All content in document is found on www.3cx.com Website
Welcome to the online training series from 3CX. This Module will guide you through the process of creating, and restoring a 3CX PBX in the cloud, using the 3CX PBX Express wizard.
In this module we will explain what PBX Express is and how it is used, as well as the options you can configure within the wizard.
PBX Express is an online tool provided by 3CX, which allows you to very easily configure, deploy and restore a 3CX PBX, in the cloud, with one of the supported hosting providers in a matter of minutes.
Initially, you will have the choice of either installing a new instance of 3CX through PBX Express, or to restore.
When you select to install a new instance, the license key will be requested. Paste your key into the relevant field. Don't worry if you don't have a license key though. It is very easy to get one, by clicking on the relevant button in the wizard.
The second option is to restore. We will cover this toward the end of the module.
The next step is to register the key, with the end-user details.
If you are using an existing key, which has been activated on a 3CX PBX before, this screen will not be visible, and will be skipped.
Next, the country the PBX will be virtually based in is selected. This does not necessarily need to be the country the server is physically located in. Select the timezone, which will be the default time zone of the PBX. This will be the timezone shown by default on the phones deployed in the office.
The prompt language is then chosen, which will be the default prompt language that the prompts will be played, unless another language is specifically chosen, for example, in the voicemail settings, queues, digital receptionists, etc.
Having a PBX hosted in the cloud, requires that an FQDN is assigned, to facilitate the access to the PBX from the outside world.
Choose the desired hostname and the domain suffix. The domain suffixes of 3CX are separated into groups, based on regions. If the resulting FQDN is available, it will be assigned. If not, an error will be displayed and you will need to select a new FQDN. FQDNs are provided on a first come, first served basis and are subject to availability.
Moving on, we will then decide the extension digit length which will be used for the PBX. This is a very important decision to make, as the extension digit length will NOT be able to be changed once selected.
As 3CX will be hosted in the Cloud, we now move on to select the hosting provider. We are assuming that an account has already been created with the hosting provider. A link is provided for your convenience, explaining in greater detail, how to configure the hosting account.
This will create a Virtual Machine, or VM. You do not need to create this beforehand. The wizard will do it all for you.
Any one of the listed hosting providers can be used. If you use a hosting provider which supports the Openstack API, version 2, you will be required to enter the API information manually.
The final step in the wizard will ask you to select a hosting region and the size of the Virtual Server that 3CX will use. The specifications of the machine chosen will need to be chosen based on the size of the installation. More information of the specifications required can be found in the 3CX Admin Manual.
All that's required now, is to sit back, relax a bit and let the PBX Express wizard do it’s magic, and create the PBX. This will just take a few minutes.
Within a few minutes the entire procedure is complete, and you will be able to login to your new 3CX and start configuring. The login credentials will be sent to the email address the license key is registered to.
Coming back to the restoration of an existing backup in PBX Express. Your backup will need to have the "Include License Key Information & FQDN" option configured when the backup is taken, to allow for easy restoration in PBX Express. Your backup can be located in any publically accessible file sharing service. Enter the backup encryption password, if you used this option during the backup phase.
You will then move on to the rest of the setup wizard.
I will now demonstrate the creation of an instance in Google's Cloud Service, using PBX express. We will be creating a new instance in this case.
2-Backup and Restore
Welcome to the online training series of 3CX. In this module, we will cover the very important topic of backups, and restoring an existing configuration.
By the end of this module, we will have covered all aspects of backing up 3CX. We will see the various options available within the backups, as well as the scheduling options.
We will cover the differences between Host and User data, explaining what these two types of data are, and what is considered as host and user data.
I will also share with you some neat tips which will make your job administering 3CX backups a breeze.
Let's start with the backup file. The backup utility of 3CX will store all the necessary information of the PBX into a single ZIP file, making it very easy to use.
The backup file can be used in a variety of scenarios:
For instance, if you need to change the hardware of the server, you can take a backup of the PBX, and install the PBX on a new host machine, restoring the backup during the installation process. This will restore all your settings to the new machine, without any cumbersome reconfiguring of the PBX from scratch. Migrating the host could also mean that you change from a hosted to an on-premise solution, and vice versa.
If you want to migrate from a Windows based 3CX to the Linux based 3CX or vice versa, you can do so by taking a backup and restoring your configuration to the other Operating System. The same backup file is used for both operating systems, with absolutely no modification of the backup zip file required.
Currently, we are on Version 16 of 3CX. To upgrade from an older version, you are required to take a backup and uninstall the existing version of the PBX. Then, you will need to download and install the new version of 3CX. It is a good idea to download your backup file to a safe location on the server, away from the default folder of 3CX, when you uninstall the PBX. While the backup file will not be deleted after an uninstall, it is always a good idea to have it in multiple locations, just to be on the safe side. I would also recommend performing all Windows Updates on the machine, if you are using Windows as your Operating System, and reboot the server before installing the new version.
They say, prevention is better than cure, and this is especially true when it comes to the administration of any mission critical machine, especially a PBX. It is recommended to take a backup of your 3CX configuration before you perform any administration tasks on the PBX. It only takes from a few seconds, to a few minutes, depending on what you are backing up. This way, if anything goes wrong along the way, you can very easily recover without any hassle.
If you are implementing a failover scenario, with a standby server, the information is transferred from one PBX to another via the backup file. There is no active information transfer on the fly and the backup file will be used in this case to transfer the information from one PBX to the other, on a schedule.
The Backup and Restore functionality can be found within the 3CX Management Console, in the “Backup and Restore” page, on the left hand menu.
A backup can be created at any time, on demand. You can create as many backups as you require, in order to assist with restoring a PBX back to its previous state, before a reconfiguration is made.
A backup can also be scheduled nightly to provide you with a recent backup on a regular basis. This way if anything ever happens to your PBX, you will be able to have a recent backup to recover from. It is always a good idea to enable this, just to be on the safe side.
To enhance the security of the backup file, password protection is available, which encrypts the contents of the file, preventing any prying eyes from snooping the files within the ZIP file. This does not lock access to the file, but is an encryption password. It will encrypt the contents of the files within the ZIP file. As always, when dealing with passwords, please keep them safe, as losing this will render your backup useless.
Not all the data, however, is restored from the backup. There is some data, the “Host Data” which will always be configured on the host and will not be restored from a backup.
The SIP and Tunnel ports are examples of such data and will never be carried over from one 3CX to another. This is to allow the transition from another 3CX which may be using different SIP and Tunnel ports. The same applies for the External RTP ports. These may be increased from one version to another, so this information will not be carried over from a backup.
There is some information, however, that will be restored. This is called user data. This includes:
The backup file will always contain the main configuration of the PBX. Therefore whatever happens, you will at least have the configuration of the PBX. This includes the extension and extension group settings.
The SIP Trunk settings, as well as the respective inbound and outbound rules will also be included.
Any configuration of system extensions, for example, queues, ring groups and digital receptionists will also be backed up.
The PBX also provides you with some optional components which can be included in your backup.
For example, the License key information, FQDN and networking information can also be backed up or not. This will need to be deselected if you wish to change your FQDN which is assigned to the PBX.
The Call logs, chats and conferencing data will also be backed up if the relevant option is chosen. A large amount of Call history data, will cause the backup and restore procedure to slow down significantly.
Any system prompts, including custom system prompts as well as custom music on hold audio files will also be backed up.
Custom templates as well as IP Phone firmware files, can also be backed up. Have in mind that the firmware files can increase the size of the backup file drastically, as some of these are quite large files. Also with customisation of templates, please ensure your customisation is still valid and current with any possible firmware and version upgrades.
Another option which will affect the size of the backup is the Voicemails option. This will backup all the voicemail files in the system, and as these are audio WAV files, depending on the size of the PBX, and how many extensions you have, will increase the backup size substantially.
Call recordings will also increase the size of the backup file of the PBX, as this does also depend on the number of extensions being recorded.
This is where you will be able to create a password for the backup encryption, as well.
When you backup the PBX, the file will be saved, by default, in the 3CX Data folder. This location can be changed to another folder, for example the documents folder of the server.
You can also save the backup file to a safe location off the server, like an FTP driver or Google Drive, to avoid losing your information if your server hardware crashes, or is rendered unusable for any reason.
The recordings do not need to be included in each and every backup of the 3CX server. The archiving functionality can be used in this case, which will store the recordings offsite to an FTP or Google Drive.
This will need to be enabled in the Recording Location settings. Just enable the Remote Archiving, define your location and authentication properties, and if you wish, perform this archive on a scheduled basis.
That's all there is to it. The 3CX Server will archive your recordings on a regular basis, also saving disk space on the server and making the backup file smaller and easier to restore.
To enable backup scheduling, click the “Backup Schedule” button while in the “Backup and Restore” section. Then, enable the scheduled backup.
Choose your backup options, Please note that some of the options which are selectable in the on demand backup will be automatically included in the scheduled backup.
Set the occurrence timer. Choose whether to perform a scheduled backup daily, or weekly and choose the desired time to perform the backup. It is best to choose a time when the PBX is not being in use. If the PBX is a busy PBX, choose a time when the PBX is not too busy.
Configure a retention policy, or as it is called in the management console, the backup rotation. This will allow you to keep a certain amount of previous backup files. If for example you choose daily and a backup retention of 25, you will have the backups from the last 25 days available in your list of backups.
Backing up via command line is also possible, making it easy to control your backups via scheduled tasks for example.
When using the command line functionality, all the backup options are available for selection, and you can even set a different local path for the backup you are configuring.
Please note that only local paths are supported in this case. The FTP and Google Drive options are not available in this case.
For the demonstration of this module, we will demonstrate the taking of a backup of 3CX. We will then proceed to restore the same backup, after deleting some of the configuration of the system.
Welcome to the online training series of 3CX. In this module we will showcase the Call recording capabilities of 3CX.
In this module we will see the various aspects of the recordings in 3CX. We will see the control of the recordings, where they can be stored, their format as well as how much space the recordings can take on the server.
We will finish this module with some backup tips, to make backing up and restoring easier.
Depending on the nature of the corporation, the way calls are recorded may differ.
Some companies may want all calls to be recorded by default, while others only require external calls to be recorded by default. This is an option which is up to the admin to configure on the extensions.
In addition to this, the admin can also prevent an extension user from starting or stopping the recordings on the fly, and force the user of the extension to follow the configured behaviour defined, that being recordings off, recording all calls or recording only the external calls, without any interaction by the extension user possible.
This however is a feature only available in the Enterprise edition of 3CX.
Call recording files can only be saved on storage units defined as local units by the Operating System, like a local hard drive, an iSCSI drive, or a Storage Area Network unit. This should not be confused with the Network Attached Storage.
Network drives or folders are not supported.
Speaking of drives, this is a resource which can very easily get consumed and filled up. The overfilling of the drive can be prevented by using a few configuration options which will allow the admin to control the use of the drive space.
First of all, the admin can configure how much of the drive will be consumed with the recordings. The quota can be configured from the recordings page, and clicking on Quota. The default quota for the recordings is 5 Gigabytes.
When the recording quota is nearing to be filled up, an email notification will be sent to the admin.
Sometimes recordings need to be kept for legal purposes, but there are some cases where legal restrictions are not enforced. In this case the recordings which are over a certain age, can be deleted.
All audio files in 3CX, which also includes the recordings, need to be in a particular format. The audio files are WAV files, encoded as 8kHz, 16 bit, Mono files. The recordings can now be encoded in either PCM or ADPCM. PCM generally takes up about 1MB of disk space per minute of recording, and can be played on all media players.
Adaptive PCM, or ADPCM is a more compressed format, and generally takes up about 256KB of disk space per minute of recording. Due to the nature of the compression, some media players, and in particular mobile or browser based media players have difficulty playing these types of files.
Apart from taking a significant amount of space on the hard drive, the recordings can also swell up the size of the backups as well. This will cause delays in the restoring of the backups, as all these recordings will need to be copied from the backup file to disk.
There is a bit of good news however, as these can be copied to a different local disk, away from the main local drive of the PBX. When a backup is taken, the recordings will not be included in the backup, but they will remain on the secondary disk. When the backup is restored, the recordings will be mapped at their location and will be visible.
This will allow the backup file to be a much smaller size. You will also be able to backup the files separately, using your own software even. It is even possible to archive the recordings to an offsite FTP server or Google Drive.
Keep in mind, however, that when changing the location of the recordings, and putting them on a separate drive, that the recording folder is not the root folder of the disk. Just create a recordings folder and define this as the recording file location.
For the demonstration of this module, we will show the ability of the admin to allow or restrict extension users from starting or stopping recordings. Then we will demonstrate the archiving of recordings to a google drive.
Welcome to the online training series from 3CX. This module will guide you through the configuration of Remote Extensions using the STUN protocol.
Todays training will focus on the correct implementation of IP Phones in a remote location, using STUN.
We will see what configuration is required at the remote site, on the firewall, router or border device.
We will then see how a remote extension, using STUN, is provisioned.
And we will also see the use of the IP Phone vendors’ RPS services and explain the process behind their use.
This module assumes that the configuration of the local firewall at the PBX site has been configured in accordance to the Basic module, Configuring the Firewall.
A supported phone should be used to provision a remote extension, and this phone should be running the recommended firmware version, which should include the SSL certificates of 3CX as trusted. Older firmware will cause phones not to provision. If you are using your own SSL certificates, ensure the firmware of the phones you are using, trusts the SSL certificate you are using.
You will need to have a functioning SMTP server defined on the PBX. This is needed to send the welcome email to the end users. The welcome email will contain the relevant information about the extension, that the user will need during the provisioning of the phone.
You will need to have access to the remote firewall, router or gateway device in order to perform port forwarding at the remote location.
The supported desktop IP Phones which are supported for STUN provisioning, are models from the 3CX supported brands.
Full details on which models are supported by 3CX can be found at www.3cx.com/support
A remote STUN extension will provide internal call capabilities to a remote user, allowing them to use their phone as if they were in the office.
This also allows the administrator to dropship IP Phones directly from their distribution channel, without the need to have the phones shipped to the administrator to configure these, and then ship them to the end user at the remote location.
Additional hardware is not required at the remote site. The phones will connect directly onto the network and will communicate directly with the PBX, through the internet, without any intermediaries.
This will also allow the phones to auto discover the 3CX PBX, no matter where they are in the world.
Provisioning a remote STUN extension is a 2 step process.
In the first step the administrator will need to create the extension in the PBX.
This is easily done by entering the Make and Model of the phone, the 12 character MAC Address of the phone, and in the extension’s Provisioning tab, define the ports which will be used by the phone in the remote network.
These ports, are the telephone’s local SIP and RTP ports which the phone will be communicating on. If you have more than one device at the remote location, these ports will need to be incremented for each subsequent device at each location.
For example, the remote telephone’s default SIP Port is 5065. This will need to be incremented by 1 for each additional device at the same location. So the 2nd device will have a SIP port of 5066, the 3rd, 5067 and so on.
The remote telephone’s default RTP ports are from 14000 to 14019. The RTP ports for each additional device at the location will need to be incremented to 14020 to 14039 for the 2nd device, 14040 to 14059 for the 3rd device and so on.
This is defined manually by the administrator, as the PBX is not aware from which specific location each remote device will be connecting from.
Going to the “Options” tab of the extension, remove the restriction to “Disallow use of extension outside the LAN”. This will allow the phone to register from the remote network. This restriction is in place for security reasons and should only be disabled when required.
On the remote firewall, perform the port forwarding of the ports you have defined for each of the extensions at this remote site. Please note that the phones at the remote site will need to have static DHCP leases in order to prevent them from changing IP Address, thus voiding the port forwarding.
After the configuration of the extension, send the welcome email to the user of the extension.
STUN stands for Session Traversal Utilities for NAT.
In order to explain what STUN is, let me mention something we use every day. DNS. When we want to connect to a website, we enter a URL, in this case www.3cx.com. Your computer will now go and request the IP Address of this URL from it’s DNS server. The IP which the DNS server responds with, will now be the destination, which the computer and every router between your computer and the destination can understand.
On the other hand, we sometimes need to know our own public IP Address.
Now, back to STUN and how it works. STUN basically works the other way around, where instead of the destination IP, we need to discover our public source IP.
A remote phone, when in a remote network, will usually have a private IP Address. This IP Address will not be able to be used by the PBX, as the private IP Address will not be contactable from the PBX directly. The phone will need a way to find out, and communicate the public IP Address of the remote network to the PBX. Think about the various websites which are available to let you know what your public IP Address is.
This is where STUN comes in. STUN is basically the same thing, but at a network level. The phone will contact the STUN server, and request its location information. The STUN server will respond with the IP Address and port which the phone is connecting from. The phone will now be able to send requests to the PBX with this information and allow successful communication between the 2 sites.
The STUN server of the phone is the PBX, as it is the PBX which will be accepting the connection requests from the phone. As some networks may be translated in different ways for different destinations, if you have a 3rd party STUN server, the IP Address may be different if contacting a different network.
In the second step of this process, the end user will need to just reset the phone, if this is not a new device. If it is a new device all they need to do is correctly assemble the phone, with the handset and network cable and power up the phone at the remote location.
The phone will then perform its boot sequence and will then show the user a login screen.
The user will need to enter the username and password of the extension to login. The username is the extension number, and the password is the voicemail PIN number. Just be careful to correctly enter the username and password, as some phones default to letter and number combinations when entering the information. You can see the toggle button for the phone’s mode of entry.
They will get the necessary information from the welcome email which they should have received from the PBX.
They will only need to enter this information once, during the provisioning of the phone. If the phone reboots, they will NOT need to login again.
In order to provision a remote extension with STUN, 3CX now utilises the Remote Provisioning Services of the IP Phone manufacturers.
The Remote Provisioning Service is triggered automatically when the Provisioning method of an extension is selected as “Direct SIP (STUN - remote)”. The PBX will send the MAC Address of the phone and the provisioning URL to the RPS server.
This provisioning URL and MAC Address will now be bound to each other for a period of 2 weeks. During those 2 weeks the particular phone will not be able to be assigned to another PBX. The URL/MAC combination will be delisted from the RPS server of the manufacturer after 2 weeks have elapsed from the configuration of the extension.
When the phone is reset and boots it will contact the RPS server of the manufacturer and retrieve any URL which may be assigned to its MAC Address.
The phone, now configured with a provisioning URL will contact the PBX and attempt to connect.
When provisioning a remote STUN extension some of the following symptoms may occur:
In such cases, you will need to check your remote firewall for the following:
Ensure that SIP ALG is disabled on the remote network firewall, router or gateway device.
Check that the port forwarding has been correctly implemented on the remote firewall device, as we mentioned previously in slide number 6.
Also, if you have configured more than one phone at a particular location, then you will need to have the option “PBX Delivers Audio” enabled on the extensions in order for the audio to come from the PBX.
When two local phones are in a call, the audio, by default will be going directly from one extension to the other without the intervention of the PBX. In a remote STUN environment however, all the negotiation will be performed on the public IP Address of the remote location.
Some firewall devices do not allow local devices to communicate with each other on the public, external IP Address of the firewall. This is called hairpin redirection, and is usually blocked by most firewall devices.
Enabling PBX delivers audio will enable the PBX, which does have access to the extensions, to proxy the audio.
I will now show you how to provision and connect an IP Phone in a remote environment, using STUN.
Welcome to the online training series of 3CX. In this module we will provision remote extensions using the 3CX Session border Controller, or SBC.
Todays training will focus on the correct implementation of IP Phones in a remote location using a 3CX Session Border Controller. We will cover the configuration of the 3CX SBC as well as the provisioning of a phone behind the SBC.
This module assumes that you already know how to provision a local IP Phone as the method of provisioning will be via Plug and Play, just like a local phone, and have the firewall at the PBX site already configured.
You will need to use a 3CX Supported IP Phone, running the recommended firmware version. This is to ensure that the firmware supports the SSL certificates in use by 3CX for the provisioning of the phones.
A machine running any of the supported Operating Systems will need to be installed at the remote location.
Other requirements for the machine running the SBC, is to have only 1 LAN Adapter, using only one static IP Address. Do not use a wifi adapter.
Disable any unused adapters on this machine, like built in WiFi adapters, Bluetooth, as well as any VPN adapters or virtual NICs.
The remote location is not required to have a static public IP Address. A dynamic IP Address is allowed, as the SBC will always initiate the connection to the PBX.
When using a Windows or Debian based SBC, there is a limitation of 50 extensions connecting via the SBC, or a total of 100 Simultaneous calls or 250 BLF keys across all phones.
The hardware specification guidelines are available on our website at the link shown in the slide, and from the Administrator Guide.
When you are running the SBC on a Raspberry Pi 2 or 3, you can have a maximum of 20 extensions or simultaneous calls, or a total of 200 BLFs across all devices.
The phones which can be used to connect via the SBC and have full support are the phones which are manufactured by the 3CX supported manufacturers.
The full list is provided at www.3cx.com/support
In the diagram we can see the 3CX clients are connecting to the PBX using the tunnel protocol directly to the PBX.
As the 3CX Tunnel Protocol is proprietary to 3CX, the IP Phones will not be able to connect natively through the tunnel protocol, therefore an extra device is required to achieve this type of connection. This is what the 3CX Session Border Controller provides. A tunnel connection to the PBX.
The 3CX SBC provides various benefits to a remote location.
It will provide internal call capabilities, allowing users to use their phone just like they are in the office.
The administrator can arrange for phones to be drop shipped to a remote location, without the need to have them shipped to the office, configure them, and then send them off to the remote location.
With the SBC in place, you can use plug and play provisioning, just like provisioning a local IP Phone.
The audio traffic will remain local and in the same LAN, without the need for the PBX to relay the audio between two extensions at the same location, which are provisioned through the same SBC. As the audio remains within the network, bandwidth usage is reduced at the remote site, assuming that PBX Delivers Audio or Recording of calls is not selected.
Calls which go through two different SBCs at the same location, if you have more devices than what a single SBC can handle, the audio traffic will be going through the PBX from one SBC to the other.
As the SBC will be initiating the connection to the PBX, there will be no need to perform a port forwarding at the remote site. This is especially helpful if you do not have access to the remote router or firewall device, to perform any configuration on it.
Also, as the SBC is connecting to the PBX over the tunnel port, there is no SIP ALG inspection being performed by the firewalls. SIP ALG will only inspect the traffic on the SIP Port, on port 5060.
The SBC will provide encryption of the calls over the internet, between the remote site and the PBX.
And lastly, the software is provided for free, without any additional cost, other than the calls being made, which use up the license from the PBX, just like a local extension.
Before connecting the SBC to the PBX, some snippets of information are required from the PBX, in order to configure the SBC.
These are the SIP and Tunnel ports of the PBX. These can be found under: Settings, Network and then under the Ports tab.
The 3CX Tunnel password, can also be found in the PBX settings, but under “Security” and then under the “3CX Tunnel” tab.
The public FQDN of the PBX will also be required, to instruct the SBC where to connect. This is found in the dashboard of the PBX, in the Information section.
The installation of the SBC is very straight forward. You can download the latest version from the 3CX Customer or Partner portals, from where you release your FQDN.
Fill in the required information, acquired in the previous slide.
Optionally, enable encryption to the PBX and set a failover PBX, if you are utilising this type of deployment.
All that is required now, is to boot the phone in the remote location if it is a new phone, or reset the phone if it is a phone which was already in use previously.
You will see the plug and play request coming in through multicast, just like a local phone, in the “Phones” page. Assign it to an existing extension, or create a new extension, just like you would with a local IP Phone.
Wait a few seconds, and the phone is now provisioned.
The provisioning of the phone is done via HTTPS through the internet, and not through the SBC. Only the SIP and Audio traffic are tunneled through the SBC.
For the demonstration of this module, we will configure an SBC on a Windows machine, and then provision a phone in the same network as the SBC, to a remote PBX.
Welcome to the online training series of 3CX. In this module we will showcase the hot desking functionality.
We will talk about what hot desking is, and how to configure a phone to take advantage of this great feature. We will also see how the functionality is used by the users and how the admin can control these devices as well, from the Management Console.
Hot Desking allows an IP Phone to be used by multiple users. You no longer need to have a dedicated telephone for each extension. This will allow a higher density of users to use a particular desk throughout the day. All a user needs to do is sit at a desk, and login to the phone using their own credentials. They don't need to be confined to a particular desk.
For a phone to be eligible to be used as a hot desking device, it will need to be connected locally to the PBX or connected via the 3CX Session Border Controller if it is located remotely to the PBX.
The Supported IP Phones of 3CX, from the listed supported Manufacturers can be provisioned as hot desking devices. These phones will need to be up to date with their firmware.
The hot desking functionality is a feature which is available in the Professional or Enterprise level licenses.
In order to follow the material in this module effectively, you will need to know how to provision a phone locally as well as via a 3CX SBC, depending on the location of the phone. We recommend going through the relevant modules before continuing this module, if you haven't already done so.
Provisioning a hot desking device is a 2 step process. First, you will need to define the device as a hot desking device. This is done from the Hot Desking page of the Management Console.
Define the phone’s make and model and add the MAC Address. The format of the MAC address is 12 continuous Hexadecimal characters, without colons or hyphens.
Select the provisioning method, depending on where the device is located, either locally or remotely. If you are provisioning the phone remotely, through the SBC, the local IP Address of the SBC, on the remote network, will need to be added to the configuration of the device.
Verify the different options available on the configuration page, and the PBX is now ready to have the phone provisioned.
Moving over to the device now, reset the phone if it is an existing device, or power up a new device.
It will show up on the Phones page of the PBX as a new device, just like any other local or remote SBC device.
However, once you select the device and click on Assign Ext, this will now automatically assign this to the hot desking device configuration. Click on OK to accept the configuration. The phone will now be provisioned as a hot desking device. It will not have an extension defined on it just yet.
You will notice that it is not possible to use the Add extension button when the MAC Address is defined as a hot desking extension. We just use the Assign extension button to trigger the phone to pick up its provisioning information.
User extensions are not authorised, by default, to be used as hot desking extensions. The admin will need to go and enable which extensions can use the hot desking devices to login and logout.
In each extension’s settings, the admin will be able to individually enable this capability. This configuration option is in the Options tab of the extension’s settings.
This authorises the extension to use ANY hot desking device.
When a 3CX app is used with multiple accounts, it is just a simple selection of the account to be used, and it becomes active.
With a hot desking phone, it is the same concept, but as this device is a common use device, the extensions will need to authenticate.
The logging in and logging out procedure will be done from the keypad of the phone, using the hot desking dial code. By default, the dial code is *77*
The extension information required to log in to a hot desking extension is the Extension number and the voicemail PIN number.
To log in to a hot desking device, dial *77* followed by the extension number and star at the end. Placing a call to this dial code, you will hear the audio prompt, that will ask for the Voicemail PIN Number. Entering the correct PIN NUmber will indicate that login is successful.
The phone will now be logged in with the extension, complete with all the extensions configured BLFs. The 1st BLF will be configured as a Logout BLF, which will allow the user to log out.
Logging off from the hot desk phone can also be done using the logout dial code, which is *77*5*
It's also possible to log in another extension in to the phone without logging an extension out first. This will automatically log the previously logged in extension out of the phone. If you log an extension into a hot desking device, while it is already logged in to another device will log the extension out from the 1st device.
The admin can also log extensions out from the Management Console. From the hotdesking page, they will be able to see which extensions are logged in to which devices, and log extensions out accordingly.
In the demonstration of this module, we will see the provisioning of a hot desking device, and how to log an extension in and out of the hot desking device.
7-Extension Profiles and Forwarding Rules
Welcome to the online training series of 3CX. This module will focus on the Extension Profiles and the Forwarding rules of the extensions in 3CX.
In this module will focus on the call flows coming in to an extension, as well as the forwarding destinations a call can be sent to.
We will see the different ways to change an extensions profile state and the various forwarding rule options available in each of these profile states.
Rules always have exceptions and in 3CX it’s not different. Exceptions to the forwarding rules can be set, and we will see how this is done.
In 3CX, the different extension profiles define the extensions readiness state.
For example, in the Available and the 1st custom profile state, the extension will ring before activating the forwarding rules.
However, in the Away, Do not Disturb and the 2nd Custom profile statuses the extension will not ring, and the forwarding rules will be triggered immediately.
There are various ways of changing the profile state of an extension.
Using the 3CX Apps, as well as the 3CX Web Client, changing the profile state is a breeze, by using the drop down menu to change the profile state. With these Apps and Web Client, it is also easy to change the forwarding rules of the extension, thus not requiring the admin to intervene whenever a change is required.
With the 3CX Web Client, it is also possible to delegate the changing of an extensions profile status to another extension, by granting the relevant Receptionist Rights to an extension.
If the extension users are not using the 3CX Apps, and only have an IP phone at their disposal, they will be able to change the profile status of their extension using dial codes. The default dial code for changing the extension status is *3. This is followed by a single digit of 0-4 which will denote the respective status.
0 is Available
1 is Away
2 is Do not Disturb
3 is the 1st custom profile state
4 is the 2nd custom profile state.
If an IP Phone has a DND button, pressing this will toggle between the Available and Do not Disturb states.
Consequently, the IP Phones can have BLF buttons configured to change the profile state of the extension, in addition to the above ways of changing status. Each profile status will need its own BLF key to be configured.
Changing an extensions profile state automatically is possible, based on the time of the day. This is covered in more detail in the Time Based Scheduling module.
The Extensions page in the 3CX Management Console has a STATUS button which can be used to change the status of a single or multiple extensions simultaneously.
Finally, the status of an extension can be changed from within the voicemail menu. So even if someone is not using a 3CX App, or is not in the office to use their IP Phone, or is not even connected to the internet, they can call in to the voicemail system, authenticate, and use the voicemail system options to change the status of their extension.
When the extensions profile state is set to Available or the 1st Custom status, the extension will initially ring when a call is coming to the extension.
There is a configured timeout, which by default is 20 seconds, and when this timeout has been reached, the forwarding rules will be triggered.
The options which are available as forwarding rules after the timeout has been reached are:
Send the call to a voicemail box, whether this is the own extensions voicemail box, another extensions voicemail box, or to be sent as a group voicemail message to the extensions which are members of a Ring Group or a Queue. The Group Voicemail is only via email, however, so each of the configured extensions in the Ring Group or queue will receive an email, with the voicemail as an attachment and not a voicemail, in the traditional sense.
A call can be sent to an external number, or to the configured mobile number of the extension.
Alternatively, the call can be forwarded to an internal extension, whether this is a user or system extension.
Another available option is to end the call if it is not answered within the configured timeout.
It is possible to have a different call forwarding for a call originating from within the PBX or coming from an external location.
Other options which are available in the forwarding rules section are the ability for the mobile phone of the extensions user to ring simultaneously, as the extension is ringing. This will assume that a mobile number is configured. If a mobile number is not configured, the PBX will urge you to configure a number.
From here, the ability to accept multiple calls is also configured. This is also known as Call Waiting, where a 2nd call coming in to the extension will ring the extension and not ring busy to the caller.
When selecting a profile state it is possible to select whether this state will log an extension in or out of the queues automatically. This is covered in more detail in the Call Queues module.
Consequently the ability to accept calls in a ring group call, similar to the queues is able to be toggled from here. However, with the queues you choose to log out from the queues when the option is selected, and to accept calls from the ring groups when the option is selected.
In the Away, Do not Disturb and 2nd Custom profile state, the forwarding options are basically the same as the Available states, with the following minor differences.
First, there is no ring timeout. The forwarding rules are triggered immediately, without delay.
Also, forwarding to an external number and a mobile number will also have the rebound functionality available. This allows an extension user to screen the caller ID of a deflected call, and choose to either answer the call or divert to voicemail.
Another difference is the Call Deflection, or 302 diversion, which allows the PBX to tell the provider deflect an incoming external call to the final destination and not have the PBX forward the call itself.
When selecting an extension profile, it is also possible deviate away from the default voicemail greeting defined on the extension, and have a custom prompt for each different profile state.
This is different to creating a custom welcome greeting that was covered in the voicemail module, as this applied to all the profile states. This configuration only applies the greeting to this particular profile.
If the prompt is pre-recorded and will be uploaded to the PBX, it is imperative that this be uploaded in the supported audio format of 3CX, being a WAV file, encoded as PCM, 8kHz, 16 bit, Mono.
The saying goes that for every rule, there are exceptions. This also applies to the forwarding rules of 3CX.
It is possible to have a certain number of exceptions, 15 in actual fact, that will allow you to bypass the rules from certain Caller IDs, as well as during certain times.
The star symbol can be used as a wildcard to grab certain area codes, for example, and process calls which come directly to an extension differently.
Just note that the ordering of the rules is very important, just like in the inbound and outbound rules. 3CX checks the rules in a top down fashion, just like a waterfall.
There are 5 different extension profiles available in 3CX. The Available, Away and Do Not Disturb profiles are auto switching, and in addition to being able to be chosen on demand, can be switched automatically based on the time of the day. There are also 2 customisable states. The 1st custom profile state is identical to the “Available” status, with the only difference being that this state is persistent, meaning that if you choose this, the extension will stay in this status, until you go and change it manually. It will not be subject to the automatic switching of the profile state, like the “Available” status is.
The same applies to the “Custom 2” profile state. It is identical to the “Do not Disturb” profile.
The auto switching of extension profiles is covered in more detail in the Time Based Scheduling module.
This is a graphical overview of the call flow coming in to an extension.
When a call comes in to an extension, it will check if there are any exceptions which need to be processed, based on the caller ID of the incoming call.
It will then see the status of the extension. It will ring the extension if the Available or Custom 1 profile state is selected. If the extension does not answer, it will then forward the call according to its origin, if it is an internally or externally originating call.
If the Away, Do not Disturb or 2nd Custom profile states are chosen, the call will be forwarded immediately, based on the configured forwarding rules, and based on the origin of the call as well.
Finishing off, it is very important to mention, that there are certain scenarios that the forwarding rules do not apply. The forwarding rules do not always apply when a call is coming in to an extension from a Ring Group or a Queue.
When an incoming call is coming in through a Ring Group or a Call Queue, the forwarding rules will be ignored when the extension is in the Available state. If Ring my Mobile Simultaneously is selected however, the mobile number of the extension will ring.
When an extension is in the Away or Do not disturb status, the calls will only be forwarded to a mobile number or an external number, unless the rebound feature is selected.
For this modules demonstration, we will configure forwarding rules and custom voicemail greetings for a few profiles. We will then forward a call to an external location, with rebound configured.
8-Extension Groups and Rights
Welcome to the online training series from 3CX. This module will focus on the various settings which are available for an extension group and the various rights which are available.
We will be focussing on the control an extension can exercise over other extensions, by way of Extension Groups and Extension Rights.
We will create various groups on the PBX, specifically, extension groups. They will be used to provide different extension rights on a per group basis.
We will then assign users to these groups. Depending on their group membership, the rights will be different.
Within the group we will define the different access rights they have. There are two types of distinct roles in the extension groups..
We will see the different rights which are available and we will assign these to the extensions within the groups.
We will also see how you can delegate access to the management console, to allow users to configure their own extension, or configure other extensions as well as giving them access to admin settings.
The configuration of extension groups can be found in the “Groups” page, in the left hand menu in the Management Console.
Create groups, to represent the departments of the company. You will have a different Group for each department. For example : Support, IT, Management, Sales, Accounts, Marketing, and Legal
The Users, the Extensions that is, will then be added to these groups. An extension can be a member of more than one extension group. For example a support engineer can be a member of the Support group, as well as being a member of the IT group. A member of the Sales group can also be a member of the Marketing group.
An extension will be able to see the other extensions in their groups, and will also be able to perform some actions to these extensions.
A group’s rights are split into 2 distinct roles. The Manager role and the User role. Based on the relevant rights each extension will have, they be defined as either a manager or user in the group, and they can perform different preset functions.
As an extension can be part of multiple extension groups, it can have Manager rights in one group but User rights in another.
The rights which are available to the extensions can be separated into 3 distinct categories:
The rights which are assigned to a group can also be assigned and configured on a per extension basis as well.
This allows for fine tuning access rights, as the default group rights might not be sufficient to define the access of a particular user.
This fine tuning will allow you for example, to assign a specific right for an extension which is defined as a user, without the need to give them elevated, manager rights.
Group rights defined at an extension level will override the group settings.
You can make a group available to all users of a PBX, without adding all the extensions to the extension group. In the Group Rights tab, enabling the “Publish group information to all members” will allow everyone to see the presence status of all extensions within this group. They will not have access, however, to see active calls, nor to perform actions like transferring and taking calls and the PRO edition features like barging in, listen or whisper.
Let's have a look at some examples now of how the group rights function.
We have two users in two separate groups. There is no relation between the two extensions, therefore they cannot see each other.
In this scenario we have a slight variation. We have added both members to the same group. Both can see presence but only User A can send their presence information. User B is not sending their presence information, so User A cannot see the presence information of User B.
In this example both users cannot see the presence of other group members. They will both see the group as being empty, due to the fact that they are not able to see other group members.
A more complex scenario in this slide.
In Group A we have both members A and B, which cannot see the presence of other group members.
In Group B, however, they have full presence rights, and therefore, will be able to see each other in Group B, but not under Group A.
The actions which we have seen over the past few slides, can be performed from the switchboard of the 3CX App for Windows, as well as the new 3CX Web Client. From the App and Web Client, you can see the presence of the extensions on the PBX, depending on the access rights you assign to an extension, and from the switchboard screen you can perform the various functions allowed for each extension.
Management Console access can be delegated to extensions from the Rights tab of each extension.
You can provide granular extension management rights to an extension, to be able to configure other users/extensions on the PBX.
Extension management rights can be as follows:
An extension may also have additional administrative rights, to manage different parts of the system:
SIP Trunks. A SIP trunk administrator may have rights to manage SIP trunks, for example increasing the allowed voice channels, or simultaneous calls to the provider.
General administration of the system is also possible to be assigned to an extension.
Report generation is also possible to be assigned to a particular extension so the user can generate reports, and subsequently to be able to download recordings from the reports.
For the demonstration of this module, we will see the different rights which are available.
9-Time Based Scheduling
Welcome to the online training series of 3CX. This module will cover the time schedules of 3CX, including the holiday configuration.
In this module, we will focus on the automatic routing of destinations, based on the time of the day.
This will affect the inbound rules and where they route the calls to, as they have a different routing based on whether it is in-office hours or out-of-office hours.
This will also affect the way calls to extensions are routed as there are 3 different time based routings which can be configured.
We will also see how holidays are handled in 3CX.
Office hours are defined as 3 distinct states, based on time.
In-office hours define the hours when the staff are active, and working at their desks.
Break times denote lunch time, when the employees are away for lunch. The break times will only be applied to calls routed to extensions. Inbound rules do not have break times applied to them
Out of Office hours denote the hours of the day the employees are not working.
The two states of IN office and out of office hours alter the behaviour of calls going through the inbound rules, as the calls will be routed differently based on the time of day.
When a call eventually reaches an extension, the time of the day will also affect the routing of the call as an extension can have its own forwarding rules, based on the extensions profile.
The PBX has global office hours which can be defined. This is a day by day, Monday to Sunday schedule, which can be used to define the hours of the company for the entire week.
This repeats every week.
With the Global Office Hours, you can define when the entire PBX will be:
In office hours. This is usually when all employees are in the office
Break times. This will only affect the extensions, however, and will not have any effect on the inbound rules.
Out of Office hours. This will apply the after hours routing, when the company is closed. This will also be the time range the restrictions for blocking calls outside office hours for an extension will take effect.
The setting up of the office hours can be done in the Settings page of the Management Console, by the “Timezone, Office Hours & Holidays” button
Configure the Office Hours and the Break Times. Just a reminder that the break times will only take effect on the extensions and not on the inbound rules.
All other times will be considered as out of office hours. Please note that you will not configure out of office hours on the PBX. These will be implied, based on the configuration of the Office hours.
The PBX also provides the option of configuring specific office hours for both Inbound Rules as well as extensions. This is particularly handy and is used in cases where you have a PBX which may have extensions that do not have a set time schedule or may work around the clock but will have, for example, DIDs which service different regions around the world.
You may have extensions which work in shifts. These extensions will have specific office hours which will be able to have a different time schedule to the main office hours of the PBX.
These specific office hours of an extension or inbound rules will override the Global Office Hours.
The time configuration will need to be set based on the servers time.
Everyone loves a holiday. Holidays are different around the world, with some countries being luckier than others, having more holidays than others.
3CX is capable of catering for all countries, and can even define partial, or half day holidays. You can set specific hours of a single day as a holiday and this can cater for partial day holidays, for example Christmas Eve, which a lot of companies worldwide provide this as a partial holiday.
A range of days is also possible to configure making configuration of multi-day holidays easier for the administrator.
Holidays can be defined on an annual basis for fixed date holidays as well as a per year basis for variable date holidays.
Holidays will define when the entire PBX is in holiday mode. An extension or DID may be exempt from the holiday settings by a checkbox located within their configuration.
Holidays in the PBX can be easily configured. In the settings page of the 3CX Management Console, click the “Timezone, Office Hours & Holidays” button.
Define which days are holidays. Each holiday can have its own individual prompt, allowing you to wish callers a happy holiday and inform them that the office or company is closed, and the reason why.
Configuring the in and out of office hours routing of the DIDs is done from the inbound rules.
Select your inbound rule and configure the routing destination for the in and out of office hours accordingly.
The Global Office Hours will be used if the “Set up Specific Office Hours for this Trunk” option is not selected.
To configure Specific Office Hours for an inbound rule, you will need to check the “Set up Specific Office Hours for this trunk” option underneath the routing options.
Set the specific times you need for this inbound rule. The Global Office Hours will now be ignored and these custom times will be used. As mentioned before, this is very useful if the PBX is serving many regions worldwide, and you need to define different office hours for different regions served by different DIDs. Just set the times based on the server time, and not the local timezone of the DID, if you are catering for a different region.
You will need to enable your holiday prompts from the inbound routing of the SIP Trunk, or activate these from the Inbound Rules, in order for a caller to hear the holiday prompt.
From within the Inbound rules, check the option “Play holiday prompt when it’s a global holiday”.
When a Global Holiday date and time is active, the Global and Specific Office Hours of an Inbound Rule are ignored.
The caller will hear the prompt which was configured for that holiday. After the prompt is played, the caller will then be transferred to the HOL Digital Receptionist. This Digital Receptionist will give you the opportunity to give the caller an additional message and optionally give the caller a list of options, for example, to leave a message.
The call will then be handled by the Digital Receptionist and its normal call flow. More information about the Digital Receptionists can be found in the Digital Receptionists module.
In Extension Profiles and Forwarding Rules module, we saw that an extension has forwarding rules, which you can use to forward calls accordingly, depending on the profile status which is chosen.
It was also mentioned that the profile status can change automatically, according to the time of day. This is configured from the Forwarding rules.
In the Available status configuration, there is an “Auto Switch” section.
Enable the “Set to Available during office hours” option, which you can see highlighted in red. The configuration of this option will be covered shortly.
The PBX will now follow the configured office hours of the extension and automatically switch the extension’s status according to the time of the day.
The extension will now behave according to the new profile status.
When you enable the “Set to Available during office hours” option, you will be able to configure the Office Hours which will be used for the extension, to change the Profile Status automatically.
Choosing the option “This extension uses Global Office Hours”, the extension will change its profile status according to the PBX Global Office Hours.
You can then define specific Break Times, for an individual extension, if Break Times are not configured in the Global Office Hours, or if this extension and it’s user, follow different Break Times.
Alternatively, you can also define specific office hours for the extension, which will allow you to switch the profile status according to a more customised schedule, as was mentioned before as an example, for a shift worker.
The extension will use “Specific Office Hours” in this case. You can also define custom break times for this extension. This schedule will now apply, only for this extension.
A lot of people confuse the concept of the office hours which can be configured in 3CX. Let me clarify a few things about the office hours.
The office hours can only be defined as times between midnight, that is 00:00 all the way up to 23:59. You cannot define office hours ranges for example from 11pm, or 23:00 to 07:00.
In this particular case, you will need to define the hours as 00:00 to 07:00 and 23:00 to 23:59 in the next day's configuration. This will configure two distinct office hours periods, for one continuous shift, but as the shift spans over two days, this will need to be configured over two separate days.
Also, there seems to be some confusion over the break times and what can be configured.
Break times should only be configured within the office hours. If your office hours are 09:00 to 17:00, your break times can be any time between 09:01 and 16:59. You cannot have break times outside of office hours.
It is possible to have multiple office hours, for example, in a restaurant, where you can have a lunch and dinner shift, with no overlapping office hours. Break times can be configured for each of the shifts individually. The time between the shifts will be considered out of office hours.
Multiple break times can also be configured within a period of office hours as well, as long as they do not overlap.
For our demonstration of this module, the office hours will be configured on the local PBX, as well as specific hours for an extension. The automatic switching of the profile status will be shown. We will then route a call through the inbound rule to come in to the extension when it is out of office hours.
A holiday will then be configured, and we will record, and hear the holiday prompt when another call is routed through the inbound rule.
Topic: Extension Groups and Rights
User A has "Show presence to group members" and "Can see group members" checked. User B has only "Can See group members". User A and B are in the same group. Can both users see each others presence?
Topic: Hot Desking
The only way to log out an extension user from a Hotdesking IP Phone is to dial the log out dial code from the IP Phone itself.
Topic: Extension Groups and Rights
The "Can control IVR" Group Right allows an extension retrieve/pickup calls that are connected to a "Digital Receptionist" from the "Switchboard".
Topic: Hot Desking
To use Hotdesking you must have either a Pro or Enterprise License Key.
Topic: PBX Express using Personal Account
The PBX Express wizard allows you to restore an existing backup, with a 3CX FQDN defined, in the cloud
Topic: PBX Express using Personal Account
You do not need to input a License Key to deploy 3CX when using PBX Express.
Topic: Backup and Restore
A 3CX Backup always includes the Call Report data, regardless of what backup options you select.
Topic: Extension Profiles and Forwarding Rules
When an extension is in the "Available" Profile, 3CX will try to ring any devices that are registered to it.
Topic: Extension Profiles and Forwarding Rules
Extension Exception Rules cannot be configured to apply only certain days of the week.
Topic: Call Recording
You can configure the call recording files to be saved in either PCM or ADPCM format.
Topic: Call Recording
Call Recordings for an extension can be enabled to either record all calls, or only calls to/from external numbers.
Topic: Backup and Restore
Backups can be scheduled on a Daily, weekly or Monthly basis.
Topic: Extension Groups and Rights
Is there a Group Right that allows you to see the presence of another extension without being in the same group?
Topic: Extension Groups and Rights
By default there are two Extension Group roles, "User" and "Manager". Can additional roles can be added?
Topic: Time Based Scheduling
When you have your extension set to profile status "Custom 1" or "Custom 2", your extension will continue to switch Profiles based on office hours.
Topic: Backup and Restore
You can configure 3CX to backup directly to an FTP server of your choice.
Topic: Backup and Restore
For a backup to include the Call Report data, you must check backup option "Call Logs, Chat and Conference Data".
Topic: Remote IP Phone (SBC)
IP Phones behind the 3CX SBC still require the HTTPS port to be open on the 3CX firewall in order to retrieve their provisioning configuration.
Topic: Remote IP Phone (SBC)
In order to provision a supported IP phone behind the 3CX SBC, the HTTPS port (TCP) doesn't need to be open on the firewall in front of 3CX.
Topic: Remote IP Phone (STUN)
3CX also functions as a STUN Server for "Direct SIP (STUN - remote)" IP Phones.
Topic: Backup and Restore
Voicemails will always be included in a Backup, regardless what Backup option you select.
Topic: Extension Profiles and Forwarding Rules
When an extension is in the "Away" Profile, 3CX will try to ring any devices that are registered to it.
Topic: Time Based Scheduling
During the "Break" time, extensions that automatically switch profiles based on the time of day, will switch to the "Do Not Disturb" Profile Status.
Topic: Extension Groups and Rights
With the group right "Can manage the company phonebook", a user can alter the Company's Phonebook from their 3CX Client for Windows.
Topic: Backup and Restore
The SIP and Tunnel ports are considered "User Data" and will be restored from a backup.
Topic: Extension Groups and Rights
When assigning Extension Group rights to an extension, if you give the extension the "Manager" role, it will always have all rights enabled which cannot be altered.
Topic: Hot Desking
An IP Phone can be configured as a Hotdesking Extension only when it is Local, or Remote via a 3CX SBC.
Topic: Remote IP Phone (STUN)
STUN is used when an extension's IP phone is configured to use the 3CX SBC.
Topic: Backup and Restore
It is possible to backup a Windows 3CX installation and restore it on a Linux version of 3CX (and vice versa).
Topic: PBX Express using Personal Account
PBX Express allows you to deploy 3CX using your own FQDN and SSL Certificate.
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