ASSESSMENT ITEM 3
GLOBAL MEDIA: ASIA- PACIFIC PERSPECTIVES
The Global map acts as a set of digital maps that seek to focus on the global environment thereby developing cooperation with the various countries. It further focuses on the political, economic and social functions that relate to the media industry and institutions thereby emphasizing on the media content and their discourse. Further emphasis is laid on the various media markets and consumptions thereby emphasizing on a selected Asia pacific geo-political state thereby seeking attention towards the necessary changes that are required to be made within the local, domestic, national and regional media platforms thereby widening the process of globalization further (Starke, Naab & Scherer, 2016). The study further emphasizes on explaining the various reasons that relate to the outlets within the chosen country with special focus on the important factor that relate to the global media. Emphasis is laid on gaining influence of the country thereby identifying their global media outlets duly. This further follows an analysis based on the various attributes that relate to the chosen media outlets thereby emphasizing on a comparison made with the mainstream local media outlets and the other global media outlets. An explanation is made based on the impact that global media outlets have laid on the country with special focus on the changes made and the various theories that have been applied to cope up with them.
Defining global media and explaining the different reasons for their information and influence on the chosen country
Global media and communication seeks to widen the connectivity and sharing of the relative contents with focus on the mobilization across geographic, political, economic, social and cultural divides. They further have laid emphasis on the soft and hard power and the information powers thereby using the various traditional theories into account to widen the internal relations amongst the countries effectively (Ranjan, 2016). The emergence of globalization has further laid on an increase in the digital communications among the suppliers and the consumers thereby widening the commercial media market further. This follows the use of the media systems thereby developing a global market. This greatly helps to develop a global perspective with special focus on the transnational, national, regional and local factors.
With the rise and a positive impact on the global media on the countries, it is evident that global media has laid a massive influence by using its various subsets such as media, content, government, regulations and funding. Each type of media plays an important role in their user contents and devices thereby emphasizing on an effective communication and entertainment for all. The entire phenomenon of globalization lays down a massive impact upon the various approaches that relate to the connectivity among the various countries. Focus is further laid on an effective sharing of information with special focus on the media they use and the expansion that takes place as a result of it. The globalization theory clearly justifies the fact thereby emphasizing on the development of a suitable interaction and integration between people, companies and countries at large (Stier, 2015). Taking the example of Bhutan as the country under focus, it is evident that the country has been able to incorporate the media consumption thereby emphasizing on a massive time spending on reading newspapers and magazines and watching television news and current affairs. There has also been noted an increasing accessibility and influence on the Bhutanese media thereby widening their socio political situations. This further has helped them to set their priorities right and focus on the traditional media and journalism thereby laying down a strong influence on their technological developments. This has further helps them to widen and diversity their middle class sections thereby leading to a democratic wave and evolution of their systems and ideologies further (Ray & Das, 2015). There has been noted a major improvement within the country’s transformation within their social, economic and political systems thereby emphasizing on the meet of their long term visions for future. They have further adapted to an effective media policy and international relation with other major countries thereby managing their entire regulation and governance. This further seeks to meet the interest of the citizens and consumers thereby emphasizing on a corporate media and public interest.
The country having a diverse culture also has greatly experienced a major influence on the younger generation in Bhutan thereby reshaping their values and beliefs greatly. This further follows emphasis on the development and growth of the country’s important factors such as religion, Politics and political policies (Avieson, 2015). This follows emphasis on the various music, mobile and television shows thereby emphasizing on a suitable technological development within. Media in Bhutan has laid down focus on a variety of factors including the television shows, the radio stations, music, movies and such thereby being able to influence on the various decisions that are laid down to develop the entire system and beliefs. This further follows emphasis on the growth of religious belief of the country along with the political beliefs and the overall meaning of life. The various media products that lie within the country are also able to generate a lump sum amount of money thereby emphasizing on the use of the products that relate to the changing identities of the people (Mitra & Thaliyakkattil, 2018). This further requires spaying much heed and attention to the global media thereby focusing on the major influence that it lays down on the religion and political values and beliefs This further relates to the increasing connectivity with the rest of the world thereby helping them to develop a globalised identify and culture.
Factors that enabled the global media to gain influence in the country
Identification and introduction of a global media outlet
Several powerful forces relating to the state control and commercial drive within Bhutan have resulted in shaping of their global media. The important implications that relate to the country’s freedom of media and the right of information has portrayed a vast set of concepts thereby emphasizing on their intricacies and contradictions top maintain a line of balance. The incorporation of the concept of public services within the Bhutanese media has strongly helped to lay an overwhelming impact upon the global media (Mathou, 2018). Bhutanese society is greatly dependent upon their oral culture, which has helped them to maintain a high competency level within. This is further followed by a thorough led on the major concerns relating to visual media. With the growth and development of media starting with print media, emphasis was laid on the development of a digital film, radio and various other television channels and Internet, all of which helped to develop a clear form and distinctive pattern of growth. The media Impact study as initiated by the Ministry of information and Communication further lays emphasis on certain factors that relate to the development of the Bhutanese media, which includes:
Because of these factors, the media platform paved the way of life within the country thereby leading to an increasing access to media and other interests that lie within the rural and urban population for both the older and younger generation. As per the MIS, it was evident that television especially the international channels led to a strong impact upon the urban society thereby greatly influencing the youth population. The use of radio has however always been a major influencer for the rural population and that was then followed by the widening of the reach of the print media based on their respective policy makers. With the increasing engagement of the global media with the country, there was noted a major influence laid on the use of media and content thereby increasing the roles of the government greatly in terms of the various regulations and funding (Luong, Shi & Wang, 2018). This has further taken into account the political and economic interests of the company thereby seeking to shape the country’s international communications. The international new channels have specifically been of great help in the entire process of media growth and development within the country thereby encouraging the international businesses further. This is further followed by an expansion of the media consumption thereby emphasizing on a deeper insight into the various complex issues that help to widen their global media outlets further.
Attributes for the chosen media outlet and their comparison with the mainstream local media outlets and other global media outlets
With emphasis laid on international news channel media outlet Bhutan has greatly been able to widen their broadcasting services thereby laying importance on the radio and television based services. The public service corporation is specifically funded by the state and their services have greatly been able to widen their usage of telecommunications thereby emphasizing on an effective governance and communication based on the act of 2006. Social media outlet has further been of great help in delivering sufficient news and feature stories to the public of the country with special focus on the use of the various distribution channels. The social outlet is of great help in caring out an effective interaction with their users thereby developing a sense of self worth. This further ensures a regular set of interaction with the local people thereby forming the basis of an effective marketing and interaction. Some of the effective examples of social media websites, which are in wide usage, include Facebook, twitter, YouTube, twitter, Wikia and such.
Being an interactive computer mediated technology, social media has facilitated their creation and shaping of information and ideas thereby emphasizing on widening the virtual community and networks further. The local media outlets of Bhutan on the other hand include the use of the traditional methods such as newspapers and news media, which also act as a guide on internet. With the arrival of television in Bhutan after 1999, the country has noted a major change within their broadcasting techniques, which has also offered their country with a widening of their international channels (Hayden, 2015). The Bhutan broadcasting Services (BBS) is an effective example of a local media outlet of the country, which is a state owned radio and television service. Being a private service corporation, they ate specifically fund by the state and they offer services to both radio and television to the country. This has greatly widened the entertainment programs followed by news and other documentaries, all specifically based in Bhutan. The Global media convergence on the other hand intends to follow a series of social patterns and characteristics all of, which engage themselves with a complex relationship. This has further taken into account the various technological, cultural and social economic elements on a global scale. They have further explored the varieties that lie in various nations thereby widening the connection and relationship globally. They further intend top diversity their global media network thereby emphasizing on an increased accessibility towards an international advertising as compared to that of the local newspapers and TV services adopted in Bhutan, which also seek to follow a B2B relationship thereby offering local news and information. Further, the BBC radio in Bhutan also is an effective section of the local media outlet, which also serves its important purposes within the country thereby closely competing with other global media outlets.
The Bhutan advertizing has further adopted to various guidelines laid down the Royal Government of Bhutan thereby emphasizing on the incorporation of several policies and programs, al of which intend to widen the media laws and establish a successful broadcast. This further follows widening their accessibility thereby showing foreign content of driftnet languages so as to effectively compete with that of other media outlets thereby promoting their businesses and bringing bout developments within the country. While obtaining suitable resources sometimes becomes major barrier in the process of development of the business, there also lies various control policies, all of which intend to allow the industry to cope up with the ongoing trends within the country thereby meeting the needs of their customers and allowing them to diversity their knowledge and skills further.
The increasing importance of press has also made the people of the area active and has been able to widen their access towards obtaining sufficient knowledge and information based on the developments and changes taking place within. The Government of Bhutan has primarily laid focus on the use of radio, newspapers, cinema and such so as to measure the influence and impact that media has placed on the Bhutanese society. Kuensel is the national newspaper of the Kingdom of Bhutan, which has also been able to set a trademark towards their local media outlets thereby seeking to merge with both the social media outlets and widen the country’s overall growth. Keeping all these factors in mind, the industry in Bhutan has greatly adopted to various mitigation methods and strategic policies, all of which intends to bring about a through social, cultural, economic and political development within thereby utilizing their potential resources effectively and widening the functions for each member involved in the process effectively.
Explaining of the impact that the global media outlets have placed and their influence on the chosen country
The information and views have thoroughly communicated with the mass media thereby laying a greater impact upon the daily lives of the people of Bhutan. With the launch of television and Internet in the year of 1999, the Bhutanese public has greatly been able to connect with the various forms of mass communication thereby emphasizing on the growing importance of accessibilities and impact on society. The increased access to information has greatly been able to improve the establishment of the various community centers and the newspaper companies thereby emphasizing on the increased mobile phone subscriptions and cable TV connections. The mass media content has further developed the influences laid down by the advertisement forums thereby influencing upon the consumer’s opinion and behavior.
With the mass media having diversified within Bhutan, there has been noted various modes which seek to store the information and experiences thereby transmitting them into a larger audience. The significant changes noted in the political, economic and social developments in Bhutan have further widened the impact of media on the Bhutanese society thereby meeting the expectations of the society greatly. Global media has greatly relayed their information to the people of Bhutan by using various forums and languages, which has also helped them to educate them. The government has further adopted a five-year plan along with other developmental programs and education systems, which would help to motivate the people to join partnerships for the progress of the country. The important role that mass media has placed on the country’s society has further helped to determine their future decisions thereby shaping their society. It can greatly construct or deconstruct the norms and values by which the society is built thereby meeting all the major challenges faced by the society efficiently. There has been noted an improvement in their accessibility of information and communication which has also helped them to focus on the consumption information thereby undermining the traditional culture and other value systems prevalent.
The ministry of information and Communication has further conducted a study based on the media impact as noted in the years of 2003, 2008 and 2013 (Avieson, 2015). The studies clearly signify that as compared to the previous data, there has been constantly note a growth and development in terms of building a community center that would be able to improve the accessibility of information. This would in turn help to enhance the media and communication technologies thereby attempting to widen the progress and influence. Bhutan being one of the last countries to effectively introduce the media, have also allowed the people to enjoy the content and obtain sufficient knowledge and skills. This has made a wide set of positive advancements thereby widening their potentials in the fields of education and entertainment thereby widening their connection with the rest of the world. Not only has this helped the country to gain an unique identity and culture but has also helped them to diversity their commercial advertisements, all of which has emphasized on the public service rather than just mere commercialization.
Bhutanese media having been greatly pointed out for applying the global media concepts have also proliferated their developments faster than that of US or Japan. This has resulted in Bhutan experiencing various substantial changes both in terms of the structure of the family and the society at large. Their accessibility to information has also become quite easy followed by an effective distribution of the media content amongst all. This type of media safe and consumer behavior has greatly led to a mutual understanding o cope up with the changes in situation. Several media policies have been used including the social media policy, the advertisement policy and the national media policy, all of which has helped to draft a stage and open them to the public for review (Wang et al. 2016). The understanding of the Bhutanese media has therefore been followed by several contents and program, which has heel to widen the concept of media imperialism further.
Incorporation of the key theories and concepts of global media
The use of the sociological theory clearly explains the fact that mass media has been able to control the political and economic forces of the country thereby manipulating the consumer information. This further has widened the communication power of the mass media thereby making an easy access to a vast set of information of other countries. The Classical Marxist approach has further laid great emphasis on the mass media consumption thereby emphasizing on the ideological interests of the dominant class lying within the society. This theory further perceived the media as a fusion of the prevailing economic and political elites thereby reflecting on their relevant interests (Tay & Turner, 2015). The liberal approach on the other hand however perceives media as a medium of facilitating the social agreement thereby emphasizing on the dissemination of information and conflicts in opinion. The information collected from a review of the literature also clearly justifies the media usage as playing a central role in mediating the information thereby developing a suitable public opinion and initiation of the press freedom. This is further followed by laying down a positive impact upon the media consumer lying within the society in Bhutan.
Further, there has been noted a major fusion of the various functions carried out by global media including an investigation of the needs followed by a finding of the correlations and transmission of culture and entertainment along with a suitable mobilization. With media providing a huge set of news and data to the uses, also has been able to focus on carrying out of a social transmission of culture thereby portraying on the major beliefs, norms and values of the public. With emphasis laid on the concept of mobilization, focus is further laid on the various media functions, which seek to promote the social interest especially in times of crisis. The integration of the various approaches has further greatly helped to understand the impact of mass media in the society thereby determining on the important functions of mass media. This is followed by an economic development of the country thereby widening their network systems and emphasizing on a vertical connection with the society.
The study infers by emphasizing on the important concept of global media and the reasons responsible to influence the society of Bhutan. This is further followed by a thorough identification of the various global media outlets thereby highlighting on the major attributes. This is further followed by making a comparison of the chosen media outlets with that of the local media outlets thereby emphasizing on the changes and influences they have brought about within Bhutan,. Lastly, several theories and concepts of global media have been taken up in the research thereby broadening the concept of global media further.
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