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Analysis of the positive economic, cultural and ethical impacts

The analysis of the positive economic, cultural and ethical impacts that globalisation has on different business functions of Marks and Spencer

Introduction

With the stepping of the world into the age of globalisation, there are diverse ways in which businesses are being affected, both positively and negatively. This project has been prepared on the organisation Marks and Spencer with the objective of determining the positive impacts that globalisation has had in terms of economics, culture and ethics over the organisation’s business functions, for example, HR, marketing, operations and accounting. It will illustrate the different benefits the organisation has had in terms of enhancement of business functions because of the ways in which globalisation affects it economically, ethically and culturally in a positive manner.

Part 1 - Evidence: Project Management Plan

Project definition

Project is defined as the initiation of the management of an organization is it firm or an educational institute to come out with sound resolution that will be highlighting some subjects (Lock, 2017). Project generally starts with a group of candidates with the project manager. The project manager takes the responsibility of allocating the tasks to different employees in an organization. It has been found that project requires the tasks to be completed in timeframe, for which some effective tools are used such as Work Breakdown Structure, Action Plan and Gantt Chart (Harrison and Lock, 2017). Project involves risks which are identified with the help of Risk Analysis and the mitigation techniques are also followed.

The purpose of the project has been to analyse the various positive economic, ethical and cultural impact that globalization has caused on Marks and Spencer. This project will highlight about the impacts like the changes it has caused in the business functions of the concerned company. The project has particularly aimed to highlight the impacts that globalization on different functions like the changes in the cultural behaviours of the employees and the functions carried out by them. Marks and Spencer has occupied a good leading position in the UK market and major proportion has been due to the implementation of the changes that globalization has brought into concept. Due to strategic planning in the HR department of Marks and Spencer, positive economic growth has been observed. It is true that companies operate for the purpose of gaining maximum benefits with the help of innovation.

Problem statement

Marks and Spencer due to acquiring a strong position in the UK retail market, faces numerous challenges which when not considered will drop down the position instantly. Therefore the problem is that Marks and Spencer should have adequate management skills so that the operations can be performed efficiently and in an enhanced manner. It has been observed that Marks and Spencer has rival companies like that of Asda, Tesco Plc and Sainsbury operating in the same sector with almost same kinds of products. The concerned company therefore has to be careful and strategic enough in taking decision about the departments of the organization. The focus of the management should be to increase the collaboration among the departments so that competitive advantage can be gained (Cleveland et al., 2016). However some companies fail to highlight the positive cultural, economic and ethical impacts of globalization. This project will demonstrate about the positive effects that Marks and Spencer has gained with the implementation of innovation in the functional departments. The research post investigation will oversee that the organization has been able to achieve positive growth or not with globalization.

It will also be evident post research whether globalization has really brought positive changes in the economic, ethical and cultural norms of the organization. The project will also discuss about the growth of the industry with the help of globalization.

Project strategy

The strategy with which the project has been prepared is conducting a survey on what the employees at Marks and Spencer opine regarding the positive economical, ethical and cultural impacts of globalisation over the organisation’s business functions. In order to do so, a questionnaire with closed ended questions has been prepared. The strategy also involves conducting interviews of three managers in the organisation with open-ended questions to understand what they think the positive economical, ethical and cultural impacts of globalisation are due to globalisation.

Project objectives

Development of proper aim and objectives is necessary for all projects, no matter how big or small it is (Harrison and Lock, 2017). The project aims at finding out the different positive ways in which globalisation influences the diverse business functions within Marks and Spencer in terms of economic factors, culture and ethics.

On the contrary, the objectives of the project include the following -

  • To assess the positive implications of globalisation on an organisation
  • To investigate the positive economic impacts that globalisation has on the diverse business functions in Marks and Spencer
  • To evaluate the positive cultural impacts of globalisation over the business functions of Marks and Spencer
  • To analyse the positive ethical impacts that globalisation has on the diverse business functions in Marks and Spencer

Performance, cost, and time objectives

In case of this project, the performance objective is to estimate the benefits and the positive effects the globalisation has had not only economically, but also in terms of culture and ethics on the operations, the marketing activities, the HR functions and accounting processes of the organisation Marks and Spencer.

However, in order to commence with any project, it is necessary to conduct a detailed analysis of the costs that will be required for commencing and completing it (Serrador and Turner, 2015). In case of this project, the following is the budgeted cost -

Activities

Cost per hour

Time

Total cost

Access to resources such as books, articles, journals and others

20.00

20 hours

400.00

Survey related expenses

25.00

20 hours

500.00

Questionnaire designing and printing

30.00

30 hours

900.00

Stationery, transportation and other related expenses

-

-

200.00

Total Amount

£ 2,000.00

Table 1: Budgeted project cost

(Source: Created by the learner)

Time is another important factor in case of the success of a project (Larson and Gray, 2017). In case of this project, the approximate time that has been estimated is 3 months (February 2019 to May 2019). The breakdown of the tasks along with the timeline has been attached at the end of this project management plan.

Deliverables

In case of this particular project, the deliverables include the determination of how Marks and Spencer is impacted economically, as well as culturally and ethically from globalisation. These impacts, however, involve the positive impact and finding out how Marks and Spencer’s business units, for example, marketing, HR, operations and accounting are improving due to these impacts.

Project scope statement

The scope statement in the project refers to the goals that are to be achieved and the objectives that are designed keeping in line with the issue. The scope also includes the timeframe, the budget of the resources that will be used in the project, the features and the limitations as well. The scope of the project is to identify the positive economic, cultural and ethical impact that Marks and Spencer is having on the implementation of globalization.

Included scope

Included scopes are listed in the following:

  • The positive economic impact of globalization on the functions of Marks and Spencer
  • The positive cultural and ethical impact that globalization has created in Marks and Spencer
  • The project will also determine if the contributions are realistic in nature or not

Excluded scope

Excluded scope will refer to the limitations or the barriers that the research has faced in the project.

  • These scopes are not included in the project but will have impact on the operations of the research.
  • The problems that the research has faced in the completion of the project

Quality management

Quality management oversees that the quality of the project is maintained. It has been the responsibility of the project manager to take care that the questions asked in the research or the surveys are qualitative in nature (Oakland and Marosszeky, 2017). Maintaining the quality ensures that project will give concrete and sound outcome that will help for future project to take place relevantly. As the project is about leading company Marks and Spencer, the questions should be framed in a way that it may give enriched answers. Quality answers will consist of the process of collecting report about the feedbacks from the employees, from the executives and that of the top management.

Risks

Risks refer to the potential threats that may incur in the project. In the project, risks may take place with time, resources, budget and the quality issue with the employees while collecting feedback. During the project, employees may lack the motivation and the will to continue in the process of collecting reports (Rodney et al., 2015). The budget may run short while utilizing the resources. Due to carrying interviews and surveys from the executives and understanding the impacts on a realistic basis may take time. Time will be a problem as it will involve management of the people, allocation of the resources and the communication of the project objectives and goals.

Resources

Resources for carrying out the research will be pen, paper, laptops, papers and money. Pen and paper will be used for collecting information from the executives and then noting it down. Laptop may be required to maintain statistical data about the respondents and the ratio of positive and negative impacts.

Success criteria

The success criteria of the project will be to highlight that the globalization has positive cultural, economic and ethical impacts on the performance of Marks and Spencer. The surveys will help in assessing the various changes that globalization has caused changes in the behaviours of the employees and the functional departments as well.]

Project assumptions

The assumptions have been made on the project that globalization has caused positive impact on the ethical, economic and cultural behaviours of the organization (Kerzner, 2017). This is the reason that Marks and Spencer has funded the project to take place.

Implementation plan

The project manager has to oversee that the strategic decisions are taken and effective plans are implemented that will be in line with the goals, objective and the procedures by which the research can meet with the desired outcome and prove the topic to be either realistic or an assumption in nature.

Work breakdown structure

Tasks

Start Date

Duration (in days)

End Date

Developing the aims and objectives of the project

2.2.19

4

6.2.19

Planning the project and preparing its strategy

6.2.19

3

9.2.19

Meeting with stakeholders and explanation of the project to them

9.2.19

4

13.2.19

Deciding and preparing the project budget and timeline

13.2.19

6

19.2.19

Designing of the questionnaire for respondents and preparing the questionnaire

19.2.19

7

26.2.19

Arrangement of meeting with Marks and Spencer’s manager for collecting e-mail address of respondents

26.2.19

5

3.3.19

Hiring a research assistant for helping in the interviews and survey

3.3.19

7

10.3.19

Purchasing all necessary materials

10.3.19

3

13.3.19

Survey questionnaire sent to the respondents

13.3.19

7

20.3.19

Interview of the managers at Marks and Spencer

20.3.19

7

27.3.19

Collection of data

27.3.19

10

6.4.19

Analysis of the data collected

6.4.19

14

20.4.19

Drawing conclusions on research

20.4.19

3

23.4.19

Documentation of the outcomes

23.4.19

4

27.4.19

Preparation of the final research report

27.4.19

7

4.5.19

Table 2: Work breakdown structure

(Source: Created by the learner)

Schedule (Gantt chart)

TASKS

1 to 2 weeks

2 to 3 weeks

3 to 4 weeks

4 to 5 weeks

5 to 6 weeks

6 to 8 weeks

8 to 10 weeks

10 to 12 weeks

12 to 14 weeks

Developing the aims and objectives of the project

Planning the project and preparing its strategy

Meeting with stakeholders and explanation of the project to them

Deciding and preparing the project budget and timeline

Designing of the questionnaire for respondents and preparing the questionnaire

Arrangement of meeting with Marks and Spencer’s manager for collecting e-mail address of respondents

Hiring a research assistant for helping in the interviews and survey

Purchasing all necessary materials

Survey questionnaire sent to the respondents

Interview of the managers at Marks and Spencer

Collection of data

Analysis of the data collected

Drawing conclusions on research

Documentation of the outcomes

Preparation of the final research report

Table 3: Gantt chart

(Source: Created by the learner)

Project processes

Project process states the research procedure to be conducted that will help in reaching to the goals and the objectives within timeframe (Muller, 2017). For the project to reach to an end with sound solution the project manager has to communicate the goals and the objectives to the employees so that they can think of creative ideas and at the same time put labour to reach to the conclusion. The project has to have deadline, budget allocation, work breakdown structure and deliverables so that the project can follow in an order. The initiation of the project will take place with a planning between the team members and the project head. The start date and the end date of this particular project will be decided by the project manager and make allocation of the tasks so that the deadline can be maintained. A project can only be successful when it has developed certain strategy and are working as team to complete the project.

Communication plan

What

Target

Purpose

Frequency

Method

Project initial conference

People involved in the project

Communicating about the project details including the budget, time, people and even of the process to be carried out

10th June to 15th June

Meeting

Team meeting

People involved in the project

Allocate specific tasks and then make the employees aware of the strategy

Every day.

Meeting

Meeting of project investors

The project manager and the investors

Benefits of the project and the resources that will be required.

12th July as now the members are aware of the project

Meeting and use of PPT

Meetings of Marks and Spencer managers

Project manager and the departmental managers

Getting approval of collecting feedback from the manager

15th July.

Meeting

Review of the project

Project manager and stakeholders and the employee representative

Make the stakeholders aware of the various progress about the project

15th July to 10th August

Electronic report (email)

Employee team meetings

Leaders and the employees

Hiring the employee who will collect surveys and communicating to others of the performance of the tasks like risks analysis and others.

15th Auguts

Meeting

Document Sharing Meeting

Team members

The team will be made aware of the various whereabouts and then will send out the details in soft copies to each members

August

Electronic documentation

(by email)

Final Report Meeting

Project Team

The final report has to be documented.

Previous to the ending week

Meeting

Table 2: Communication Plan

(Source: by Learner)

Part 2 - Evidence: Project Log Book (Appendix 1)

Carry out small-scale research by applying quantitative and qualitative research methods appropriate for meeting aims and objectives

For meeting the research objective, specific research methodology is followed that involves primary data and the secondary data. The research methodology will help in collecting and analysing the data and bring out the outcome in line with the objectives. To be specific, in this research methodology, quantitative research has been carried out since it will collect feedbacks from the employees about the changes in the culture, economical and ethical structure of the firm and whether the impact of the globalization has been positive or negative.

Secondary data collection

Secondary data collection has been the method where information is gathered from the books and the journals and then statements are made. However, in this research secondary research methodology has not being followed since it has not being found relevant for this particular project. For secondary methods, online sources and journals are taken as it gives evidence that ar been presented earlier. However, it must be noted that for reaching to a solution its always better to approach with primary sources.

Primary data collection

Primary Sources includes the collection of data first hand that is either through interviews or surveys through questionnaires (Flaherty et al., 2015). In this project primary source of data has been used as it will be helpful in understanding the impact of globalization from the managers and the employees. Primary data collection will help to analyse the impacts or the change in the cultural aspects and the following of ethical principles has contributed impact or not in the performance. In this project, questions are being used for getting actual feedbacks from the employees and managers since they will be able to provide the answer in the best form.

For this project, quantitative research method has been carried out as it would help to get statistical data about the impacts of globalization (Bryman, 2017).

Part 3 - Evidence: Performance Review

Data analysis

For this particular project, data analysis has been followed by preparing questionnaires for about 100 respondents being the employees of Marks and Spencer. They will be able to provide accurate information about whether globalization has created positive economic, cultural and ethical implications or not. For quantitative analysis, tools like Excel have been used.

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis:

Q1. Gender

Options

Number of respondents

Total number of respondents

Percentage

Male

50

100

50

Female

50

100

50

Others

0

100

0

Gender Analysis

From the figure, it can be found that Marks and Spencer has equal proportion of male and female employed in the organization. The figure itself has given the evidence of positive impact of globalization. Ethically, globalization has ensured there are no discriminations in the employment sector and Marks and Spencer has followed this ethical principle with sound internal environment

Q2: Do you agree that Globalization has changed the thinking of the management and the employees towards the company and cultural wise?

Options

Number of respondents

Total number of respondents

Percentage

Good

70

100

70

Average

30

100

30

Poor

0

100

0

Number of employees agreeing that globalization has brought positive change in the cultural behaviours of the organization.

From the figure, it is evident that globalization has been the central reason behind Marks and Spencer achieving success with remarkable growth in the industry. It has been found that there are changes in the cultures of the organization and has been positive in nature as responded by the employees

Q3: How much has been the increase in the GDP due to globalization in Marks and Spencer?

Options

Number of respondents

Total number of respondents

Percentage

High

70

100

70

Good

20

100

20

Average

10

100

10

Growth in the GDP due to globalization

From the figure, it is evident that a huge proportion for about 70% of the employees believes that globalization has contributed in increasing the GDP of the country. The growth has been with innovation, the company has changed the cultural interaction among the employees for which employees are performing in a committed manner. Moreover innovation has introduced new product designs that are meeting the needs of the customers.

Q4: Has Marks and Spencer being more ethical (Employment Rights, Data Protection Act and other acts) with the implementation of globalization?

Options

Number of respondents

Total number of respondents

Percentage

Yes

60

100

60

Not sure

30

100

30

No

10

100

10

From the figure, it has been evident that Marks and Spencer with the adaption of ethical principles, has acquired the loyalty of the customers and that of the employees. From the figure, it can be stated that about 60 % of the employees believed that it had high impact and that too has helped the organization in being ethical in operations. However, still there are 30 % employees who are not sure whether the organization has fully incorporated or not.

Q5. How much increase has there being in sale due to globalization?

Options

Number of respondents

Total number of respondents

Percentage

Profitable

70

100

70

Average

30

100

30

Low

0

100

0


From the figure, it has been evident that about 70% of the employees believe that there has been hike in the sale due to globalization. It must not be forgotten that the rise in the sale has been due to the primary efforts taken by the management in incorporating features of globalization so that it can have positive impact on Marks and Spencer.

Appropriate recommendations and conclusion

From the research, it is suggested that along with the positive impact, Marks and Spencer should also consider the negative impacts. Strategies should be developed along with positive impact to highlight and face the negative impacts like fluctuations in the cost, terrorism and the Trade disputes (Kliem and Ludin, 2019). Marks and Spencer should also focus in making the team members develop certain personal skills through the project so that they can acquire better skill for future. For the research, the project manager should give visual presentation of the procedures through which the employees will get better idea of the carrying out of the research. Secondary data could have collected to reflect on the impacts of globalization on other companies to show a contrast.

Reflection on the value of undertaking the research to meet stated objectives and own learning and performance

For the research project, it is good to see that following the Gantt Chart and the Work breakdown structure, the project has been completed in time. During the research, it has been considered to keep the questions session as ethical and not personal in any kind. The project has been able to meet the objectives with the help of primary data resources.

Reference list

Bryman, A., 2017. Quantitative and qualitative research: further reflections on their integration. In Mixing methods: Qualitative and quantitative research (pp. 57-78). Routledge.

Cleveland, M., Rojas-Méndez, J.I., Laroche, M. and Papadopoulos, N., 2016. Identity, culture, dispositions and behavior: A cross-national examination of globalization and culture change. Journal of Business Research, 69(3), pp.1090-1102.

Flaherty, T.B., Honeycutt, E.D. and Powers, D., 2015. Exploring text-based electronic mail surveys as a means of primary data collection. In Proceedings of the 1998 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference (pp. 260-264). Springer, Cham.

Harrison, F. and Lock, D., 2017. Advanced project management: a structured approach. Routledge.

Harrison, F. and Lock, D., 2017. Advanced project management: a structured approach. Routledge.

Kerzner, H., 2017. Project management metrics, KPIs, and dashboards: a guide to measuring and monitoring project performance. John Wiley & Sons.

Kliem, R.L. and Ludin, I.S., 2019. Reducing project risk. Routledge.

Larson, E.W. and Gray, C.F., 2017. Project management: The managerial process. McGraw-Hill Education.

Lock, D., 2017. The essentials of project management. Routledge.

Muller, R., 2017. Project governance. Routledge.

Oakland, J. and Marosszeky, M., 2017. Total construction management: Lean quality in construction project delivery. Routledge.

Rodney, E., Ducq, Y., Breysse, D. and Ledoux, Y., 2015. An integrated management approach of the project and project risks. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 48(3), pp.535-540.

Serrador, P. and Turner, R., 2015. The relationship between project success and project efficiency. Project Management Journal, 46(1), pp.30-39.

Appendices

Project Log Book

Name:

Project Title:

Managing a Successful Business Project analysis of the positive economic, cultural and ethical impacts that globalisation has on different business functions of Marks and Spencer

Date:

Date: Update on weekly research/tasks achieved

Points to consider: Time management skill

What have you completed?

In the first week completed the project strategy and the project communication plan

Did you fulfil task requirements?

Yes

Are you on track and within deadlines set?

Yes

Did you need to make any changes to your project management plan?

No

Any risks and/or issues identified?

Budget

Points to consider: As it is huge process involving surveys and questionnaires, budget may be required due to extension of time

Did you identify risks/issues with a lack of skills required for undertaking research/tasks?

No

Did you identify any additional risks/issues that have an impact on the project management plan?

No

Problems encountered

Communication issue

Points to consider:

At the research process, some of the members were unable to remember the tasks allocated to them

What barriers did you face?

Not so much

How did you overcome them?

For communication, visual presentation was used and documentation was followed so that eacg members wrote their tasks

New ideas and change of project direction

No

Appendix 2

Performance Review

What was the project supposed to accomplish?

To accomplish the positive impacts of ethical, cultural and economic in Marks and Spencer due to globalization

  • Did the project succeed in its aims? How do you know? Specifically, please outline any evaluation and assessment undertaken.

Yes the project was successful in its aim. As I was a member of the group and from the beginning I was there till the project ended.

  • What things do you think worked well and why? Evaluate all aspects of the project (e.g. initial inception, project activities and project outcomes) from a range of perspectives.

The Work Breakdown worked well because it gave clear idea of the works to be conducted following the schedule

Initial inception was good as the project manager illustrated about all the details along with the project process and the strategy. Project activities included collecting feedbacks from the employees and managers of Marks and Spencer

  • What problems emerged during the project and how were they tackled? Was there timely identification of issues and resolution during the project process?

Time management was an issue as the project was taking time in collecting feedbacks from the employees. Due to busy schedule of the manager, they were not able to make up with our time schedule and this was a problem at the starting.

  • What did you learn from undertaking the project?How would you rate your performance as Project Manager?

My performance as project manager was 70% since I had learnt few skills while I was learning in my University in the course of Business management. From the project I understood that research methodology is an important part of the research to collect information.

  • What strengths and weaknesses of your performance did you identify?

My strength was my communication skill and my weakness was maintenance of the budget and problem solving skill

  • How will this inform and support your continuous professional development?

Continuous professional development when undertaken will focus on the lacking skill and this project will be a guideline for me to learn new lessons and improve my skills within timeframe.

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