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Academic Report

Assessment 2

Tutorial

Assignment 2: Academic Report

  • Due: Week 10
  • Length: 2000
  • Weighting:40%
  • Task
  • Choose one of the topics from the list below and argue a viewpoint in the format of an academic report.
  • It is expected that this viewpoint will emerge from your research, and will form the foundation of your argument.
  • Your argument should be supported by a minimum of 4 academic references and industry examples should be used to illustrate your discussion. It is expected that you come to a conclusion supported by the research material used and make recommendations to management.

Argue a viewpoint

  • In this report you either agree or disagree with the statement and develop your argument based on the viewpoint taken
  • You don’t argue both ways !

Assessment Criteria

  • Content (20 )
  • Clear understanding of the topic and concepts
  • Clear definitions of terms used and scope of response
  • Clear argument of a viewpoint to a chosen topic
  • Appropriate recommendations made
  • Research (10 )
  • Evidence of adequate depth and breadth of research. Minimum of 6 Academic and industry examples
  • Report format and Structure (5)
  • Report format , Grammar Written expression Word Count
  • Referencing (5)
  • Correct use of Harvard referencing (in-text and in reference list)

Lets have  a look at the topics

  • Given environmental concerns, tourism in the developing world is unsustainable.
  • Luxury and green are incompatible goals for the hotel industry.
  • 'Sustainable food' increasingly promoted on restaurant menus is largely greenwashing.

Topic 1

  • 1. Given environmental concerns, tourism in the developing world is unsustainable.

Over to You ……

  • In groups decide to agree or disagree with the statement and come up with 6 points to argue your viewpoint
  • Present your findings to the whole class

Topic 1

❑Developing countries usually have issues with water quality,  infrastructure  and there is already pressure on scarce resources  such as energy, food etc.

❑Tourism will put increased pressure on already struggling communities. Locals compete for critical resources

  • Consider for example the amount of waste created with no proper means to treat it resulting in untreated sewerage ending up in water ways

❑Consider the  vast quantity of food consumed by tourists reducing an already scarce supply for local communities

  • Lack of regulation to protect local environment 

Topic 1

  • Given their inadequate physical infrastructure and limited capacity to absorb mass tourism, the fragile land and ocean ecosystems of many developing countries can be literally overwhelmed by large numbers of tourists. It is increasingly recognized, therefore, that unsustainable ecotourism activities may threaten the very natural environment upon which they depend
  • Neto 2002 ‘Sustainable Tourism, Environmental Protection and Natural Resource Management: Paradise on Earth’

OR An alternative viewpoint

❑Tourism contributes  much needed revenue in developing countries to create the infrastructure to protect the environment.

❑Tourism can contribute directly to the conservation of sensitive areas and habitat. e.g.  Revenue from park-entrance fees

❑ Tourists can create awareness of environmental issues and become environmental watchdogs.

Topic 1 Suggested Readings

  • Buckley, R., 2012. Sustainable tourism: Research and reality. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), pp.528-546.
  • Carbone, M 2005, ‘Sustainable Tourism in Developing Countries: Poverty

Alleviation, Participatory Planning, and Ethical Issues’, The European Journal of Development Research

  • Tosun, C. (2001). Challenges of sustainable tourism development in the developing world: the case of Turkey. Tourism Management, 22(3), 289-303.
  • Liu, A., & Wall, G. (2006). Planning tourism employment: a developing country perspective. Tourism Management, 27(1), 159-170.
  • Briedenhann, J., & Wickens, E. (2004). Tourism routes as a tool for the economic development of rural areas—vibrant hope or impossible dream?. Tourism management, 25(1), 71-79.
  • Gössling, S. (2001). The consequences of tourism for sustainable water use on a tropical island: Zanzibar, Tanzania. Journal of environmental management, 61(2), 179-191.
  • 5 Dodds, R., Graci, S.R. and Holmes, M., 2010. Does the tourist care? A comparison of tourists in Koh Phi Phi, Thailand and Gili Trawangan, Indonesia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 18(2), pp.207-222.

Topic 2

  • Luxury and green are incompatible goals for the hotel industry.

Definitions

  • Luxury: In its most literal sense, the word luxury derives from the Latin word “Luxus” which signifies “soft or extravagant living, overindulgence and sumptuousness, luxuriousness and opulence” (Dubois
  1. al., 2005).
  • Expensive exclusive Conspicuous consumption  extravagant  Decadent , Rare and quality  scarcity  one of a kind
  • Green: Green hotels are environmentally friendly properties whose mangers are eager to institute programs that save water, save energy and reduce solid waste –while saving money – to help protect our one and only earth.
  • Green Hotels Association 2008

Topic  2

  • Many hotel operators are confronted with two simultaneous goals that seem to be diametrically opposed:
  • trying to create, establish, and implement environmental hotel policies; and
  • pampering hotel guests with services such as unlimited hot water, high-pressure showers, freshly laundered linen, an ample supply of towels, and abundant supplies of food and drink
  • Source : Barber, N.A. and Deale, C., 2014. Tapping mindfulness to shape hotel guests’ sustainable behavior. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 55(1), pp.100-114.

Now its your turn ……

  • In groups decide to agree or disagree with the statement and come up with 6 points to argue your viewpoint
  • Present your findings to the class

Topic 2

Luxury hotels are generally more spacious and include plush or exotic materials, sophisticated lighting that feels warm and inviting, and bathrooms with large bathtubs and multiple showerheads These luxury attributes of hotels are seldom compatible with green building practices, which tend towards smaller spaces, and materials and products that are non-exotic, recycled, natural, or rapidly renewable, with increased use of fluorescent lighting to reduce energy use and an emphasis on the conservation of water

Source: Ahn, Y.H. and Pearce, A.R., 2013. Green luxury: a case study of two green hotels. Journal of Green Building, 8(1), pp.90-119.

Topic 2

  • The concept of a green  hotel is not easily grasped by many facility operators as this industry bases its business on perceived opulence luxury and grandeur
  • Graci & Dodds 2008 ‘Why go Green ?The Business case for Environmental Commitment bin the Canadian Hotel Industry
  • There is no explicit evidence that, at present, tourists deliberately select their accommodation because of such ‘green’ initiatives; other factors, including comfort, price, and facilities dominate, but there is reason to believe that tourists are supportive of energy-efficient environments.
  • United nations World Tourism organisation 2008

Or

An alternative viewpoint

  • Luxury and green can be compatible because:

❑ A new paradigm of luxury exists

❑With the advancement of sustainable technology being green does not mean a reduction in  luxury

❑Green can heighten the experience of luxury

❑Economic imperative  as guests demand it

Luxury: A new paradigm

  • The old paradigm of luxury was about  excess owning  diamond rings and other possessions . Luxury is no longer  about  the chandeliers,  gold taps  and high thread count of sheets
  • The new paradigm of luxury is moving  toward experiences rather than possessions
  • Luxury is authentic experiences in harmony with nature and sociocultural surroundings .

Luxury: A new paradigm

  • Luxury for eco-tourists can mean more than amenities, accommodation types, or access to creature comforts.
  • Eco-luxury can be simple and unique experiences in nature-based and cultural tourism that add to the pleasure of traveling without negatively impacting the environment. http://www.ecotourism.org/news/what-does-luxury-mean-eco-tourists 

Advances in Sustainable Technology

  • Innovative shower head designs with wide spreads and efficient water usage
  • Using renewables you can have a climate controlled room without using hugh amounts of energy courtesy of superior design
  • You can have a luxurious experience whilst using recycled materials due to improvements in technology design
  • Smaller, more efficiently conceived, and technologically advanced guestrooms

Green can heighten the experience of luxury

❑Dining on local , farm to table , organically produced, in season food is a more gourmet luxury  experience  than imported, out of season produce . It also provides the guest with a connection to place that makes it a unique experience New luxury is looking for unique experiences

❑ Appreciating the natural environment, Seeing local foliage and fauna instead of exotic foreign  plants  increases the authenticity and heightens the guests experience  whilst using less water ,fertilizers etc .

❑Chemicals in products used in  guest bedrooms, spas and wellness centers  can be replaced by  greener more natural  products  to  provide the guest with a more luxurious experience

Green can heighten the experience of luxury

  • Green building practices tend to smaller spaces Smaller hotels can  providing more care and  intimate authentic  experiences- the new luxury
  • Protecting the pristine natural environment through green practices provides the guests with a more luxurious experience
  • The idea that as a guest you are protecting the local  environment can increase your sense of wellbeing  and  luxury is about wellness and wellbeing

Economic Imperative for hotels

❑Guests are concerned about environmental  issues and increasingly demanding luxury  hotels adopt them.

❑ Eco-conscious millennials are gaining spending power, and their values are driving trends in luxury travel.

❑Millennials are twice as likely to support brands with strong management of environmental and social issues, and expect brands to not only manage their impact but communicate it

Topic 2  Suggested Readings

  • 1Kapferer, J.N. and Michaut-Denizeau, A., 2014. Is luxury compatible with sustainability? Luxury consumers’ viewpoint. Journal of Brand Management, 21(1), pp.1-22.
  • 2Line, N.D. and Hanks, L., 2016. The effects of environmental and luxury beliefs on intention to patronize green hotels: the moderating effect of destination image. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(6), pp.904-925.
  • Barber, N.A. and Deale, C., 2014. Tapping mindfulness to shape hotel guests’ sustainable behavior. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 55(1), pp.100-114.
  • 2 Ahn, Y.H. and Pearce, A.R., 2013. Green luxury: a case study of two green hotels. Journal of Green Building, 8(1), pp.90-119.
  • Graci & Dodds, 2008, ‘Why go Green ?The Business case for Environmental Commitment in the Canadian Hotel Industry’ An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research
  • 1 Kang, K.H., Stein, L., Heo, C.Y. and Lee, S., 2012. Consumers’ willingness to pay for green initiatives of the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(2), pp.564-572.
  • Lee, Hsu & Kim 2010 ‘Understanding how consumers view green hotels: how a hotel’s green image can influence behavioural intentions’.

Topic 2  Suggested Readings

  • Robinot, & Giannelloni,2010, 'Do Hotels 'Green' Attributes Contribute to Customer Satisfaction?, Journal of Services Marketing
  • Kang, K.H., Stein, L., Heo, C.Y. and Lee, S., 2012. Consumers’ willingness to pay for green initiatives of the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(2), pp.564-572.
  • 5 Chen, R.J., 2015. From sustainability to customer loyalty: A case of full service hotels’ guests. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 22, pp.261-265.

Topic 3

  • 3. 'Sustainable food' increasingly promoted on restaurant menus is largely greenwashing.

Topic 3

  • Would you agree or disagree with the statement and how would you argue your point ?

Definitions

  • Greenwashing: Greenwashing is the act of misleading consumers regarding the environmental practices of a company (firm-level greenwashing) or the environmental benefits of a product or service (product-level greenwashing)

Delmas, M, & Burbano, V 2011, 'The Drivers of Greenwashing', California Management Review, 54, 1, pp. 64-87

  • Greenwashing is the dissemination of false or incomplete information by an organization to present an environmentally responsible public

image. Furlow, N.E., 2010. Greenwashing in the new millennium. The Journal of Applied Business and Economics, 10(6), p.22.

Where did the term Greenwashing come from ?

  • The term “green washing” was coined by New York environmentalist Jay Westervelt in a 1986 essay regarding the hotel industry’s practice of placing placards in each room promoting

reuse of towels ostensibly to save the environment

  • Rahman, I., Park, J. and Chi, C.G.Q., 2015. Consequences of “greenwashing” Consumers’ reactions to hotels’ green initiatives. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(6), pp.1054-1081.

Agree with Statement

  • Establishing the sustainability of a dish is impossible making restaurant menus suggesting they are sustainable  merely greenwashing
  • Problems with defining Sustainability
  • There is no agreed definition for what constitutes sustainable food, thus making it difficult to measure and quantify. My Readings 10.4
  • No accurate measure of sustainability exists
  • Contradictory categories such as a human health, animal welfare and regional economic development are put under the term

Topic 3

  • ‘The term greenwashing has been around long before expressions like “locally-sourced,” “farm fresh,” “artisanal,” “organic,” “small-batch” and “heirloom” conferred unwarranted credibility on menus of some restaurants that are less than forthright about their food purchasing practices.’
  • Source: http://eatdrink.ca/the-art-of-greenwashing/ 

How do Restaurants promote sustainability?

  • In upscale restaurants, green practices focuses on food (e.g., healthy, locally grown, or organic ingredients on the menu
  • Namkung, Y. and Jang, S., 2017. Are consumers willing to pay more for green practices at restaurants?. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 41(3), pp.329-356.
  • Terms such as ‘locally sourced’ and ‘organic’ used on menus  to demonstrate sustainability   yet both have issues
  • Food miles is a flawed concepts, sourcing locally isn’t  necessarily better for the environment and may have a great environmental impact  http://www.ausfoodnews.com.au/2008/09/25/food-law-expert-reports-flaws-in-food-miles-concept.html
  • Organic: More land to produce fewer crops-Lower yield
  • Larger footprint on the land per unit of production than

conventional farming Paarlberg:The ethics of modern agriculture 2008

  • What about organic travelling over long distances ? How sustainable is it ?

Topic 3

❑Restauranteurs see it as a  business opportunity not concern  for environment

Restaurant operators adopt green practices to gain competitive advantage by creating a distinctive image that can differentiate them from competitors.

❑Upscale restaurants  use it as a point of difference in terms of marketing  not out of

concern for environment Poulston, J. and Yiu, A.Y.K., 2011. Profit or principles:

Why do restaurants serve organic food?. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(1), pp.184-191.

Topic 3

  • However, although many firms are taking advantage of sustainability, greenwashing, where consumers are mislead regarding the environmental practices of a company or the environmental benefits of a product or service, is a problematic issue (Parguel, Benoit-Moreau, & Larceneux, 2011).

OR  Disagree with the statement

  • Chefs are genuinely concerned about the environment and are looking to make a difference through their menus . Their motivations have nothing to do with greenwashing
  • There is no conflict between a better meal and a

better world. Renee Redzepi

❑“a deep sense of responsibility for what I was

putting on the plate. Kyle Kwong

OR  Disagree with the statement

  • Increase in vegetarian dishes has less impact on environment
  • Growing their own/ less food waste / foraging
  • Using whole animals
  • Insects shown to have lower carbon footprint
  • Support for small-scale producers may better contribute to rural economies and vibrant local communities
  • Research showed chefs with genuine concern for environment  who integrated the concept of organic dining and environmental concerns into their business philosophies and created challenges for themselves by doing so

Topic 3

  • “in the era of climate change and global resource depletion, the it’s-not-my-problem mindset is “not just irresponsible — [it is] destructive.”
  • http://www.earthisland.org/journal/index.php/elist/eListRead/why_thomas_keller_is_wrong _about_chefs_social_responsibility/

Topic 3 Suggested readings

  • Poulston, J. and Yiu, A.Y.K., 2011. Profit or principles: Why do restaurants serve organic food?. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(1), pp.184191.
  • 2Jang, S.Y., Chung, J.Y. and Kim, Y.G., 2015. Effects of environmentally friendly perceptions on customers' intentions to visit environmentally friendly restaurants: An extended theory of planned behavior. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 20(6), pp.599-618.
  • Lu, L. and Gursoy, D., 2017. Does offering an organic food menu help restaurants excel in competition? An examination of diners’ decision-making. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 63, pp.72-81.
  • Iomaire, M.M.C., 2016. Food on the Edge: The future of food is a sustainable future. Research in Hospitality Management, 6(1), pp.107-111.
  • 3 Hanks, L. and Mattila, A.S., 2016. Consumer response to organic food in restaurants: A serial mediation analysis. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 19(1), pp.109-121.
  • Goggins, G. and Rau, H., 2016. Beyond calorie counting: Assessing the sustainability of food provided for public consumption. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, pp.257-266.

Topic 3 Suggested readings

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