE OF CALCULATIONS
(1 Mark)
Difference in Static and Total Pressure
Since the outside holes are perpendicular to the direction of flow, these tubes are pressurized by the local random component of the air velocity. The pressure in these tubes is the static pressure (ps) discussed in Bernoulli's equation. The center tube, however, is pointed in the direction of travel and is pressurized by both the random and the ordered air velocity. The pressure in this tube is the total pressure (pt) discussed in Bernoulli's equation. The pressure transducer measures the difference in total and static pressure which is the dynamic pressure q. measurement = q = pt – ps
Solve for Velocity
With the difference in pressures measured and knowing the local value of air density from pressure and temperature measurements, we can use Bernoulli's equation to give us the velocity. On the graphic, the Greek symbol rho is used for the dair density. In this text, we will use the letter r. Bernoulli's equation states that the static pressure plus one half the density times the velocity V squared is equal to the total pressure.
ps + .5 * r * V ^2 = pt
Solving for V:
V ^2 = 2 * {pt  ps} / r
V = sqrt [2 * {pt  ps} / r ]
where sqrt denotes the square root function
VIII. DISCUSSION
(5 Marks)
The goal of the experiment is to find out legitimacy of the Bernoulli’s mathematical statement when connected to the relentless flow of water in a decreased pipe. Bernoulli's Principle is essentially a work energy conservation principle which states that for an ideal fluid or for situations where effects of viscosity are neglected, with no work being performed on the fluid, total energy remains constant. This principle is a simplification of Bernoulli's equation, which states that the sum of all forms of energy in a fluid flowing along an enclosed path (a streamline) is the same at any two points in that path. The total head for convergent flow is decreased from h1 to h6 while the total head value for divergent flow is the lowest at h1 and the highest at h6. However it is to be noted that there might have been some human and apparatus related errors unintentionally done in the experiment process which might have given us some deviated results from the actual results. However, the results can be improved if some precautions are taken during the experiment for example the eyes level must be placed parallel to the scale when manometer readings are taken. Besides that, the valve is also needed to be controlled slowly to stabilize the water level in the manometer. The human reaction error while noting the time using a stop watch can be avoided by using light gates to give out highly accurate results for the time measured. Bernoulli’s theorem has several applications in everyday lives. In certain problems in fluid flows when given the velocities at two points of the streamline and pressure at one point, the unknown is the pressure of the fluid at the other point. In such cases (if they satisfy the required condition for Bernoulli's Equation) Bernoulli's Equation can be used to find the unknown pressure. One such example is the flow through a converging nozzle.
IX. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
(2 Marks)
From the experiment conducted, there are different crosssections for each tube H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, and H6. These differences resulted in varieties of value obtained for stagnation head (H) and pressure head (hi). By using Bernoulli equation to calculate the velocity, it can be said that the velocity of fluid increase as the fluid is flowing from a wider to narrower tube and the velocity decrease in the opposite direction. This also indicates that the pressure of fluid decreases as the velocity increases. Therefore, the Bernoulli’s principle is proven.
The Bernoulli equation forms the basis for solving a wide variety of fluid flow problems such as jets issuing from an orifice, flows associated with pumps and also turbines. Bernoulli’s equation is also useful in demonstration of aerodynamic properties such as drag and lift.
From the data and results calculated, we can conclude that the Bernoulli equation is valid for flow as it obeys the equation and the objectives are successfully achieved.
There are some practical limitations to the use of a Device:
X. REFERENCES
(1 Mark)
XI. DATA APPENDIX/ DATA WORKSHEET
(1 Mark)
OBJECTIVE 
5 
INTRODUCTION AND THEORY 
6 
APPARATUS 
7 
METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE 
89 
DATA AND CALCULATION 
911 
RESULTS AND GRAPH 
1011 
SAMPLE OF CALCULATION 
1112 
DISCUSSION 
1213 
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIOS 
1415 
REFERNCES 
16 
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