PRINCE 2 and PRINCE2 "AGILE" methodologies have become one of the critical approaches in project management. For instance, in most European countries, they are highly recognized as essential features of job specifications. However, the “agile” is a recent concept that has become popular due to its adaptability and flexibility in the use of methods such as SCRUM which are efficiently implemented in business environments. Remarkably, PRINCE2 methodology has been identified to create emphasis on the significance of the process in a firm. It involves initiating projects and ensuring there is effective management while following the given guidelines. It can be described as a linear approach as it consists of using the steps in a project. Besides, the PRINCE2 shows a clear focus on the objectives of the project through the effective description of the roles and responsibilities of the team members (Banica, Radulescu & Hagiu, 2016). There is a clear definition of the processes with a critical structure that reflects upon the quality of the products produced by the organization. The extensive planning involved in PRINCE2 is essential to ensuring the projects are timely and cost-effective.
Regardless, the PRINCE2 “agile” has obtained recognition in the wake of technological advancement. First, it's pivoting capability and flexibility through the use of the SCRUM approach in the “agile” methodology. Notably, multiple firms in the Fortune 500 companies have been identified to use the method as it has been considered as an effective method especially for the complex ones (Tomanek, Cermak & Smutny, 2015). The SCRUM is determined in finding out how a project can be executed rather than how it can be managed. It divides the complex issues in a project to ensure they are managed effectively. Besides, the critical stakeholders are engaged in the projects to ensure that their needs are addressed and incorporated in the project. There is the constant use of feedback to ensure the information obtained is focused on making the product better. Therefore, the analysis is focused on comparing the PRINCE2 and PRINCE2 "agile" methodologies to find out which method is suitable in a project.
PRINCE2 and PRINCE2 “Agile” are two different words with different meanings. PRINCE2 is the process by which any government uses in order to manage its projects effectively. It is accepted in all private sectors in the worldwide. PRINCE2 “Agile” is a full package of project management solution that can be applied in the application process of the PRINCE2 process. PRINCE2 “Agile” has proven to be very productive in all the sectors that involve any kind of governing process since it helps in the provision of an all-rounded mode of the working process in any sector. These working processes include both the methods and techniques of any sector. PRINCE2 “Agile” has also been found to be essential in the management of any environment that entails a lot of people who work to achieve a certain central goal. Such an environment is called an agile environment. PRINCE2 “Agile” is therefore used as a tool for encouraging such individuals since it tries breakdown any complex activity that needs to be done into different smaller portions that can be done by a single individual but all in the name of attaining one common goal. PRINCE2 does not require any form of training and certification as compared to the PRINCE2 “Agile”. We are going to discuss these two important terms and find out their differences in this paper.
1.1 The Goal of the Thesis
The analysis is focused on finding out the significant differences between the PRINCE2 and PRINCE “Agile” methodologies. Remarkably, studies have indicated that it is challenging to choose one framework to use in a project as various managements use multiple frameworks. Although the “agile” approaches are extensively used in numerous firms due to their flexibility, it is important to investigate how PRINCE2 can be applied in the projects. Particularly, the PRINCE2 approach can be considered in a project as it can be altered at any time in to suit a strained budget. The evaluation will be critical in establishing the importance of the “agile” approach in its focus on the final product in a project. It will also be important in realizing if the approach encourages the collaboration of the critical stakeholders and how it helps in determining the essential challenges of a project. Equally, the study will play a critical in finding out the importance of the PRINCE2 methodology as a consumer-focused management approach.
The provision of themes and multiple rules will be essential in assessing the importance of the strategy in managing the projects efficiently. Therefore, the focus of the study in determining the importance of the methods will be necessary for providing a critical recommendation of better methodology in project management.
Phenomenally, the analysis will find out why the two methodologies were developed. Indeed, the evaluation will be necessary since agile seems to take a different in the management of projects when compared to PRINCE2. First, “agile” achieves flexibility and the essential speed through short delivery cycles. Besides, “agile” is interactive and encourages critical adjustments in a project. It has been considered as a vital approach, especially when developing software as one can identify issues and make the necessary recommendations without waiting for the testing stage. However, the assessment will be essential in determining how PRINCE2 helps in risk assessment, especially at the times of economic downturns since at this time, the sponsors are usually not willing to support the projects. It will also help in establishing how the approach can be integrated into a method such as the “agile” in promoting the success of the project. Moreover, the study will find out the key benefits and risks of the methodologies to make the project managers aware of the best approach when starting a project. Indeed, realizing how an approach inspires communication and collaboration will help in improving transparency and how roles and responsibilities are defined in a project. Therefore, the evaluation will be critical in helping the project managers to realize the best methodology in a specific project.
1.2. Research Hypothesis
Multiple organizations have suffered due to the use of wrong methodologies in project management. First, selecting the right project management methodology is vital for the team's capability to deliver timely projects. When a project uses approaches such as the PRINCE2 and PRINCE2 “agile” effectively, they can assist in maximizing success in an organization. Besides, it is important to discover the critical steps that are used in selecting the right approach in regards to the needs of a project and the benefits that are achieved from using the selected methodology. Selecting the right methodology in a project helps to offer a consistent guideline for the project manager to handle the essential factors that are involved in a project such as budget and resources (Cooke, 2016). Notably, it is difficult to establish a perfect approach to manage a project, but when an effective selection of a methodology is conducted, and then the needs of a project are easily met. Realizing the target goals in a particular project helps in achieving a structured approach in project management.
Subsequently, projects are unique and require practical evaluation to determine the best methodology to apply. Those are predictable and straightforward, while others are risky and complex and can result in high losses when they are not well managed. Indeed, every project requires a different approach to using the same methodology in all the project can lead to high economic losses in a firm. Unfortunately, when a project manager is knowledgeable in a specific project management methodology, it is hard for them to conduct an analysis and consider a different methodology (Hughes et al., 2016). It is essential to be critical and embrace diverse project management strategies to gain success in the projects. Notably, many projects have failed due to the use of a framework that does not consider the actual needs of the project. A project approach should be developed effectively to reflect the uncertainties that are faced by numerous projects. Moreover, comparability between various projects can be a suitable tool that can help in recognizing the differences and similarities between projects to establish practical methods. Thus, when companies improve how they select methods that are used in the project, they will reduce losses experienced from the projects.
1.3 Scope of the Thesis
The study focuses on establishing the differences between the PRINCE2 and PRINCE2 “agile” methodologies. Remarkably, the study finds out significant qualities of PRINCE2, such as providing a critical framework for management while the “agile” approach is determined in establishing how a project can be completed successfully. The “agile” is also flexible and encourages effective risk management and aids in enhancing transparency (Tomanek & Juricek, 2015). Considerably, the “agile” methodology has been considered to be better as the users can realize the benefits more quickly are critical in inspiring the success of a project. The PRINCE2 involves critical management as projects are conducted at high speed, which can make the business stationery. Indeed, the “agile” type of thinking which is focused on showing critical results from the beginning of the project motivates the team members to coordinate and communicate more effectively. Thus, it is essential to up-skill employees in an entity to realize the importance of using the “agile” approach in the projects.
Furthermore, the evaluation of PRINCE2 finds out that it is associated with rigidity. Thus, it is considered as unsuitable, especially for the small projects that need quick changes. The approach involves multiple documenting that disrupts the project as they have to be made throughout. Besides, the decision-making process in PRINCE2 is longer when compared to the “agile” approach. The assessment identifies that “agile” is highly responsive and can accommodate critical changes easily. There is the implementation of short-term requirements that make the individual efforts to be visible. Although it is easy to lose sight of the vital goals due to the frequent changes made in the project, the collaborative nature of the approach ensures that time and resources are used effectively. Therefore, it is important to select the right methodology depending on the project requirement as well as the goals that the project is determined in achieving.
2. Analysis of the problem domain
2.1 Explanation of the main concepts
PRINCE2 simply entails the methods of managing or governing any project without the division or breakdown of the projects into smaller, manageable portions. PRINCE2 comprises of a set of seven principles. These principles are also considered as the guiding obligations required by the PRINCE2 project. It has seven themes involved in the project management process. There is a set of processing involved in lifecycle of PRINCE2 project. This process finally tailors the project environment more effectively.
PRINCE2 “Agile”, on the other hand, is a project management methodology that involves a division of labor among workers on any project (whether complex or simple) with the aim of achieving one common goal. According to Hedeman and Seegers, PRINCE2 only involves the managerial part of any project or activity where the manager is in charge of all the process that is being done without the involvement of the other workers, less teamwork is observed under this process (Hedeman and Seegers 26). The manager is in the central position of all the project process and controls any form of expenditure in the organization in order to remain relevant in the market.
Fig2.1: PRINCE2 methodology structure (Tomanek, 2015).
Fig 2.2: A PRINCE2 process model (Tomanek, 2015).
PRINCE2 and PRINCE “Agile” are two different words with different meanings. PRINCE2 is the process by which any government uses in order to manage its projects effectively, it is accepted in all private sectors in the worldwide. PRINCE2 “Agile” is a full package of project management solution that can be applied in the application process of the PRINCE2 process. PRINCE2 “Agile” has proven to be very productive in all the sectors that involve any kind of governing process since it helps in the provision of an all-rounded mode of the working process in any sector. These working processes include both the methods and techniques of any sector. PRINCE2 “Agile” has also been found to be essential in the management of any environment that entails a lot of people who work to achieve a certain central goal. Such an environment is called an “agile” environment. PRINCE2 “Agile” is therefore used as a tool for encouraging such individuals since it tries breakdown any complex activity that needs to be done into different smaller portions that can be done by a single individual but all in the name of attaining one common goal. Agile can apply to any type of project within any industrial sector. The paper seeks to discuss the differences between PRINCE2 and PRINCE2 “Agile” based on the research hypothesis and the scope of the Thesis.
2.2 The PRINCE2 “traditional” project management methodology analysis
Risk analysis will always be prevented by using a good plan, but it's never a guarantee that the project will run smoothly. However, people who always end up doing best in their projects always have a plan prior. For a plan to really work it has to be definite and a real practical deal, the materials and method used ought to be best. The art of initiating, planning, implementing and managing a team's job to attain a particular objective is project management. A specific success criterion has to be met at a particular time. Project management also has to meet the primary challenge, which is to attain all the project goals within a given constraint. In this paper, we are going to do an analysis of the various types of project methodologies, both traditional and agile. “Traditional” PRINCE2 methodology has her own certification scheme.
Firstly, PRINCE2 (Projects IN Controlled Environments) is a process that is based on effective project methodology. The PRINCE2 methodology is a standard which is based on facts and is founded by the UK government. The private sector also practices this type of methodology widely, and it's also practiced internationally — project management structures aid in preventing the disorganized projects, which always end up going wrong whatsoever. According to the PRINCE2 framework, a project should have a start which is greatly organized and well-controlled start. The middle should also organize as well as the end. PRINCE2 always has several processes which cover various activities and are always carried out in descending order (Zawadzki, 2018).
PRINCE2 project board consists of the team members including Senior Users, Executive and Senior suppliers. The change in authority during the project management area might also occur especially by changing the level of responsibility.
Additionally, project management roles are always ranked hierarchically, beginning with the project manager. The project manager's first responsibility is controlling and organizing the project and ensure it meets the standard. He/she always points out people to work on the project and ensure it's done properly and punctuality is enhanced. The plan is always drawn by the manager, and he/she gives a description of how it's supposed to be handled. The manager also sets up a time for the completion of a certain project. The customer’s user and supplier also have a role in project management. Payment is always done by the customer while the user is a person who is always impacted by the result of the project.
Similarly, on some projects, the customer may also happen to be the user of the project. The expertise needed is always provided by the supplier, and through this coordination, the project is delivered on time. All PRINCE2 projects always have a project board which composes of the customer and someone presenting the user side. The supplier's side has to also have a representative on the board to present the major interests. PRINCE2 also has management techniques, which include project assurance and project support. Consequently, project assurance provides a view which has to be independent to indicate the progress of the project. Each view provided is always based on the interests of the board members.
Notably, business assurance focuses on checking on the viability of the project in the line of costs and benefits. There is also user assurance which checks on the user's requirements to ensure they are met. This type of assurance has to have specialists who aid in providing a suitable solution. Also, in some cases, individual members can also be involved in doing the assurance job. The project support team always focuses on administrative work, which is very informative. The team is based on ensuring that meetings are well arranged and the plans of the project are up to date. Storage of files is also made by the support team, and they also chase things up (Oakes,2016).
Working on a specific project and ensuring it attains all the objectives set is what make up the scope in PRINCE2 methodology. When various groups are involved in handling a project, it's always hectic, and that's where the scope comes in. For sociology to be promoted in these groups, a common language has to be used across all parties. Also, customers can be brought together through the signing of contracts which have to be managed responsibly. This method always recognizes the hurdles and controls of the project. Through this, a project succeeds in the framework it’s put through. To add, the PRINCE2 method also explains the different ways of managing risks and how one can always control changes in the project.
This type of method manages different projects and always gives various processes which provide information. However, PRINCE2 never does the work required for a certain individual, and it's never guaranteed that the project will be successful. The people involved in a certain project are the one who determines whether the project will be successful. If the parties involved seriously work on a project, quality results are produced. Also, for the project to be on time and within the given budget, the team has to be intact. For such results to be produced, everybody from the project board to the individuals has to play a major role.
Just as other methodologies the PRINCE2 also has its principles, benefits, advantages and disadvantages. It also has its principle which ensures success is achieved. Some of the principles which govern the PRINCE2 methodology include the roles and responsibilities which support the work done. It is also managed by different stages, which make the project easier. The project has to also focus on various products to bring out clarity. The lessons learnt are always recorded for future use and reference. Lastly, the project put in place has to have viability according to the business justification rules (Saade, 2015).
Fig 2.4: 7 principles of PRINCE2 (Mathis, 2014).
Some of the advantages of the PRINCE2 methodology include its predictability. Breakdown in the various stages makes it easy for supervision. The quality delivered by a certain project is always utilized to its best since best practices are carried out through this process. Through this factor, PRINCE2 methodology has been popular till today since quality is everything in the lookout. The uniformity brought about by this type of methodology ensures that there are no chances of misdirection, and the communication is proper. A uniformed document is a guarantee that the team handling a specific project is aware of what is supposed to be done.
The PRINCE2 methodology is time efficient, and the cost is also effective. The use of this methodology always ensures that less time is spent when different risks are being identified. Every customer always looks for experts who will have value for their money and also time. The expertise put in place in these projects always ensures that when unexpected risks occur, they are dealt with immediately. The PRINCE2 methodology is well tested and tried since the project management gurus have revised the method. Research has shown that PRINCE2 has been there for 30 years and has no proof of inactivity (Siegelaub, J. M. 2004). This type of methodologies has been used by over 50 countries across the world.
The availability of this type of methodology makes it free to use while other methodologies always charge licensing fees, and this makes it expensive. These fees are charged mainly for the certification and for various tools used for the conducting the research. Many firms and organizations always prefer to use this type of methodology with fewer expenses. Through this availability, organizations prefer not to develop their own methodologies since they are not cost effective. PRINCE2 methodology also has its own themes, which include quality which has to be achieved. Risk also has to be detailed during the project. Plans have to be included in the project to make it a success and the plans have to be implemented at various stages. There has to be an outline of why a project is important and necessary for its viability. Lastly, the project has to have various changes which may occur during it realization.
2.3 The PRINCE2 “agile” project management methodology analysis
The world's most complete agile project management is the PRINCE2 “Agile”, which is governed by PRINCE2.The combination of the flexible and responsibility of the “agile” is what brings out the solution in the project. The PRINCE2 “Agile” is designed in a way it responds to the demands posed by the communities which use it. PRINCE2 “Agile” revolves and explores around “agile” delivery of products and project management. This type of methodology comprises of the PRINCE2 “Agile” guidance and the certification scheme. PRINCE2 “Agile” is always accompanied by an exam and a formal certificate upon completion.
Fig 2.5: PRINCE2 Agile processes (Dybå, 2015).
Fig 2.6:PRINCE2 “Agile” process model (Dybå, 2015).
The PRINCE2 “Agile” methodology also has its benefits, which make it more relevant and preferable by organizations. Some of the benefits include to focus on delivery and management thus the success is possible to achieve. This methodology also works with the right approach, which is “agile” and through these deadlines are met, and consistency is developed. It also provides the right tools which aid in the management and react to exploring the requirements. Also, a great corporate rapport is created. Thus, collaborations done are a great success.
PRINCE2 “Agile” methodology requires certification for any organization to use it. The certification helps the main professionals in their management duties. When working in an “agile” environment, this certification plays a major role in ensuring the PRINCE2 requirements are well understood. The certificate available is the PRINCE2 “Agile” foundation which focuses on the project and how it is managed. This certificate is used in helping professionals deliver the “agile” projects within the required time frame. It also helps one to understand the laws that govern PRINCE2 and its requirement.
Moreover, organizations also benefit from the PRINCE2 methodology in a massive way. This methodology always ensures that the projects are well managed, which is well proven. Its generic nature benefits organizations since it can be used in any sector hence cost-effective. Better communication and understanding is provided by this type of methodology through a common vocabulary. This methodology always makes people answerable to their roles and responsibilities, promoting a smooth workflow. The outputs of the organization are concentrated on by this methodology; thus, quality is produced. Adaptability is made easier through this type of methodology thus suitable in each area.
In the “PRINCE2 Agile” methodology, the learning outcomes are never written down by the team while in, the outcomes are maintained and stored for future reference. “Agile” always focuses on developing the work in a given project other than documentation, while PRINCE2 focuses on documentation. In “Agile”, the team is always open-minded and is open to other opportunities while in PRINCE2, the team is limited to opportunities. PRINCE2 always works with large projects, while agile works with small and medium projects. PRINCE2 is always dominant whenever a project is being carried out and cannot be associated with another methodology. PRINCE2 “Agile” methodology can always be used along with other types of methodologies in a given project. This is possible because of its agility (Sommer, 2015).
“Agile” is always enriched with the tools needed while in PRINCE2 tools come along with a given project. “Agile” is always flexible when carrying out a given project while in PRINCE2 flexibility is not possible since a lot of designing is required. Designing and planning require a lot of capital, hence, flexibility will be a major problem since it's not cost-effective. “Agile” always focuses on the final product so as to produce quality while PRINCE2 the outputs are measured by benefits. PRINCE2 has no specified time period in delivering products since they depend on the scope while “Agile” delivers its products within 3 weeks (Cobb, 2015).
In conclusion, one has to clearly understand what a specific project requires before deciding the type of methodology to be used. One has to understand that IT has got its uniqueness and has its own complexions. For any small project “Agile” methodology definitely has to be used, and for a large and medium-sized project, the PRINCE2 methodology has to be used. However, “Agile” can be used in project management, but the PRINCE2 is more preferable since it's more equipped. The techniques in PRINCE2 make it more efficient. However, “Agile” has SCRUM, which also makes it better. As a recommendation, the use of “Agile” and PRINCE2 methodology would highly produce great quality results since they all have their own magic. Therefore, the use of “Agile” and PRINCE2 methodologies would outdo any other IT method.
2.4 The selected mathematical algorithms for comparative analysis
In “agile”, flexibility in scope definition presents complications when measuring a project's sustainability and quality. Therefore, this prompts the need to master the algorithms used for comparative analysis with regards to their application in evaluating the quality and completeness of the project scope definitions. This is done by considering the elements derived from the logical perspective of the literature review where a study is undertaken to prove the validity and priority of the elements. Moreover, the evaluation process involves assigning weights to the elements in order of their roles as to enable the development of a scorecard based on the findings and essentially, their scope definitions. One of the greatest strengths of “agile” is the ability to identify the areas within the project which need keen attention and monitoring, and this is made possible by running the primary elements through various algorithms as seen below.
In order to assess the completeness of a project, the A-PRI (project scope rating index) is a very important tool which also validates the proposed method. Basically, the elements of a project are measured here, and as such, the planning levels and respective elements are annotated as PL = PL1,PL2….PLm, and E = e1,e2…en, respectively (Usman et al., 2014). Assigning the weights to the elements is made possible through the use of the rank centroid method whose algorithm is illustrated as follows:
Wei = weight of the ith object
∑ = Summation of the ordinal ranking number
- An ordinal number to each item ranked, starting with the highest ranked item as number 1. Denote the ranking number i among N items to rank. Then the RS weight becomes for all i = 1,…,N
Rank Exponent :
ri is the rank of the ith objective
N is the total number of objectives
j is an approximate measure of the dispersion in the weights
MAX = By agglomerative hierarchial technique takings the juxtaposition between the furthest two points in dissimilar bands to be cluster propinquity, or using graph standings, the longest age between the two lumps in different subsets of bulges.
The function is a more useful, accurate and practical technique for weight assignment since the ranks of elements are taken as input values thus making it easy to calculate exact weights and limiting biases (Bhalerao&Ingle, 2009).
In order to measure the progress of the project implementation, “agile” provides various tools for monitoring the cost and time elements at every level. This would be more effectively done by focusing on the elements derived from the logical perspectives in order to further improve the validity of all the elements and to explain the hypothesis more effectively. This shows that through the “agile” methodologies, it can be made easier to provide keen observation to the primary elements of the organization and make a better decision.
It is more focused on assessing the limited resources available and makes the most suitable use of these resources. This is made possible through the following function:
∑ = Summation of the whole number from 1 ith object to unlimited
S cre = S growth rate curve through the exponential growth rate graph of Population
In exponential growth, a populace's per capita (per individual) growing rate stays the same irrespective of population magnitude i.e pL1, making the population grow faster and faster as it gets grander. In nature, populations may raise exponentially for some retro, but they will finally be inadequate by reserve availability. In logistic growing, a population's per capita progress rate gets lesser and smaller as population size methods a maximum executed by limited resources in the milieu, known as the resounding capacity. Exponential growth produces a i-shaped curve, while logistic growing produces an S-shaped curve.
Since Agile's main concern is to evaluate the project with limited time resources, the above illustrated mathematical algorithms will be heavily used as to ascertain the allocation of various resources at every level and their impacts to inform the choices made. Moreover, the usefulness of these methods in comparative analysis cannot be underestimated since they provide a ranking system of the elements and just like in any scorecard, the lower the value, the higher the rank, therefore, implying the optimum goals of the project are met. Also, the total score of the project's scope can be arrived at by evaluating the score of the project's level against the element's score that is through ranking the elements and assigning them weights. However, it is important first to identify the project areas dependency elements to limit the complications associated with their analyses. For this reason, the methods adopted here are meant to offer a clear analytical and accurate view of the project cycle.
3. Comparative analysis of the PRINCE2 “traditional” and PRINCE2 “agile” project management methodologies.
Project management methodologies help the project managers triumph set of goals and intents by providing a fundamental guideline for project management. Successful completion of projects depends on the project management methodologies that the management applies. This section will give a comparative analysis of the most utilized project management methodologies: PRINCE2 and PRINCE2 “Agile”.
3.1 The assumptions for the comparative analysis
Comparative analysis would be conducted by conducting the classic compare and contrast between the two items.
PRINCE2 is a well-designed management methodology that divides the projects into relatively small stages for better management and control. On the other hand, PRINCE2 “Agile” integrates flexibility and responsibility of “agile” under the guidance of PRINCE2 (Cooke, 2016). Assumptions are typically rules and features that exist in PRINCE2 and PRINCE2 “Agile”. Therefore, through the use of the algorithm and criteria of both methodologies, there will make an accurate Comparative analysis between them. The rule of the methodologies seeks to expound on principles while the features are the standard criteria in a controlled environment.
PRINCE2 has seven principles that guide the management to execute their roles and responsibilities for the benefit of achieving projects of high quality that have effectively utilized resources and entirely within the schedule (Tomanek, 2015). In essence, the principles guide PRINCE2 to deliver projects of different sizes and complexities.
PRINCE2 follows the principle of continued business justification as its primary assumption. The methodology demonstrates defined goals that help the project to strive for successful completion. Most of the projects follow conventional organizational goals, thus, if the company does have unclear goals, then the project will fail (Mousaei & Javdani, 2018). However, with the utilization of the PRINCE2 methodology, it helps the organization to come up with precise goals. Furthermore, the principle seeks to encourage continuous validation. The element demands continuous management throughout the project. The management must state business case to avoid misalignment and misuse of funds. In a nutshell, the rule dictates the need for business justification that illustrates value for money.
The second principle is learning from experience. PRINCE2 should demonstrate the capability of learning from the mistakes and failures and success from the past. The project has a beginning and the end to make it complete and beneficial to the organization. Therefore, the management should learn from the experiences that take place in the entire life cycle of the project. During the commencement of the project, the management must demonstrate knowledge and experience they learned from other projects so that they can incorporate on the new project (Cooke, 2016). Throughout the project, the impact of experience from the things that occur from the project can help the management to assess the project and make it successful. In essence, managers will have the capacity to apply some strategies and tactics to improve the project. At the end of the project, managers should have the experience so that they can utilize it on future projects. The principles provide the need to use experience from the other projects and the project itself to improve the current and future projects.
Thirdly, PRINCE2’ principle assumes that the projects should have defined roles. Clear roles and responsibilities are essential when it comes to defining stakeholders; for instance, business, users, and suppliers (Tomanek & Juricek, 2015). The business stakeholders include investors, executes, and management that support the success of the project for their various reasons. Users are the individuals that use the project to improve their lives, for instance, in a road construction project, road user’s benefit by transporting the goods and services to the market. Ultimately, suppliers are the contractors and organizations that supply equipment. Suppliers want to advance their career and have considered in the future. Therefore, defining the roles and responsibilities of the project will acknowledge the varied needs and wants of the stakeholders.
Managing the project by stages and exception is another assumption of PRINCE2. The method divides the project into manageable phases to increase management and progress. Some of the stages include planning, risk assessment, and compliance and evaluation (Malik et al., 2019). Besides, exceptional management considers cost, perils time, and quality. The sixth and seventh assumptions of PRINCE2 are the focus on the product and the toiler to outfit the initiative (Hughes et al., 2016). More so, PRINCE2 does have practical and focused areas as vital features. The assumption pops up due to the consideration of the practical and comprehensiveness of the method. For a clear comparison of the two methodologies, the PRINCE2 has a practical approach, activities, and product focus as the main characteristics.
On the other hand, PRINCE2 “Agile” does have several assumptions rooted in the rules and features. Similarly, the PRINCE2 “Agile” has five principles that guide the organization to come up with effective projects that will go along with the organizational goals. The principles of PRINCE2 “Agile” are the common behaviors demonstrated by the PRINCE2.
The first assumption of the PRINCE2 “Agile” regarding the rules of the methodology is transparency. PRINCE2 Agile is a well-developed technique that has assisted the project managers in dealing with more complex projects at the aim of delivering effective projects (Cooke, 2016). Clear goals should be the main objective of the project as dictated by the PRINCE2 “Agile”. The assumption shows that it helps the project managers to state and define clear goals to all the stakeholders about the project. In essence, transparency builds a clear and precise speed clarity engagement in an organization for the befit of the project. Consequently, the management will control and administer the project successful.
The second assumption based on the algorithm is collaboration requirement in the PRINCE2 “Agile”. The methodology seeks to improve teamwork in an organization hence yielding a fruitful project. Teamwork during project management is crucial, and it upsurges the probability of the success of the initiative. PRINCE2 “Agile” assumes that collaboration during the project will have a significant impact on the outcomes of the project(s).
Further, PRINCE2 “Agile” requires productive communication during project management in an organization. Communication is vital in all projects that organizations need to carry out according to their various goals. The organization must have high-speed communication to increase the flow of information to various departments. Project management depends on some departments such as finance and risk, hence, they need to contact them for the benefit of the project. PRINCE2 “Agile” assumes that the management has rich communication so that it can increase the availability of data and information essential for the project (Hughes et al., 2016). Thus, effective communication among the management and other stakeholders avail essential information that the project requires for its success.
More so, self-organization is another critical assumption of PRINCE2 “Agile” that relates to the delivery level. The PRINCE2 “Agile” assumes that there is a spontaneous order in the system so that it can make the project successful (Mousaei & Javdani, 2018). Project management comprises of different individuals executing different roles and responsibilities necessary for the project. Many people responsible for the management and control of the project must demonstrate self-organization. In real life, it is cumbersome to guide and control people on what to do, but when they can organize themselves and comprehend what they are required to execute, then it will yield positive outcome regarding project management. Self-organization will increase delivery levels hence the fruitful project. Managers and stakeholders who can organize themselves will provide an effective and smooth flow of information and service delivery.
PRINCE2 “Agile” assumes that there should be an exploration in the system so that it can guide the project management team. Constant scrutiny and inspection help the management team to obtain many feedbacks that help the project change the activities or maintain for its success. The assumption applies to the entire organization that has decided to come up with the project since exploration requires the dedication of the entire team linked to the project. Therefore, exploration helps the project managers to get frequent feedbacks about the project so that they can decide whether to continue or change the strategies that they applied on the project.
Both PRINCE2 and PRINCE2 “Agile” do have some “seminaries”. The comparative analysis does not only seek to expound on the difference but also the similarities. Thus, both methodologies do have common assumptions that help project managers to brainstorm the best strategies that will lead to success. Both methodologies do have the same criteria when it comes to a framework, concepts, behaviors, and techniques (Mousaei & Javdani, 2018). Both PRINCE2 “Agile” and PRINCE2 have the same design. For instance, the PRINCE2 “Agile” uses the SCRUM philosophy. Also, the behaviors are the principles that guide the methods to yield a positive outcome.
3.2 Comparative analysis of the PRINCE2 “traditional” and PRINCE2 “agile” project management methodologies.
For any project to be successful, project management has to be involved, and this makes it a major requirement. The type of project management adapted and used in a particular project always determines its success or downfall. The different types of project management methodologies are suited for various projects in specificity. For a certain type of project management to be suitable, it has to meet various factors and determine its adaptability - the period in which a project is implemented, cost incurred and also its flexibility. Different methodologies have their own unique features which favor a particular requirement in a project. In this essay, a comparative analysis between the two project management shall be discussed. The two project management methodologies are Projects IN Controlled Environment (PRINCE2) and “Agile”. The standard guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) by PMI (2012) shall be used in their comparison (Siegelaub, J. M. 2004). Each project management approach shall be discussed separately but under the same framework. The conclusion shall bring out the major aspects discussed between the two methodologies.
3.2.1 Analysis Framework
There are 40 project management guidelines for the standard approach based on the PMI (2010). However, the complexity of the project is what determines the type of guideline to be used. As a result; when the 40 guidelines have well summarized the outcome is in four major processes. The four processes include project initiation, planning phase, execution and control also close out and evaluation. The named processes are applied in both the small and large scale projects, and the different approaches can always be compiled into the four phases.
This phase marks where the project in place starts. It includes different activities and events which depend on what the project is based on considering even the approach. During projects which are commercially oriented, this process always counts on every activity done prior to the sale of the project. The experts who provide service in this phase are held with the responsibility of proving eligibility and if the project has reached standards which are for competition. Also, there is the event where all the requirements needed are gathered, and the winner always jots the requirements by the client. Negotiations are keys in this process since they determine the amendment of the requirements. The sign-off is the last activity which takes place in this phase (Donald et al., 2008, p.52)
This is the most crucial part of any given project since it's the determinant factor. If only the management team does something wrong in this part, the whole project is rated as a fail as it's already jeopardized. So as to avoid this, the team needs to be very keen and conscious during this planning process. During this process, major plans are laid down so as to address such aspects which include the project scope, timing and the budget. After the plan is clearly established, a layout is developed as the resources are also allocated. Therefore, all the steps in this phase have to be followed to avoid failure of the whole project.
Execution and Control
Processes involved can also be divided into some of the projects which happen to be complex (David & Ronald 2006). Notably, execution and control always go together in medium and simple projects. Once a project passes the planning phase, and the resources are well allocated. The project has no option other than to continue. In this process, every member of the team has to carry out his/her responsibility without fail since it's a crowd sourcing event. For this process to flow smoothly, each and every activity has to be forwarded to the top management team, which sums up as to why weekly reports are submitted. The management team is always tasked as the overseer of the whole project, and its main business is to control the project. Control, in most cases, is always based on the adherence to the set objectives and protocols which include timelines. Once any rule has been violated, the management team has to come up with a different measure and immediately implement it. The implementation always limits the project from having negative effects. Similarly, some bodies which are independent are highly advisable during the control. Validation is what marks the end of this phase, which also marks a great success.
Closeout and Evaluation
Once all the processes have been achieved, the only thing remaining is handing over the project. If at all the processes gone through are in accordance with the client's requirements, then the only thing remaining is acceptance and payment completion. After the closeout process has taken place, the team has a chance of evaluating their project and brings out the mistakes and how they can be rectified in future. Some of the aspects which are checked on during evaluation include the deadlines which were not met and the margins which were not gained.
3.2.2 PRINCE2 approach
The concept of PRINCE2 project management originated from the PRINCE system which was already in use in the 1980’s and further developed by the UK government (Cresswell 2009). The original purpose of prince system was to give managers a framework for managing their IT projects. The scope of the system was later enhanced to make it more generic thereby birthing the PRINCE2 project management approach. This system applies to all management systems. There have been modifications of the system over the years.
The PRINCE2 management system is based on seven different principles. For any project management approach to be termed as PRINCE2 it has to adhere to the seven principles. Any project that only has PRINCE2 documentation but does not adhere to its processes cannot be termed PRINCE2. This is a unique feature of this system to encompass other management approaches. When used in combination with the waterfall management system PRINCE2 provides any project with the required leadership for its full implementation (Schwalbe 2014). Additionally, if PRINCE2 is tailored it can be used with the “agile” process since it is included in the seven principles which are listed below:
- To continue with business justification.
- To learn from experience.
- I have defined roles and responsibilities.
- Management is guided by stages.
- Exceptional management.
- Product-focused management.
- Tailored approach to suit the project environment.
In this phase under every project management approach, the idea for the project must be clearly defined. The team leader gathers the project team to case their individual project. The project team created in this first step ultimately forms the project management board. The board is then tasked with drawing up a sketch of the project which highlights its impact and viability.
The project board is in control of the project during this stage. Under the PRINCE2 management approach the board is in charge of overseeing and controlling the project (Malik, R. S., 2019). The board is therefore in charge of guiding the project towards the achievement of its objectives. Creswell stated the main purpose of the project board as supervision and not management since the project has a project manager.
Planning in PRINCE2 is made possible by activities done in the initiation stage. Therefore, the sketch prepared in the first stage is developed into a business and a case that supports the business in all angles. This stage involves the activities done in project control and the strategies put in place (Milosevic & Srivannabon 2006). The different teams working should be integrated through this project so as to achieve the common goal and the objectives in place. Time management is what guides this stage and also the availability of certain resources.
In this phase, the three major aspects should be defined. They include reporting and control management of the project. Also, the budget and time consumed should also count, the risks involved when carrying out this type of project management should also be involved.
Execution and Control
Once the plan has been authorized and approved, the project board gives the go-ahead for the implementation of the project (Donald et al., 2008). Every team member is involved during this process, no matter which role they play. In this process, PRINCE2 requires the various elements in project management; thus, the control system has to work together for the objectives to be attained. Some of the measures in this project include paying attention to the management plan, punctuality and effective use of the various resources put in place. The project board should also pay close attention to the issues and risks which happen to the project with each respective to their occurrence.
There are four execution processes which make this process crucial; they include:
- Who is doing what and when- each process is used independently as the resources being used and the routine are an incompletion. Through this, a milestone known as work product is achieved (OGC, 2009a).
- Risks that might affect work- the biggest role of the project manager is to monitor the project and ensure there are no risks. For this to take place, a good plan has to put in place.
- Dependence on deliverables- for PRINCE2 to effectively be executed, the project manager has to come up with a dependent deliverable for one team.
- Communication- communication is the key for any project to be a success, and thus, PRINCE2 is not left out. Communication should be proper and effective in a given environment to create a good flow.
The main objective of every project management approach is to deliver their projects on time and in good quality. Though this might vary depending on the description of the product and the guidelines put in place.
Closeout and Evaluation
Once all the project’s objectives are achieved, PRINCE2 always provides a formal process which always brings the project to a close. However, many projects downgrade this process (Bryman, 2008). This process requires the reallocation of personnel and the resources used. Evaluation is done, and all the stages are reviewed, and an audit is provided. This last process should always identify the next project in line and what the business needs to consider.
3.2.3 PRINCE2 “Agile” approach
When the regulation and direction of PRINCE2 and the flexibility of “agile” concepts are combined, the final product is PRINCE2 “Agile”.
“Agile” thinking promotes better communication, and mistakes can always be seen earlier. The “agile” way of thinking is all about flexibility, speed, and value appreciation. The present PRINCE2 processes and themes do not change, only that the agile way of thinking and working is incorporated in it. PRINCE2 “Agile” provides regulation, guidance, and modulation while working with “agile” convictions and techniques. In PRINCE2 “Agile”, the concentration lies in the use of PRINCE2 for project execution and coordination, and the “agile” way of thinking for the project process.
Fig 3.1:PRINCE2 with “Agile” development (Špundak, 2014).
PRINCE2 has six key parameters for project management: risks and benefits, scope, quality, time, and cost. Whereas PRINCE2 “Agile” deciphers the same key parameters for project management the only distinguishing factor is that in an “agile” approach, the time and cost are predetermined, scope and quality are relatively flexible, and the risks and benefits can be fixed or flexible (Alleman, 2005). There are five reasons for flexibility.
They are listed below:
- Be prompt and never miss a deadline.
- Ensure the quality is great, or according to the requirements.
- Be ready for change.
- Make sure the team is up and running.
- Keep it at the back of your mind that the user might need everything.
I will, in the following paragraphs, go into detail about how the themes, processes and concepts can be tailored to consolidate the “agile” way of thinking.
PRINCE2 has seven key concepts whereby if even one of these concepts is absent in a PRINCE2 project, then it cannot be called a PRINCE2 project. PRINCE2 “Agile”, however, contributes five more behavioral elements to it:
- Cooperation between the stakeholders and the various team members.
- Excellent communication, whether by email messages or by phone calls and by the text messages.
- The clarity concerning the project game plan.
- Self-regulation- commendation and facilitation of the team.
- Exploration- the curiosity over following orders.
Building up and commencing the project: Ensure during the beginning of a project, an initial evaluation of how much you can do to instill the “agile” way of thinking into the project. To carry out this “agile” appraisal, PRINCE2 Agile came up with the Agilometer. This assessment must be repeated at the commencement of the project and the different stages of development.
This is a ranking system that can be used to evaluate the readiness of the project environment in regards to the use of the “Agile” delivery. It is composed of six key areas to be used in assessing the use of “Agile” within the project:
- Acceptance of “Agile” by stakeholders, as not everyone is comfortable with “Agile” concepts.
- Satisfactory environmental factors, for example, the availability of training.
- Ability to insistently and progressive delivery.
- Clear and concise communication, which enables competent feedback, which is the main basis for adaptation (Agility).
- Height of cooperation and participation.
- Plasticity of what is delivered.
3.2.4 PRINCE2 and PRINCE2 "agile" strategy
The project administrator investigates and performs a survey for every key area for mandatory improvement and gives feedback on how agile the idea can be achieved. It is not as simple as 'yes' or 'no'. It doesn't add up to compute a mean of the six keys. This Agilometer is proportional to the “Agile” project inquisition from DSDM Dynamic systems development.
During the commencement of the project, it is important to find the correct equilibrium between the risks related to the project, and the attention to detail that should be put in order for the issues to be resolved in advance. The objective should be to increase the freedom to run the project. The establishment and commencement of the project stages are sometimes referred to as “sprint zero”, or the discovery stage; this is in regard to “Agile”. The Project Product Description is then called Project Backlog.
This framework can be used to determine the uncertainty of the project and thereafter, the outcome can aid in determining the best approach to the project management. The Cynefine model identifies five areas:
- Obvious: The relationship is straightforward.
- Complicated: Some form of survey is mandatory to understand the relationship.
- Complex: The relationship can only be deciphered in retrospect.
- Chaotic: There is no discernible relationship.
- Disorder: The relationship is unperceived.
Because of the consequential relationships, there is usually an unsophisticated project, especially in the complicated and complex domains. The more complicated it is in its environment, the more an “agile” way of thinking is advisable.
Directing the project:
With things going in the right direction, the product owner manages the “agile” process. In a project set up, we see PRINCE2 roles for the sponsor, senior user, and the senior supplier.
When it comes to easier projects, some of these roles can be combined, for example, the sponsor and the senior user role. It is important that the partnership has a solid foundation of trust. This leaves no room for pointing of fingers or the 'blame culture'. Empowerment and open, clear communication characterize management in a great way.
Fig 3.2: Five-Stages of Project Life cycle(Alleman, 2005)
Controlling a phase/ managing product delivery:
With PRINCE2 “Agile”, there is a chance that there are no phases, but only fixed time periods, whether inside releases or increments. Controlling a phase consists of cooperation, transparency and clear and open communication. Self-organization and flexibility are also a major part of controlling a phase.
Having persistent releases makes it manageable to harvest benefits early, collect speedy user feedback and cut down on risk.
It creates surety that a project will deliver and it will work to the interests of the stakeholders. It is easier to take small releases into production. This is after planning the releases so that it can be comprehensible which of the sub-products are distributed.
Manage a stage boundary:
During this stage, it is the key to evaluate how much is produced, the quality and the benefits. Furthermore, an evaluation of the “agile” way of thinking and the determination of the process used must be modified.
Closing the project:
The formal closure of a project, there is no much description on the “agile”; and there are different interim products that are delivered. Some activities may or may not conducted in the workshop form, this is what PRINCE2 emphasizes, and rating with the outcome from the original plan as agreed from the formal user acceptance.
Evaluation is needed from the process and also the “agile” user from the project, documentation finalized, and the final results transferred to the customer.
In PRINCE2, “Agile” is where you get all the ideas from PRINCE2. The topics found within the “agile” way are critical compared to others.
Business Justification: On the starting up stage, is where the entire project for the business case drawn; and updates done at the end of each stage level. It is imperative to define with clarity the minimum usable product, based on the list of requirements offered (what you must have). Individual functions of the added value prioritized in separate timeframes. No realization did for any purpose or feature that does not add any value to the organization.
Organization: In an “agile” project, the existence and the responsibilities of the executive known as the sponsor, the senior use and senior supplier are known and not form a user angle that is mostly known as the Business Ambassador (DSDM) Dynamic systems development method or the product owner. The manager's role does not have more of the facilitating responsibilities than the project manager.
Based on the “agile” approach used and the personal organizing ability of the development team, Team Manager's roles are usually filled in a formal way, or done by the SCRUM Master or the whole team is given the task to fulfill it.
The Project Manager needs to create a contact point with the team, and one of the team members involved as a business ambassador or product owner. When there is only one “agile” team engaged in the project, then there is a need to have one product owner or SCRUM Master should be enough. Work progress reported when it involves more teams than the SCRUM Masters, and product owners delegated.
The planned end date for each project must be known when the project set. A project plan should be overly drawn us because this will differentiate the actual “agile” project approach from the “agile” approach to maintenance; as this is part of the regular business operation. There is a need to limit the main topics or functions from the original project plan to support the unique set “agile” approach; helps to know of the time frame to complete the project and the estimated budget; ensuring that the tolerance is within the set functionalities.
Helps to know the timeframe of the projected plan clearly and in more details, the time and cost tolerances set to zero within the “agile” approach. Within the functionalities, understanding is where flexibilities found.
It is not a must to have any technique or approach in planning with PRINCE2 “Agile”. It is essential to consult with the project team when establishing a project plan within the “Agile” way and set out the timeframes for the team that does delivery. There are simple scoring systems should be set for the delivery team; this includes planning poker and T-shirt planning.
Product delivery is always focused on PRINCE2 “Agile” the same as in PRINCE2. In PRINCE2, it is not crucial if the project will be successful in delivering within the set timeframe; what matters is how the functionalities completed within the timeframe given.
Stand-up meetings, information radiators, board members, burn-up charts, and visual burn-down are some of the reporting methods that can be used for the projects by the team members.
Velocity concept generally used within the “agile” teams, it gives a measure of production for the development team for a specific time; it also determines the responsibilities of the group, what it learns and realizes more within a more extended time.
Within PRINCE2 “Agile”, this level gets the attention needed; the reason is that most of the risks associated with the projects are reduced using the approach in “agile”. New projects risk diminished because of the differences between the “agile” approach and unique environmental conditions.
The Agilometer is used to know the risks involved; what is shown by the Agilometer helps to change the approach towards the project. Moreover, the Cynefin model can be applied
It is imperative to have a less formal approach to quality strategic management when dealing with PRINCE2 “Agile”; there is a need to capture it. Is tested, what is needed to check it with the development team; and who will test within the time frame.
The results to be delivered, depends on the description of the project product; and changes within the organization.
The quality theme involves the criteria used for acceptance and the "Definition of Done." Within the product description, you find the requested products with the quality criteria. It is within the level of the project and user stories with the team members.
PRINCE2 is accepting change, for the product to be better; there is a need for change. It helps in connecting to the strategic plan of the company, user involvement is encouraged, and hence, the chances of more acceptance of the product are guaranteed.
Fixed configuration of the product needs to be changed, and this is important to distinguish it from the later elaboration of the setting within the development team and the end users. Changes should be monitored at all the project levels.
Within the “agile” projects, when new parts added, it means exchanged with less essential components; and the reason is there is usually no time or cost tolerance.
Lean start-up introduced within PRINCE2 all this is to embrace change. IT helps in learning faster and action accordingly. There is also a need to try the other methods and fail first, but also use the different products and learn from them as soon as possible. The products are always made for learning purposes and mostly deliver the anticipated value.
3.2.5 Combination of PRINCE2 and “agile”
The combination of ideas from the PRINCE2 management process and “agile” mode of thinking led to the development of the PRINCE2 “Agile” management projects. Only the management process is taken from PRINCE2 projects, and the “agile” part contributes to the encouragement of teamwork among the workers. The “agile” part also focuses on better deliverance of the product to the market. In PRINCE2 project management process tolerance to the quality of work delivered can be applied whereas in PRINCE2 “Agile” process the term tolerance is not in the vocabulary since quality is the essential and main purpose of the process. PRINCE2 management process is partly flexible in its delivering process.
Fig 3.3:Differences between 2 methodologies (Špundak, 2014).
Prince2 “Agile” maintains flexibility in the parameters to ensure that:
- Ensure that quality is maintained.
- Provide room for change.
- Enhance teamwork.
- Keep time and ensure deadlines are met.
- Make sure that the needs of different people are met.
Principles of PRINCE2 agile
PRINCE2 “Agile” principles are (Darwish, 2015);
- Transparency- this principle states that all details relating to the project should be made available to all the parties.
- Cooperation- unity among all parties involved in the project should be maintained.
- Communication-there should be smooth communication flow from the top level management to the lowest level management.
- Coordination- to ensure that all the activities of the project are directed toward achieving the set goals.
- Self-organization- this is to ensure that the roles and responsibilities of all involved in the project are well clearly stated.
Fig 3.4:Analysis of the PRINCE2 & agile (Cooke, 2016).
3.3 Comparative Analysis
PRINCE2 “traditional” demonstrates old features of PRINCE2 that does not apply to the “agile” environment. However, the PRINCE2 “Agile” shows the application of both PRINCE2 and “Agile” to guide the project managers to control and make the project success even if they are complex and vast in size. The methodologies are different in the sense that they operate differently regarding the focus, activities, and planning.
PRINCE2 “traditional” focuses on the importance of the interface or rather the process of the project. The process of a project entails all the steps from the beginning to the end of the project. The type of methodology aims to manage and control the process of the project.
PRINCE2 merely requires the approaches of handling or governing any development without the dissection or breakdown of the projects into minor, controllable portions. PRINCE2 encompasses of a customary of seven principles. These principles are also painstaking as the guiding compulsions essential by the PRINCE2 project. It has seven refrains involved in the project supervision process. There is a set of dispensation involved in lifecycle of PRINCE2 project. This progression lastly modifies the project environment more successfully. PRINCE2 project board entails of the team members as well as Senior Users, Executive and Senior suppliers. The alteration in authority thru the project management area might also occur particularly by changing the level of accountability. These fees are charged mainly for the authorization and for various tools used for the accompanying the exploration.
In the “PRINCE2 Agile” procedure, the learning consequences are never written down by the team while in, the conclusions are preserved and stored for forthcoming reference. “Agile” constantly attentions on sprouting the effort in a given advance other than credentials, while PRINCE2 contemplations on authorizations. In “Agile”, the team is always unbiased and is open to other openings while in PRINCE2, the team is inadequate to opportunities. PRINCE2 always everything with bulky projects, while agile works with small and medium projects. PRINCE2 is always overriding whenever a project is being agreed out and cannot be allied with another methodology. PRINCE2 “Agile” methodology can constantly be used along with other types of methodologies in a given project. This is possible because of its dexterity (Sommer, 2015).
Comparative analysis would be directed by directing the classic associate and contrast between the two stuffs.
PRINCE2 is a elegant supervision methodology that splits the projects into comparatively small phases for better supervision and control. On the other indicator, PRINCE2 “Agile” integrates litheness and obligation of “agile” under the guidance of PRINCE2 (Cooke, 2016). Assumptions are classically rules and features that exist in PRINCE2 and PRINCE2 “Agile”. Therefore, concluded the use of the algorithm and principles of both methodologies, there will make an exact Proportional analysis between them. The regulation of the methodologies search for to illustrate on principles while the structures are the typical criteria in a controlled situation. This project inquest from DSDM Dynamic arrangements progress.
consumers is less of their concern. Now, this has a few side effects on the quality of the products being supplied since less concern or attention is given to them.
The working environment of the workers may also compromise the effectiveness of the products being supplied since less attention and supervision is given to them. In PRINCE2 “Agile” quality of the products is the first priority, now due to this, the methodology and the condition of all the workers are keenly put into consideration so that quality work can be delivered (Benedicenti, 2017).
In conclusion, PRINCE2 is a predictive methodology that guides the project managers to execute their skills and knowledge on the project. However, the PRINCE2 “Agile” benefit from the interface of PRINCE2 and team creation of “agile”. Their assumptions are based on their rules and features, for instance, different principles, framework, and techniques. Further, the critical difference between the two is the planed based methodology and integration of both predictive and adaptive methodologies.
REMARK: O.K. The Third Chapter contains description of the differences between two project management methodologies: PRINCE2 “traditional” and PRINCE2 “Agile”. but this is not a comparative analysis! At most only a comparison. Why didn't you use the formulas presented in the MA thesis? Because stage inscriptions where the project in place flinches. It contains diverse happenings and events which hinge on on what the development is constructed on bearing in mind even the tactic. Thru ventures which are commercially preoccupied with, this development continually tallies on every movement done erstwhile to the sale of the project. The connoisseurs who offer provision in this segment are apprehended with the concern of demonstrating suitability and if the development has stretched canons which are for struggle. Also, there is the happening where all the necessities looked-for are congregated, and the conqueror constantly jots the necessities by the patron. Conferences are explanations in this progression since they regulate the revision of the necessities. The sign-off is the last motion which takings place in this segment.
Why is the MA thesis missing at least one table presenting a summary of the results of your comparative analysis? Because to this stimuluses the necessity to dominant the processes used for proportional scrutiny with affections to their submission in gaging the superiority and extensiveness of the venture scope explanations. This is completed by bearing in mind the essentials derivative from the commonsense perception of the literature assessment where a study is commenced to demonstrate the legitimacy and import of the fundamentals. Additionally, the appraisal progression comprises conveying hefts to the essentials in directive of their protagonists as to empower the progress of a memo grounded on the verdicts and principally, their scope characterizations. One of the utmost métiers of “sprightly” is the capability to categorize the extents within the project which prerequisite intense devotion and one-to-one care, and this is thru probable by consecutively the chief elements through innumerable procedures.
REMARK: In addition, you repeat the same text repeatedly. Why?
Because of Project supervision has developed a vivacious and gradually high-regarded cleverness in up-to-date corporate. There are continuously prospects for establishments to modification and progress, whether this means decontaminating their interior edifices, enlightening their contributions, or everything experimental. Compact project supervision is merely a technique for officialdoms to accomplish these fluctuations on stint, within economical and through a make the most of equal of superiority. The development of project management, as a well-defined chastisement has commanded to the common salutation of two imperative actualities. The first is that commercial developments come with a numberless of unalike jeopardies, necessities and contemplations. Wearisome to misrepresent the whole shebang without a indistinct context or method is an practically certain way to not only struggle a venture out but also unconsciously interference the eminence of the end merchandise and surplus imperative possessions.
At the similar stretch, project managers must preserve a notch of litheness. This could discuss to acclimatizing in the face of unpredicted questions, entertaining possessions, or even modifying a agenda in order to better billet certain commerce, subdivisions or project types. Not every one strange can be prophesied and arranged for, so executives must authorization themselves with adequate self-determination to acclimatize and have projects on trail. This assortment of regulator and suppleness is knowledgeably transported by PRINCE2 “Lithe”. The amalgamation of Projects IN Meticulous Situations and “Agile”, the background accentuates designed project administration along with agile project development delivery.
4. Summary and Conclusions
Project management has become a vital and increasingly high-regarded skill in modern business. There are always opportunities for organizations to change and develop, whether this means refining their internal structures, improving their offerings, or anything else. Solid project management is simply a way for organizations to achieve these changes on time, within budget and with a maximized level of quality. The growth of project management, as a defined discipline has led to the widespread acknowledgment of two important truths. The first is that corporate projects come with a myriad of different risks, requirements and considerations. Trying to juggle everything without a clear framework or methodology is an almost surefire way to not only drag a project out but also inadvertently sabotage the quality of the end product and waste important resources.
At the same time, project managers must maintain a degree of flexibility. This could refer to adapting in the face of unforeseen issues, diverting resources, or even amending a framework in order to better accommodate certain industries, sectors or project types. Not every unknown can be predicted and prepared for, so managers must leave themselves with enough freedom to adapt and keep projects on track. This mixture of control and flexibility is expertly delivered by PRINCE2 “Agile”. The combination of PRojects IN Controlled Environments and “Agile”, the framework emphasizes structured project management alongside agile project delivery.
Many have argued that also as compared in this thesis, the two frameworks seem incompatible. PRINCE2 is prescriptive, while “agile” is more about flexible project delivery. However, the reality is that PRINCE2 “Agile” offers the best of both standards, with the flexibility and responsiveness of Agile enhancing PRINCE2’s proven methodology, and vice versa.
It is also worth pointing out there has always been a degree of overlap between the two. PRINCE2 project management, for example, encourages ‘tailoring’ so that users can amend the framework to make it suit their own requirements. “Agile”, meanwhile, offers clear instructions on a number of common aspects, such as risk, quality, planning and change management, and so on. This leaves the two standards better able to bring out the best in each other for the sake of creating a much more effective overall approach to project management.
As we mentioned previously, one of the biggest reasons behind the need for flexibility in project management is the fact that no two projects are the same. Factors such as risks and stakeholder requirements can vary significantly, even between two projects at the same company. When looking at the number of differences between projects in different countries, sectors or industries, it should be clear that a top-tier project management framework must have a significant degree of adaptability in order for it to be relevant.
The agility of PRINCE2 makes it very useful for this necessity. PRINCE2 enables the manager to constantly adjust to changes in the business environment with relative ease, boost transparency and reduce risk even when the project is active.
It would not be wrong to conclude that H3 (???) has proved to be more effective where PRINCE2 “Agile” is more effective as compared to PRINCE2 methodology as it provides a more comprehensive explanation to the resources being used in the organization and also allows to provide not only the monitoring but also the evaluation of the resources used in various project management procedures. This is a more effective framework which offers clear instructions for effective change management procedure within the organization. Since the organization needs flexibility as its major component in order to comply with the basic needs and demands of the organization. This methodology would also ensure effective implementation of all the resources available and to inculcate the right amount of flexibility within the organizational culture. PRINCE2 methodology on the other hand ensures inculcating flexibility into the organizational culture. This allows the organization to ensure effective utilization of all the resources being used in the process throughout the organizational culture and also to be able to enable various functions of the organization to implement more effectively.
There is no denying that utilizing both the methods would be more effective as compared to using only one strategy.
It would not be wrong to say theta the hypothesis of the thesis has been achieved for the thesis. A combination of both PRINCE2 and PRINCE2 “Agile” can be more fruitful. This is simply because the customers may be treated on the basis of the PRINCE2 process alone where they will be dealing with the manager of the company or the organization without knowing what happens on the ground (Zawadzki, 2018). It is the simplest, efficient and first method of handling the customers. The workers may be encouraged to perform their duties on the basis of PRINCE2 “Agile” project since they will be working as a team in order to meet certain goals. In conclusion, the use of any of the two project management method without proper knowledge will automatically lead to the downfall of any organization. None of the two would guarantee someone success in whatever they are doing. Skills, determination, and self-drive are some of the few qualities that can lead to prosperity.
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