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BN106 Networking Fundamentals

This assignment assesses the basic concepts of networking; students should be able to demonstrate their achievements in the following unit learning outcomes:

  1. Explain the principles of networking protocols and standards;
  2. Identify reference models and layered architectures in networking;

Imagine that you have been hired by this company to design and install a computer network. Write a report that answers the following questions.

  • Your report should include a brief introduction
  • All work by others should be properly cited using the IEEE style of referencing.
  1. The owner of the company has some concerns with regards to the interoperability of the manufacturing equipment on the network considering that different manufacturers made them.
  • Discuss how network standards such as the OSI help to ensure interoperability between products made by different manufacturers.
  • Compare the three common network model standards (OSI, the DoD, and the TCP/IP).
  • Use diagrams to compare the three network models.
  1. Compare the appropriateness of each of the following media types for this scenario: twisted pair cable, Coaxial, fibre optic, and wireless.
  • Which media type should you use to wire the network and why? (use the media selection criteria discussed in lecture)



This report is tied in with networking fundamentals that are utilized to make a technique for planning and actualizing those basics for an organization that set needs another LAN design, outline and execution. To understand the networking fundamentals company wants an outline of design. This report gives an outline of systems administration protocols and standards including reference models and layered design in systems administration.

OSI stands for Open System Interconnection assumes a vital part in keeping up the interoperability of the items made by various makers. OSI standard rules make producers to embrace one technique for network or of course another at various layers of the OSI illustrates, leaving industry at a crossing point of cementing around a few unavoidable headways or enduring brokenness that could exist on a vertical-by-vertical or application-by-application commence. Interoperability is imperative for alternate frameworks to work appropriately. At whatever point we interface no less than two PCs to share information, we influence data to organize. This data orchestrates uses a couple of traditions in the midst of the data exchange process. OSI Layer show clears up this str

ategy and used traditions in essential course by parcelling it in seven layers.

The OSI model show proposes an elective procedure for interoperability that is given at the Network Layer. The physical (Layer 1) gives the mechanical, electrical, valuable, and procedural qualities critical for the transmission of significant bits. The Data Link (Layer 2) obliges the tried and true trade of data units (traces) over the physical affiliation. The Network (Layer 3) suits self-governing coordinating and trading of the information traces. In this way, at the Network Layer "switches" give the best possible tending to and coordinating over the related sort out for the digitized information. In view of fundamental traditions gave by the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), which are the most regularly used Layer 3 traditions, interoperability between sorts of rigging of different dealers and in truth unprecedented frameworks can be proficient.

Comparison between three common network model standards –

OSI (Open System Interconnection) is a network reference model created by ISO (Indian Standardization Organization) which indicates how the information is conveyed over the system. It has seven layers of design each having diverse capacities.

TCP/IP is known as Transmission Control Protocol or Internet Protocol created by Advanced Research Projects Agency. It was created with the goal to manufacture bundle information organize the nation over. DoD (Department of Defence) demonstrate is a consolidated type of OSI display which has four layers same as that of TCP/IP reference show.

OSI reference model is a reasonable or hypothetical model that institutionalizes the elements of registering frameworks with no agreed to the interior structure of the model. Essentially it's a virtual model and not in any case substantial. It is an interface amongst system and client.

Though TCP/IP display is a customer server show that is utilized to associate gadgets over the web. [1]

OSI underpins both association arranged and connectionless administration while TCP/IP bolsters just connectionless administration over the system layer.

OSI layer takes after a vertical approach from physical layer to application layer while TCP/IP takes after flat approach.

Diagrams of network models

Open system interconnection model (OSI)

  • Application layer-It is a UI part which permits to get to organize administrations.
  • Presentation Layer-This layer is the interpreter of the system.
  • Session layer-Session foundation and session bolster is done in this layer.
  • Transport layer-This layer transports the messages guaranteeing that there is no blunder and no misfortunes to the message.
  • Network layer-This layer gives the course to the message, settling on which way information ought to go and furthermore chooses need.
  • Data connection layer-Error free exchange of information is done in this layer with outline sequencing.
  • Physical layer-This layer has transmission of crude piece stream of information over a physical medium. This is the most reduced layer of OSI show

TCP/IP or DoD model

  • Application layer is the UI layer and gives arrange administrations.
  • Transport layer keeps up the transmission information through the assistance two conventions TCP and UDP.
  • The Internet layer contains the parcels with IP address of source and goals.
  • Lowest layer of TCP/IP i.e. arrange layer plays out the epitome of bundles as casings for transmission over the system. [2]

Answer 2-

  • Twisted pair cable- In this kind of links, the two directing wires is wound together on a solitary circuit with one conduit carrying on as forward and different as invert circuit. This gives an insurance against cross-chat on multi combine links, the commotion produced by this multi match links. This contorted match is of two sorts unshielded wound combine (UTP) and protected bent match (STP).


  • Coaxial Cable – It is otherwise called coax cables. This link has four layers covering i.e. internal directing wire is encompassed by foam protection, trailed by a metal shield, and after that secured through a plastic coat.. It is for the most part utilized as TV links and links for observation frameworks. This sort of link is respectably costly and with genuinely simple establishment.


  • Fibre Optic Cable – Optical fibre link has an assembly of strands that are utilized to transmit information at lightning speed. This is a sort of Ethernet link that utilized light heartbeats to transmit information underneath the earth. Fibre link can achieve numerous wavelengths however it is costly yet it is valuable for a drawn out stretch of time. Fibre optical link has high data transmission however its establishment is troublesome. [5]
  • Wireless – Wireless Networks are best now days in light of simple establishment, high data transfer capacity, more affordable and more dependable. This remote association can be accomplished by introducing switches and interfacing it through the servers for arrange administrations. [7]

Pros and Cons of Cables


Type of cable


This link can be utilized for both digital and analog transmission.

In phone frameworks, information can be transmitted for a few kilometres with no compelling reason to enhance it.

More affordable.


Twisted Pair cable


Cross-talk due to pick-up of noises which results higher error rates.

These cables are thin in size so they are easily damageable.



Type of cable


Coax cables are more impervious to electromagnetic impedance than wound links. So this link can transmit a more drawn out separation at higher information rate.

Both digital and analog signs can be sent.

Reasonably higher transmission capacity.

Quicker information transmission.




Coax cable





Establishment is costly when contrasted with turned combine link.

These links are thin in estimate making it hard to work.







Higher data transfer capacity than both that is the reason no repeaters are required for around 30kms.

No impact of electromagnetic obstruction.

Fibre links are hard to tap, so security is likewise great against wire trappers.




Fibre Optical Cable






Fibre links are more costly to introduce.

It is another innovation which requires aptitudes.

Fibre interfaces costs more than electrical interfaces.





This is an association less administration. Client can move around unreservedly inside the region of system.

Simple establishment and more affordable.

Higher data transfer capacity.






Remote association can be hacked.

System isn't steady.

Answer 3 –

Asynchronous transmission uses a transmitter, a recipient and a wire without coordination between the clock paces and data rates. Honestly there is no synchronization between the two end centres around to what degree the transmitter leaves the banner and at what rate to address a lone piece. Each device uses a clock to evaluate the length of the bit. Toward one side transmitter transmits the data and at the contrary end beneficiary needs to comprehend it when the banner will come and sort out and after that retime its clock to arrange the moving toward sign.

In this, synchronous transmission is more productive as the time will modify itself at the time interim of 0.25 seconds and will send the 1000 piece information with no misfortunes. Synchronization will help in appropriate sequencing of information and flagging the transmitter that information is gotten effectively. This sort of transmission is additionally effective in framework where the transmission medium is electric wire or radio flag isn't especially dependable. [8]

A terminal for a media correspondences structure offers access to perhaps a couple quick synchronous transmission lines by both low-speed transmission lines and supporter lines. A middle module fuses interfaces to the quick lines, a timetable opening interchanger, an interface to the low-speed transmission lines, processors and overhead equipment for supporting the terminal. A multi-interface serial transport relates the opening interchanger to the passage module and to the low-speed interface and gives close coupling between the processors in the middle module and the line racks. The processors organize to get ready supporter information from said endorser lines to and from plan opportunities in said fast feeder line and said low-speed transmission line. Supporter information may in like manner be set up between availabilities of the quick feeder line and the low-speed transmission lines and between openings inside each endorser line.


[1]  Frenzel, L. (2018). What’s The Difference Between The OSI Seven-Layer Network Model And TCP/IP?. [online] Available at:[Accessed 02 Apr. 2018].

[2] OSI model. [online] Available at:[Accessed 02 Apr. 2018].

[3] V. profile, (2018). "TWISTED PAIR CABLE". [Online] Available:[Accessed: 02- May- 2018].

[4] CB Antenna - Strykerradios, (2018). "A Complete Guide to CB Coax Cable - Strykerradios". [Online]. Available:[Accessed: 02- May- 2018].

[5] Blog of FS.COM. (2018). Fiber Optic Cable vs Twisted Pair Cable vs Coaxial Cable. [online] Available at: [Accessed 02 Apr. 2018].

[6] Long, J. (2018). "Beyond Speed: Design Tradeoffs with Fiber-Optic Cable". [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 02- May- 2018].

[7] Inetdaemon, (2018). Asynchronous vs. Synchronous. [online] Available at: [Accessed 02 Apr. 2018].

[8] Gadre, J., Rohrer, C., Summers, C., & Symington, S. (1989). A COS study of OSI interoperability. Computer Standards & Interfaces, 9(3), 217-237.

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