How do Multinational Companies affect the local culture of India?
-A case study of Indian fashion industry
In this introductory chapter the researcher has clearly described the history and background of the topic elaborating its origin and the reasons behind choosing the topic. The researcher has also mentioned the chief purpose as well as object used to be followed in this research paper for acquiring the prime outcome. Various research questions have been also developed based upon the resource objectives as set by the researcher for proper accomplishment of the research. The researcher has also developed a research rationale in order to state clearly the issue and reason behind the issue concerned in this research. Finally the significance of the importance of this study is also mentioned in this chapter.
1.1 Background of the study
The study has been undertaken in order to elaborate and address the impacts of the growing and grooming multinational companies on the local culture and tradition of the Indian economy. It has been observed that in India a large inflow of foreign investment is accompanied by the establishment of the multinational companies as well as privatisation of the Indian companies which has affected Indian tradition and culture in a drastic way. The study mainly concentrates on the fashion industry and the retailers of clothing as well as fashion accessories for both men and women.
Multiple native Indian retailers such as the Aditya Birla Group of fashion, Pantaloons fashion and retail, Shoppers Stop, Fabindia and home centre have become one of the huge multinational that have transformed the concept of fashion and lifestyle in India by bringing a western touch to the fashionable kits. The study has been performed in a way to judge and conceptualize the incidences of growing multinational companies and its link to the increasing inflow of foreign capital investments by the foreign retailers. The concerned study also focuses on the impacts of globalisation and trade liberalization on the fashion and textile industry of India which has globally changed the views and opinions of the Indian customers.
1.2 Aim and objectives
The primary aim of the study lies in determining the ways in which multinational corporations affect the local culture of India. it is also necessary to include globalisation and foreign direct investment along with the multinational corporations for reaching the conclusion about the prime aim. Every research paper contains a specific set of objectives which are set accordingly with the aim and goal of the research. The objectives of the research include:
1.3 Research questions
Research questions are framed in each and every research paper for bringing more effectiveness and exclusiveness in the research. Similarly the concerns research paper eventually carries some research questions which have been designed accordingly with the research objectives as set by the researcher which are as follows:
1.5 Research rationale
What is the issue?
Presently impact of globalisation on the changing Indian culture is one of the most significant and effective issues which is supposed to live effects on the Indian society and its residents. a large number of multinational corporations are built in India day by day for each and every sector such as retail banking and medical for which the residence of India are likely to have greater choice bundles for varied products. This has always been the issue since India has supported privatisation and embraced globalisation with all aspects for supporting foreign investment both in terms of portfolio and direct. Since then India has been the victim of the changing notions of culture which has brought enormous effects and impacts over the Indian citizens. As compared to the developed Nations such as United Kingdom, United States, Australia and Singapore and so on India is developing in nature and most of the contribution towards its development has been the foreign direct investment and trade liberalization.
Why is it an issue?
Changing Indian culture due to establishment of multinational corporations and allowing for investment take place has been the primary issue of India because it is losing its cultural practices due to the outburst inflow and influence of the foreign sectors. It has always been a predominant issue as Indian government could not be fully successful in retaining the Indian Heritage and Culture by introducing globalisation and foreign direct investment. Huge policy changes have been incorporated and implemented by the Indian government to reduce the influence of multinational corporations and globalisation yet if failed to achieve the appropriate amount of success. Indian residents have become a lot more dependent on the Western outfits and lifestyles than the Indian ones and thereby losing Indian culture and tradition on each passing day of the world. People are more accustomed buying Western outfits than the Indian ones which have proved to be insignificant for the Indian culture to be retained within the country.
Why is it an issue now?
It has become an issue because the tastes and preferences of the Indian citizens have broadly changed due to availability of ample opportunities and varieties of products specially clothing and fashionable accessories as a result of globalisation as well as trade liberalization. The developing nation has larger access to multiple varieties of products which tends to be influential for the people of India. Indian government even after introducing different policies and incorporating them in the legal framework of doing business could not stop foreign investment and foreign investors to take over the Indian companies as the Indian companies have been observed to run at loss. Therefore, it can be proved that the Indian retail companies’ performance has been low as compared to the foreign retailers in the fashion sector.
What does the research shade light upon?
The research sheds light upon the fact that the globalisation and foreign direct investment is impactful over the change in Indian Heritage and Culture. The research exclusively focuses on the growing multinational sector in India and its influence over the native Indians as well as on the NRIs to affect their consumption decisions. Had been highly observant that the foreign investment and globalisation has been severely motivating the Indians to use their products and services instead of domestic retailers. The prime focus of the study therefore lies in accessing and evaluating the impact of these multinationals over the Indian culture and tradition due to the adoption of western culture by Indian citizens.
1.6 Significance of the study
The investigation has been embraced in keeping in mind the end goal to expand and address the effects of the developing and flourishing multinational organizations on the nearby culture and custom of the Indian economy. It has been watched that in India a vast inflow of outside venture is joined by the foundation of the multinational organizations and in addition to the privatization of the Indian organizations has influenced Indian custom and culture radically. The examination, for the most part, focuses on the form of the business and the retail of garments in addition design frill for the both of the men and ladies.
The research has been conducted in an approach to judge and conceptualize the occurrences of developing multinational organizations and is connected to the expanding inflow of remote capital ventures by the outside retailers. The examination additionally concentrates on the effects of globalization and exchange advancement on the mould and material industry of India which has comprehensively changed the perspectives and suppositions of the Indian clients. By accomplishing the project the researcher would gain appropriate and effective information about the drastic impacts that the multinational corporations have left behind on the changing Indian culture and the customers who support the change.
1.7 Structure of dissertation
Figure 1: Structure of Dissertation
In this starting section the specialist has unmistakably depicted the history and foundation of the subject expounding its birthplace and the explanations for picking the theme. The scientist has said the main reason and in addition protest used to be followed in this exploration paper for gaining the prime result. Different research questions have been likewise created in view of the asset destinations as set by the specialist for appropriate achievement of the exploration. The analyst has additionally built up an examination justification keeping in mind the end goal to state unmistakably the issue and purpose for the issue worried in this research. Finally the essentialness of the significance of this investigation is likewise said in this part.
Culture is wider as a concept which not only involves the religion styles customs and ideas but eventually includes the social values family structure dialect clothing and food. Recently in developing countries there has been notified cultural changes observed due to wide range of globalisation and foreign direct investment in those countries. Cultural changes occur mainly due to changes in the fashion trends of the country. Therefore, this paper concentrates up on the impacts of FDI globalisation as well as establishment of multinational corporations in the textile industry over culture. The section of literature review directly links culture and the globalisation that has taken place in the country along with briefing about the concept of globalisation culture and FDI.
2.1 Concept of globalisation
Globalisation is considered to be Rapid integration and interconnection among several countries mostly situated on an economic plane. As supported by Mukherji (2014), globalisation implies integration of the economy with world economy. Globalisation mainly occurs through setting up of large scale multinational corporations in an economy where the labour resource is cheap and huge influx of the foreign Investments take place. Even the mobility of individuals increases as a result of globalisation between the countries. Credit for the globalisation to take place in the developing economy rests entirely with the MNCs. investments which are made by this multinational has predominantly increased economic status of several developing countries. As a result of the globalisation, Malhotra (2014) stated that foreign trade increases in a rapid way and activities of the multinational corporations involved import and export of goods and services among the countries. Globalisation is therefore the inter-linkage between different cultures and adaptation of new culture for any country. As a result of globalisation the respective culture of different countries has also adopted western insights and increased the trends of fashion in the textile industries.
2.2 Concept of FDI
Foreign direct investment is basically the investment which is made by any company of the individual within a specific country having interest for business in some other country in a form of either establishment of the business operations or acquiring the business assets in other countries as in ownership of the control of interest in the foreign company. As suggested by Mathur, and Singh (2013), foreign direct investment includes the flow of capital from one specific country to another nation by granting an extensive ownership which is at stake in the domestic companies as well as assets. Basically foreign investment implies that the foreigners take parts actively in the management as a section of their respective investment. Organisation of economic cooperation and development has defined foreign direct investment as a control which implies owning almost 10% or more than that of the business in any country of a particular industry.
2.3 Concept of culture
Culture basically refers to cumulative deposit of the knowledge, beliefs, experience, attitudes, values, hierarchies, meanings, notions of time, spatial relations, roles, religion, natural objects as well as positions which are required by different individuals or a group of individuals in course of the generation through group and individual striving (Shroff et al. 2013). It is a system of the knowledge which is shared by large group of different individuals and is a communication among them. It is a cultivated behaviour in a broad sense and behaviour through the social learning. Culture is affected by determinants such as globalisation foreign direct investment and establishment of MNCs which together brings an influx of capital to the country. It is in fact, have been observed that culture is something which constantly changes with generation and trend (Dunning, 2003). Trends are basically defined through fashion senses and generation gaps. It is therefore important to consider fashion as another determinant of culture which reflects any individual behaviour ethics and social values in terms of clothing and apparels.
2.4 Factors determining globalisation and FDI
A series of factors could be evaluated which determines foreign direct investment as well as globalisation in any developing countries such as Sri Lanka and Bangladesh (Banerji, 2013). Major factors which affects or drives the foreign investment in the domestic country includes regulations and rules pertaining to entry as well as operations of the foreign investors, treatment standards of the foreign affiliates as compared to the nationals of host country and efficiency as well as functioning of the local markets. As discussed by Nelson (2012), privatisation policy as well as trade policy effectively determines the occurrence of foreign investment in the domestic country along with the business measures of facilitation such as the investment promotion, improvements in the amenities as well as processing zones, incentives and other fruitful measures for reducing cost of controlling business. For example, few developing countries open setup the special export processing zones which are free of the customs and duties eventually offers special tax breaks to connect to the new investors (Arora, 2005).
Other restrictions such as the repatriating earnings and prophets in forms of the dividends, interests, royalties and other payments often drive for investment and determine their operations (Nelson, 2012). Foreign direct investments are even sensible so the factors such as stability in the exchange rate macroeconomic conditions health of foreign system of banking liquidity of bond and stock market interest rates higher growth rates of economy and levels of the Foreign Exchange Reserves which are held by Central Bank (Banerji, 2013).
2.5 Theory on cultural change
Amongst multiple theories of the cultural change that take place with globalisation as well as foreign direct investment the most appropriate one to describe the nature of cultural change which took place in Indian economy is the Evolutionary Theory of Cultural change. According to this theory, Devajit (2012) stated that society often moves in particular directions. Therefore, traditional social evolution is observed to the society as a progressive one to the higher as well as higher levels. As a consequence they had concluded a fact that cultural behaviour and attitude has become more advanced than those which belongs to the early societies. According to the perspectives of the early evolutionists, human society belongs to the notion of progress through large scale use of the scientific and advanced methods (Suresh, and Ramakrishna, 2013). They eventually concluded that society moves from a simple to a more complex social structure. Therefore, this theorem effectively states that culture is something which changes over time according to the generation and trends of the economy.
2.6 Model on cultural change
Cultural changes brought about in any particular economy through different models which consists of different stages. Likewise Triad model is one of them which has embedded cultural changes of an economy and drafted it into three stages which are cultural pulse, building networks and transportation (Mukherjee et al. 2014). In the stage of cultural pulse globalisation as well as foreign direct investment plays an essential role with the help of multinational corporations, where people are provided with multiple option of adopting different culture through their fashion sense and styles. Various cultural issues as well as notifications encountered by the individuals of the country in terms of clothing and fashion through which they get trapped into this cultural pulse (Bhattacharyya, 2012).
Second stage of the model denotes building networks which employees inviting people from all across the world are from different cities of any particular country and show them multiple facets of fashion (Garg, 2013). People get inter connected through exchanging their behaviour and attitude involved in each other's culture through the means of fashion. The third stage necessarily involves transporting which reflects the export and import of goods and services across the nations which bring about a cultural change as well (Mukherjee et al. 2014).
2.8 Relationship between globalisation and cultural change
Culture of various countries as well as forms of the creation Preservation and presentation of cultural are intentionally affected by the globalisation in several ways which are documented as well as understood in an inadequate way. Globalisation is mainly conceived as sapping vitality of the indigenous worlds of culture. Societies of the world are not static and one of the prime focuses of the anthropology has been over changes which take place in fact are taking place at an increasing rates in the context of economic transformations and colonialism, neo-liberalism, media as well as other factors which impinge over communities all across the world (Pieterse, 2015).
Many historical archaeologists have looked primarily towards changes which are connected to the colonialism while the socio-cultural researchers look at the changes which are related to the new pattern found in education importance of the television as well as film over local culture along with massive impact of globalisation. In today's world globalisation has been an overwhelming Trend and the advocates of the anti globalisation observe globalisation as a homogenization (Nayak, 2016). With more development of Technology and Science cultural factors in many regions all across the world have typically changed. In the context of science economic development and technology globalisation has reflected theory of hegemonic control and convergence but in much intense sense it has promoted cultural identity.
In this new era of the globalisation people has become much concerned about particularity and uniqueness of their respective culture. Globalisation has enhanced cultural identity as people became aware of their cultural ideas and opinions through much more openness to the world (Stromquist and Monkman, 2014). Globalisation has described acceleration of integration of the Nations into Global system and has contributed to expansion of the cultural ties among people as well as human migration. On the other hand laser attention has been paid to development of art of country with the globalisation is taking place in a unique way.
2.9 Impact of FDI, Globalisation and MNC on culture
Cultural globalisation which can be referred to as a transitional movement of the media has followed an economic liberalisation as the offerings of cable television stated competing against state-run television and the Hollywood films have competed with the local films.
Since globalisation consists of multiple dimensions, it is impactful not only over the entire economy as well as politics of the nation but eventually may alter the Indian culture, way of living, environment and even the languages spoken within the nation. Much before initiating the measures of globalisation India had undergone a cultural breakthrough that has been initiated by British and created the readiness for accepting industrial and technical advancements. Many authors have even suggested that introduction of the new media might transform the family arrangements along with gender inequalities within India and Bangladesh by increasing or helping the main to accept women as the superiors in work.
During the time period of 1992-93, Government of India has critically encouraged foreign direct investment as well as deposits along with the portfolio investment and investment in the world wide depositary receipts. Chari and Madhav Raghavan (2012) stated that ample additional measures have been taken for attracting the foreign investment in 1992 where the foreign companies have been unable to utilise their patents and trademarks in the domestic sales. However, as contradicted by Banga (2006), in that particular year India had found the multilateral investment guarantee agency which was official procedure for protecting the foreign investment. Foreign direct investment at that particular time period was only allowed in the production exploration refining oil as well as marketing of gas.
In the present time period and supported by foreign direct investment in developing nations has crucially increased by almost 18% in 2016 to 46.4 billion dollars (Venkatesh et al. 2015). Increased inflow of the foreign direct investment into these economies must be seen as a significant indicator of increase in the need to understand cross national differences across the domestic as well as the host country practices in terms of business. Textile industry of India has contributed almost 3% to the entire Gross Domestic Product of the developing countries as well as 27% in the Nation’s aggregate foreign exchange reserves. Authorities of these nations have recently developed the belief that textile sector is a potential area for the foreign investment because of the fuelling growth of demand for the textiles and garments within the nation (Khare, 2014). Textile sector has targeted foreign direct investment to be 6 US billion dollars and is expecting 220 US billion-dollar by the year 2020. Not only the textile industry but also the electrical gadgets producing sector has inbuilt the sense of fashion in them. Digital watches iphones, iPods, iPad, sunglasses, wrist watches for both men and women as well as other technical gadgets has attracted the young generation of the developing nations which comprises major part of the total population and has subsequently given the place for foreign direct investment two play its role (Devajit, 2012).
An approach to the western culture has been mainly undertaken by the youth of the nation and is being still adopted by the young generation individuals who are more likely to wear Indo Western clothes and apparels. People irrespective of staying in remote areas or less developed regions in the country is prone to adopt western culture in terms of clothing as well as by consuming food and increased use of gadgets. Technology advancement has become a mode of fashion to be described by both men and women in the economies where globalisation took place. Men are supposed to consume more and more of gadgets and adapt digital life whereas women are not lagging behind in this arena of fashion (Banga, 2006).
Globalisation has brought about multiple advancement and changes in the developing economies. Ample opportunities of job in the industries especially the little ones including textile industry in the India for the young generation as well as increase in the market size has when deep rooted within the economy through foreign direct investment and globalisation. Indeed, these nations have overcome disadvantages like the international issues geopolitical conflicts and global financial crisis due to the result of globalisation. Banga (2006) inferred that globalisation has apparently leads to the soul am changed within preference of the present generation from the food to the clothes. It has been noticed that the Western clothes have been adopted due to the convenience of the individuals whereas; long gowns, long skirts and corsets are even rare. Both positive as well as negative aspects on the Indian culture are observed through globalisation. Mukherji (2014) supported that positive impacts include increase in the free trade among Nations and capital liquidity which has unable to the investors to develop their Nations by investing in a large scale amount. Multinational corporations have which stood greater flexibility for operating across the borders business market across the world has no such boundaries to sell clothes and apparels worldwide. Reduction in the cultural barriers has increased effect of global village and a greater ease as well as speed of the transportation for the goods is insured through globalisation (Dunning, 2003). People started communicating with each other through different means and modes of fashion in terms of cultural values and ethics which has been in changed through foreign direct investment and globalisation. Local retailers of textiles and electronic gadgets have almost accepted the multinational corporations such as Aditya Birla Group of fashion, Fabindia, Apple, Fastrack, Caprese, Lavie, and Woodland and so on for adapting an Indo Western culture (Devajit, 2012). As a result of globalisation democratic ideas in the developed nations has been conveyed and a greater interdependence has been eventually observed. Negative aspects of operations of the multinational corporations in Indian economy has involved increasing chances of the inferiority complex in the nation among domestic as well as foreign retailers, greater dissatisfaction among developing countries such as India in terms of domestic profit and spread of the materialistic lifestyle as well as attitude which observed consumption instead of savings as a path to the prosperity (Shroff et al. 2013).
Globalisation along with a revolution in technology has resulted in the integration of culture as well as interconnectedness of different behaviour as well as attitudes within the people belonging to different background and religion. From the perspective of industry FDI has been allowed for most hundred percent in the single branch details as well as in case of multi brand retail FDI has taken place for about 51% (Shroff et al. 2013). This is because a large section of suppliers of the fashion industry includes small and medium enterprises which shall surely benefit only when more of the international brands made foray into the developing countries. Multiple foreign brands at the present time period in the country has increased sourcing from developing economies which provides benefit of the shorter time period as well as lower costs (Arora, 2005). Ample brands have eventually set up the respective backend infrastructure of manufacturing clothing, shoes, sunglasses and apparels. With the increasing consciousness among the consumers they have been prone to adopt western culture and its habits in form of the newest fashion trends (Dunning, 2003). Multinational corporations engaging international brands would meet up the demand of the domestic market for apparels in the insignificant way. Huge retailers along with foreign bands have brought best practices within the supply chain product quality product designs and in the manufacturing units.
Globalisation is driven specifically by the communication technology as well as worldwide marketing of the industries of western culture which is understood as the process of the homogenization. It is the global domination in the American culture at an expense of the traditional diversity. However as contradicted by Mukherji, (2014), the trend of fashion has soon become evident through and emergence of the movements which protested against the globalisation as well as providing a new momentum towards defence of the local uniqueness, identity and individuality (Arora, 2005). The multifaceted and overpowering effect of the globalisation is quite typical as well as complicated for a developing economy as it possess a strong hold of strong and reach multitude of the traditional and regional cultures philosophies and regions with the earnest desire for preserving as well as in reaching them on one hand whereas ensuring a democratic and sympathetic openness over the other (Khare, 2014). In the context of Asian countries, especially for the countries such as Bangladesh, Srilanka and Maldives, distinct Endeavour has been made by the United Nations educational scientific and cultural organisation (UNESCO) in establishing an international consensus on the recently required principles and norms for responding to the emergency of ethical challenges as well as dilemmas. Therefore, it has been evident that FDI, globalisation and MNCs has a drastic impact upon the culture concentrating mainly on the fashion trends.
2.10 Gaps in literature
Earlier research papers have mainly concentrated upon the impact of globalisation foreign direct investment and establishment of multinational corporations over the developing economy as a whole. However, the researcher is currently working on a topic which is specifically focused on Indian culture and values. It has related the globalisation as well as its impact upon the Indian culture with an exploitation of theories and models of cultural changes. A critical review has explained the facts and figures of globalisation and FDI and the ways they have affected Indian culture.
2.11 Conceptual framework
Figure 2: Conceptual framework
Culture is more extensive as an idea which not just includes the religion styles traditions and thoughts yet inevitably incorporates the social esteems family structure vernacular dress and nourishment. As of later, in creating nations there has been informed social changes seen because of extensive variety of globalization and outside direct interest in those nations. Social changes happen mostly because of changes in the form patterns of the nation. Hence, this paper focuses up on the effects of FDI globalization and foundation of multinational organizations in the material business over Indian culture. The area of this literature analysis straightforwardly connects Indian culture and the globalization that has occurred in the nation alongside instructions about the idea of globalization culture and FDI.
The methodological chapter of the dissertation has explicitly shown the ways in which the research has been carried upon by the researcher. It includes the explanation and justifications of research philosophy, Research Design research approach, Data Collection methods as well as the research strategy. Data Collection tools as well as the sampling technique used in the research has eventually been explicated by the researcher. At the end sample size as well as population count along with the research limitations have also been mentioned in this methodological section of the paper.
3.1 Research onion
The research onion has been developed by Saunders et al. (2007) for describing various stages by which a researcher should pass while formulating and productive as well as effective methodology of the particular research paper. This eventually creates the beginning point for an appropriate research methodology. Under the first layer of the research onion, research philosophy shall be explained with proper justification by the researcher and the reason behind choosing that particular philosophy for the paper.
Figure 3: Research Onion
(Source: Saunders et al. 2007)
In the second step of the research methodology, research approach is being justified and explained followed by the third step where research strategy is being adopted and forth layer of the research onions explains to identify time Horizon. Research onions apparently describes the layers and steps for proceeding the research developing different research methods or the techniques to collect data as well as select sampling size and population.
3.2 Research philosophy
Research philosophy seems to be one of the most important sections of any research methodology included in a dissertation and the researcher strictly follows it in order to conduct an appropriate and effective research. Research philosophy basically deals with nature, development as well as source of the knowledge from which the researcher gains fruitfulness of the research. Formulation of assumption as well as beliefs r predicted from designing the research philosophy which is generally of four main categories- pragmatism, positivism, realism and interpretivism. Selecting a specific research philosophy for this particular research is usually impact it through the practical implications (Knobe, and Nichols, 2013).
Pragmatism philosophy is used to recognise several ways to interpret world as well as undertaking the research and it also focuses on the fact that no particular view can provide entire picture and eventually contains multiple realities. Research questions become most significant determinant of pragmatism research philosophy. On the other hand positivism along with the interpretivism is two of the extreme Paradigms which are mutually exclusive by nature on the basis of various sources of the knowledge. Positivism philosophy emphasizes on gaining factual knowledge through the observation involving definite measurement but it is limited to the interpretation and data collection through an objective approach (O’Gorman et al. 2014). Research findings are generally quantifiable and observable in positivism Philosophy. Interpretivism philosophy is basically associated with a philosophical dignity of the idealism and can be used for grouping together the diverse approaches involving phenomenology, hermeneutics and social constructivism. Realism philosophy of the research depends over idea of the Independence of the reality from human mind. This particular philosophy is dependent upon assumption of the scientific approach towards development of the knowledge.
3.2.1 Justification of positivism
For this particular research, the researcher had undertaken positivism research philosophy in order to proceed with the entire research. This is because positivism generally depends upon quantifiable observations which lead the researchers to conduct a statistical analysis from the data accumulated in order to bring an exclusive conclusion on the entire research. It has atypical atomistic and ontological view of entire world by interacting with events and elements in an observable regular and determined way. Positivism philosophy is eventually appropriate for highly structured and large sample size data which can be used for both quantitative as well as qualitative research methods.
3.3 Research design
Research Design basically refers to an overall strategy which is chosen by the researcher for integrating different components included in the study in a logical as well as covalent way which ensures to effectively address the specific research issue. Research Design eventually constitutes blueprint for measurement collection as well as analysis of the data. It also ensure that evidence which is enabled for addressing the particular research issue which is identifying the cross cultural change in India through the development of multinational corporations in a logical and unambiguous way (Creswell, and Poth, 2017). The purpose of the Research Design has been basically for providing the plan of the study which permits an accurate assessment for the effect and cause relationships among the independent as well as dependent variables.
Basically three different types of research designs are used in a research paper which are: descriptive Research Design exploratory and explanatory Research Design. Descriptive research defines the study which is designed for depicting participants in an exact way. Three prime ways for collecting information to be used in a descriptive study includes observations, Case studies and from survey analysis (Smith, 2015). The exploratory Research Design is typically conducted regarding a research issue where there are no or few earliest studies which can be referred to for further research. Focus of the exploratory research design lies on gaining familiarity and insights for the letter investigation or is undertaken when the issues are in preliminary stages of the investigation. Exploratory Research Design basically believes in explaining the issues with or without any kind of appropriate logic.
3.3.1 Justification of descriptive design
For this particular research, the researcher has chosen descriptive Research Design that would be exactly appropriate. Descriptive research designs include appropriate observation and sampling of the analysis to be conducted through surveys and focus groups. It is appropriate as participants can take part in the research in a direct way as well as through indirect ways. Descriptive design eventually believes in describing the entire research based on proper logic and interpretation.
3.4 Research approach
Research approach which is used for conducting a research basically shows relevance of the hypothesis to be used in the study. Two prime research approaches can be figured out while conducting research which are- deductive research approach and inductive research approach. Deductive research approach generally works from a more general section towards a more specific one. Another research approach not generally utilised in resources is the abduction research approach. In a deductive research approach the information is analysed from a General form to a specific form and the collection of data is used for evaluating the proposition for the hypothesis relating to a persistent theory (Taylor et al. 2015).
In the inductive research inference promises are mostly known as well as are used for generating the untested conclusions. It can be undertaken from specific form to a general form. Data collection in this research approach is basically used for exploring the phenomenon, identifying themes as well as patterns along with creation of the conceptual framework. Abduction research approach includes use of the known promises for generating that is stable conclusions and interactions among specific as well as general form is observed. Collection of data is mainly done for exploring phenomenon identifying patterns and themes and locating all these within a conceptual framework. Testing of the data which is accumulated through a subsequent data collecting method is also included under the objective research approach.
3.4.1 Justification of deductive design
Deductive Research Design is appropriate for the concerned research because premises are usually true in a deductive design and he thereby proving the truthfulness of the conclusion. The theories included in the research involve verification and falsification. Under deductive Research Design the research will take place by understanding the theory and developing hypothesis followed by conducting an observation of test and confirmation or rejection after the tests. In order to identify the cultural differences that have arisen in Indian economy for growing foreign direct investment mostly in the fashion industry deductive Research Design had been fruitful for drawing an effective conclusion.
3.5 Research strategy
Two basic research strategies are therefore conducting a healthy research. Based on the subject the research strategies are chosen and in many cases both the strategies can be useful for conducting and enriched research. The resource strategies are quantitative research strategy and qualitative research strategy. Qualitative research is usually used for uncovering the trends in opinions and thoughts as well as in diving deeper into the issue (Liamputtong, 2013). Qualitative methods to collect data vary using the unstructured or the semi structured techniques. It is basically the method of inquiring the employed in ample distinct academic disciplines involving in natural as well as Social Sciences and even in the non academic contexts such as market research service demonstration through nonprofits and businesses. Qualitative data collecting method is a range of the procedures and processes that moves from collecting data towards some form of the explanation interpretation or understanding of situations and people while investigating them (Sekaran, and Bougie, 2016). Qualitative research apparently comes from the interpretivist perspective and thereby is much more concerned with the interpretation and understanding phenomena across the meanings attached by the people to them.
On the other hand, quantitative methods put huge emphasis upon objective measurements and statistical, numerical on mathematical analysis of the accumulated data through questionnaires surveys polls and by manipulating the pre existing statistical records using the computational techniques. Quantitative research is usually done utilising the scientific methods that can include generation of the models hypothesis as well as the theories (Zikmund et al. 2013). Other quantitative research method, the collected data is basically gathered utilising the structured instruments of research and results are usually based upon large sample sizes which a representative of population. Quantitative research study may generally be repeated replicated provided its reliability to be higher. Qualitative research data are mainly in form of the numbers as well as statistics which are arranged in charts, figures tables and other non textual forms (Ragin, 2014). As opposed to qualitative research, quantitative research is basically associated with the positive approach.
Considering this particular research, the researcher has selected both qualitative as well as quantitative research strategies. While selecting the resource strategy, nature of posted connection between the research and theory which is employed by a research question along with epistemological as well as ontological considerations might be influential (Creswell, 2013). This is because qualitative research strategy highly differs from the quantitative one in each of the aforementioned prospects. For identifying various cultural issues in the Indian economy it has been quite appropriate and effective to use both qualitative as well as quantitative research strategy for conducting the research analysis.
3.6 Time horizon
Selecting a topic
Getting approval for it
Selecting research designs and approach
Selecting research method
Table 1: Time horizon of activities
3.7 Data collection methods
Basically two distinct types of data can be gathered through both qualitative as well as quantitative research methods. The two different data are primary data and secondary data. Under quantitative research, primary data includes the data accumulated from conducting surveys focus groups or poles. However, under the secondary data it is basically gathered from reviewing the literature section of the study. Only the secondary data collection type have been accumulated based on the positive research philosophy and descriptive Research Design. In quantitative research, literature review analysis has been done by researching various articles journals as well as websites for gaining information about the present cultural differences and issues arising in India for an influx of foreign investment (Davies, and Hughes, 2014). Simply, analysing the literature review, quantitative analysis has been conducted in this research.
Under qualitative research, primary data is generally collected by conducting the interview sessions whereas for the secondary data collection, thematic analysis is suitable. Thematic analysis is basically done developing various themes which are based upon achieving the research objectives that have been set in the very beginning of the research paper (McNabb, 2015). In order to answer for each and everything, reviewing of journals, books and website links had been suitable for achieving the goals and objectives of the research. Here, in the quantitative analysis, the secondary data is collected by case study analysis where both negative and positive impacts of FDI on culture would be discussed critically.
3.8 Sampling technique
Basically two types of sampling techniques can be used in any particular research which are simple random sampling and stratified random sampling. Concerning this specific research the researcher has chosen simple random sampling technique sampling size and population to be used for conducting surveys and interview in order to accumulate primary data for both types of research methods (Yadav et al. 2015).
Simple random sampling is basically the subset of the statistical population where each member included in the subset possesses an equivalent probability for being chosen. It is basically utilised for cutting down a small sample size from the larger population and utilise it into the research for making generalizations about larger group. Each and every member of the group has equal chance to get selected and therefore is mutually exclusive and exhaustive events.
3.9 Population and sample
The sample is the subset of items events or people from a definitely large population which is collected as well as analysed for making inferences. In order to represent the population in a uniform way sample size is supposed to be randomly collected as well as be sufficiently large enough to justify the analysis to be conducted by the researcher (Gregoire, and Affleck, 2017). Considering the present study, research has selected a population size of 100 respondents out of which 75 respondents have been selected for conducting the survey session and therefore, 75 is the sample size. In order to conduct the interview, 5 managers of topmost multi multinational corporations have been selected.
3.10 Research limitation
Various research limitations have been found by the researcher while conducting the research. This is because ample hindrances have been encountered while collecting primary as well as secondary data for both types of research that has been conducted for the concerned subject. In accumulating primary data for the quantitative research, Researcher has broadly faced ample ethical issues in the accomplishment of research. Ethical issues consisted of designing the questionnaire which did not include any kind of question that could hold the dignity as well as respect of the participant of survey.
While browsing for different articles and books various accessibility issues have been encountered by the researcher. The accessibility issues have mainly included language issues such as different journal articles which were appropriate for gaining proper information has been in a foreign language which was not illegible. The accessibility issues eventually included payment and subscription charges while accessing various journals that have been encountered by the researcher. Much improper information revealing websites could not be accessed while researching for the prime subject. Both ethical as well as accessibility issues worked as hindrances in the researching path of the researcher.
It can be thus, concluded that the methodological section incorporates the clarification and supports of research reasoning, Research Design explore approach, Data Collection techniques and in addition the examination procedure. Information Collection tools and additionally the testing method utilized as a part of the exploration has in the end been explained by the researcher.
Analysis and findings
In this chapter both quantitative as well as qualitative research has been evaluated and explained with proper logic and reasoning by the researcher. This chapter has exclusively analysed each and every outcome of both quantitative as well as qualitative analysis undertaken. The survey and interview which has been conducted is presented in this chapter with the viewpoints and opinions of the respondents towards the effect of growing multinational over Indian culture and tradition.
4.1 Analysis: Quantitative analysis
Case study analysis
Globalisation has typically become the buzzword in a new era of the international relations. Basically, it has been a process of expanding commerce and trade all across the world through creation of frontier-less market. Along with development of the Hi-Tech communication media as well as Rapid facilities of transportation the entire world has quiz and the people have come much closer towards each other. therefore globalisation is living both positive as well as negative impacts upon different developing countries and this can be explained by considering 2 case studies of two different country mainly focusing upon their fashion industries.
Case study 1: India
Indian culture could be denoted as one of the most traditional and ancient culture. India is a diversified nation with almost 1.2 billion dollars or more than that with the highest of youngest population. Various aspects regarding the Indian culture include religion, language, arts and food. India consists of 28 states along with seven union territories according to the World Health Organisation where languages such as Bengali, Urdu, Punjabi, Tamil, Gujarati, Telugu and Marathi are few of the Exclusive languages spoken in the country (Mukherji, 2014). However Hindi is the official language and India is popularly known as the birthplace of the Buddhism and Hinduism. Various religions have their own fashion themes and styles which are even affected by globalisation and foreign direct investment in the recent years. Banga (2006) added that India is eventually called as hub of different festivals and therefore demand of clothing and apparel always exist among the Indians. People in this country are fond of wearing different clothes and trying different cuisines. Indian culture is broadly affected by globalisation and FDI through the establishment of multinational corporations in different parts of the country which has driven and literally changes to the fashion sense and style of the young generation people in the country (Dunning, 2003).
Globalisation has tremendously received a crucial role for playing in the developing economy India. It is leaving back its footprints at almost each and every sphere of human lives. It has happened to not only within India but interchange of the views as well as ideas of entire world has brought up a consequence in the matter transformation of lifestyle along with the living standard of the people on a global notion. In the views of Roberts et al. (2014), Indian culture has been no such bar to this particular transformation process. The deep rooted customs and traditions have significantly loosened up the hold with this emergence of the globalisation. India is popularly known for its rich cultural history and background and the pride of Indian culture is famous all over the world. Globalisation has not only inculcated westernization within the country but consequently Indian culture has also left its impact internationally. Indian clothing style and fashion has been always varied in the context of its different states and background (Nelson, 2012). In order to maintain dignity of the women Indian culture has always been extremely focused on the dressing style and pattern so that the women of this country grow up and elegance and beauty. In 2016, GDP has almost increased by 6.3% with the hike in services as well as buying power in the Indian market of textile industry specifically. The dressing style and pattern of the Indian women and girls have got usually changed up due to globalisation and foreign investment in the fashion companies which have broadly focused up on introducing western dresses and apparels. Tastes and preferences of the Indian women have got changed with the growing indulgence of globalisation and foreign direct investment. However, Mukherjee et al. (2014) argued that it has been also observed that the foreigners who came across from all over the world and the living in India have adopted the Indian culture and followed the dressing styles and patterns. Huge foreigners have been observed to wear sarees and salwars on a random day or in any occasion. Though Indian women are largely seen in western dresses and apparels the foreigners on the other hand are being observed in wearing traditional Indian dresses.
India is the multidimensional country which comprises of more than 1.27 billions of population sprayed all across the regions each of them having different rituals and tradition do basic culture has always remain same. Due to this fact lot of costumes as well as apparels are observed which has had a long history. In opinions of Roberts et al. (2014), it has been thus a commitment for the Indian people to undertake the renowned costumes of Indian tradition possessing long continuity of the culture on a global notice. Even after strong impact of British, Indians have always kept to the tradition perpetual as well as carried it forward but upcoming and ongoing Western trends seem to be much more engulfing over the Indian society on a large scale. Fashion seems to be endless and has been staying around since the start of the human race (Malhotra, 2014). It is said to be a mould of contemporary in its capability of joining in dynamics between society and the individuals. Considering the Indian economy as one of the fastest growing nation across the world, it could be stated that it has attracted multiple investors in this recent time period.
Fashion has literally affected the Indian economy as it has the power to sway politics and surveys a form of art which can directly affect the personal lives of individuals. People of India are observed to relate to the fashion to their regular vocational where. Though fashion has been always a wider concept but it is narrow down to the fabric, apparel as well as accessories in the modern times. In today's world versatility in the clothing styles of Indian people as reflected faces of the diversity within the nation. As described by Mukherjee et al. (2014), apparels tend to undergo astounding changes within this era of globalisation and foreign investment. Every new day in today's world comes with an evolving Trend. Each and every person has developed his or her unique and different choices of dressing and fashion like some dresses more trendy and baby while some like casual wears.
Due to the involvement of foreign investment and globalisation Indian designers already marked prominent places in fashion market. Indian fashion giants such as Biba, Pantaloons, Fabindia has brought newer varieties and trends whereas introduction of Mango, Diesel, Gap, Zara have changed the culture. Nelson (2012) supported that exotic designs have been developed by the designers which have created greater impact over uplifting the clothing trend of India in all over the world. People are staying more stylish and fashionable for looking attractive and the new fashion has come which gave a modern and branded look to any ordinary people. However, along with these positive it is people of India has started forgetting Indian ethics and culture, they are showing greater interesting Hollywood Trends and fashion than the domestic ones and more preference is being given to Western outfits than the traditional ones.
Case study 2: Bangladesh
Since the 16th century Western religion imposition as well as cultural practices over adoption of Western religion has been accomplished and in today's era of globalisation the same is being repeated. Most significant for reaching impact of the cultural globalisation is commercialization of the culture. According to the viewpoints of Caleca (2014), production as well as consumption of the cultural goods and services had literally become the commodities in addition with essentials of the social life, religion, sports, work, youth, femininity or masculinity, art and clothes. Commercialization of this culture has a drastic impact over people. The determinants of culture in Bangladesh or in any other developing country with the presence of cultural diversity includes language religion food art manners dressing and clothes working schedules and medical care.
In the opinions of Orgeret (2016), impact of the globalisation over language as well as literature of Bangladesh has been under much notice because people especially the youth has started concentrating over learning and teaching English more than Bengali. Focus have been given more on learning English where Bengali is the country's mother tongue. People have become much more inclined to read foreign literature rather than their native ones. Similarly, it has some impactful consequences on maintaining Islamic ethics and culture where people have become much more concerned in adopting now western culture and started ignoring Islamic education and manners.
In the words of Kohli (2013), considering the fashion industry globalisation has more of the positive impacts than the negative ones as it has been one of the significant ways eradicate poverty ridden incidences and Individuals. In many places due to the formation of more garment factories and companies of fashion accessories more employment opportunities were available to the citizens of Bangladesh and therefore the poverty has been observed to decline slowly. Children can increase their education due to the availability of more companies and factories and indirectly employment. On the other hand, as contradicted by Orgeret (2016), due to globalisation and adoption of western culture fashion industry has been brought the affected and society has been eventually affected due to the introduction of new dresses, clothing styles and apparels. Jensen (2015) argued on this that girls belonging to young generation are more likely to wear western dresses than the Indian ones which has been impactful over the entire Bangladeshi culture.
On the other hand, he added that due to the increasing accessibility of both men and women to dress classy and gently globalisation has been helpful hand. People of Bangladesh have become much more smart and intelligent with the increasing aspects of foreign investment and globalisation in the country. When emergence of globalisation in Bangladesh has been observed through the manufacturing as well as exporting industries of apparel and clothing Bangladesh economy has begin to grow at an accelerating rate (Kohli, 2013). More focus has been provided over developing the fashion industry and agriculture has been simultaneously neglected. Fashion giants like Benetton, Gap and Zara have contributed to the gross domestic product of Bangladesh on a large scale and provided a significant identity to the country due to their huge investment through importing and exporting of clothing materials in the past years.
People provide much more visit to salons and spa or beauty parlours due to grooming them in a new shape and style as well as become updated and trendy with the new era. As indicated by Caleca (2014), citizens of Bangladesh have gradually adopted the western culture and did not their respective culture and tradition true broader investments of foreign companies in fashion. Therefore, Bangladesh has become much more fast forward and advanced due to globalisation and foreign direct Investments which can be evidently explained through the development of fashion industry.
A wider cultural gap therefore exists in India than Bangladesh as globalisation and foreign investment has impacted upon India in a greater way.
4.2 Analysis: Qualitative analysis
Theme1: Concept of globalisation and FDI in terms of fashion
Socialization of the people in order to improve business as well as the financial activities across the world can be substantially referred to as the globalisation (Roberts et al. 2014). Globalisation uniformly refers to a spread of the innovative forms contained in the non territorial social activities. Globalisation could be defined as a process of the Rapid integration of all the countries as well as happening through a greater contribution of the foreign trade as well as foreign investment (Banerjee, and Dasgupta, 2010). Developed countries has always been trying for pursuing the developing countries in order to liberalise trade as well as allow great amount of flexibility in the business policies for providing equivalent opportunities to the multinational forms within their respective domestic markets. In India, under regions such as Kolkata fashion industry has been usually influenced by growth of the multinational and influx of the foreign investment from other developed Nations. Globalisation typically involves the stretching of economic and social relationships all across the world. This particular stretching has been pushed by specific policies of an economy including India. Globalisation has in most of the cases proved boon due to its exclusive contribution in the growth of the entire GDP of Indian economy and has provided ample opportunities to the citizens for getting employed in the sectors. In a way it has induced the growth of the Indian economy but has also affected its culture through the adoption of Western habits and lifestyle. There lies its curse inhibited part.
Theme 2: Contribution of MNCs in changing Indian culture
Globalisation and the establishment of multinational corporations are interrelated and is becoming preferred term to describe current time in almost all the developing Nations especially in India. Advancement of the technology has dissolved International boundaries as well as opens to the cultures into an entire new arena for the people of India as well as those who have come from abroad (Roberts et al. 2014). Due to globalisation multinational corporations have been under much influence to promote the consumer culture and exploitation of the workers as well as influence the societal values which has adverse post-effects on the entire economy (Wilkins et al. 2017). MNCs have induced employment and thereby motivated the workers to retain Indian culture by respecting their caste, religion, class and heritage. Foreign investment has also supported the retail outlets in managing the Indian heritage and culture through fashion by providing them a strong financial base in producing and manufacturing the outfits and accessories which would grab the attention of the customers. Researchers proclaimed that many multinational corporations have supported the Indian retail outlets to produce and manufacture Indian goods and they themselves manufacture Indian outfits to attract the upper middle class customers through their known brands and high quality dresses. Thereby, it proves that people lives in an extreme intensely interdependent place where each and every one of them along with their immense historical and cultural experience is out to be compressed together within the instant communication.
Theme 3: Impacts of globalisation, MNCs and FDI behind cultural change of India
Impact of the globalisation of over local culture as well as the change in the role of nation state could be broadly examine through observing particularities of social as well as cultural patterns along with their national, transnational and local manifestations within Indian economy (Roberts et al. 2014). It has been evident that the structures of caste community as well as diversities of culture as well as social economic aspects have been plurals due to mass globalisation and foreign investment. People irrespective of their cultural norms and customs have enabled the Western lifestyle to be incorporated within their families and neighbours (Wilkins et al. 2017). Globalisation has eventually resulted in the ultimate loss of the individualism which has encouraged the Westin ideal of the individualism and promoted definite and homogeneous set of the values as well as beliefs. Many authors have opined that the Indian culture has been observed to be under the effect of multi religious, multicultural, multi-community civilization as well as multiple ways of the lives which have been under little trade of a ruthless force exhibited by the globalisation in the present time. Few of them literally supported that the unbridled exaggeration of the western culture has seems to continue at an accelerated rate with denigration as well as decline of the Indian culture, religion, civilization, literature customs and art. Presently, British rule has been widely replaced by the globalisation as it has masquerade itself by slogans and levels such as democracy, gender equality, humanitarian rights, internationalism and free trade. They eventually considered the fact that among the most exceptional critics of the globalisation content, it can be stated that increase in the trade liberalization has promoted the material prosperity along with the paying of cost of spiritual as well as cultural practices in India.
Theme 4: Issues behind the cultural change
A lot more distinction in classes and diversity is in the cultural and social economic factors have a reason due to the cultural change brought down by the globalisation in India. People begin to discriminate among themselves based over their incomes and classes including outfits and lifestyles which have certainly affected the mental peace of people belonging to lower class and lower middle class (Wilkins et al. 2017). Circumstances and situations have become more commercialized where people learnt to show off rather having any personal attachment and feelings towards others. Along with the change in educational system and procedure the cultural change has been complemented with revolution in fashion trends and lifestyles (Banerjee, and Dasgupta, 2010). Western ideas have been observed to easily as a million into paradigms and cultures of other nations such as India with effects which are far reaching in nature. According the managers, with the growing Trend and generation paper has adopted the western culture as the National one in India and typically ignores the Indian culture. People who still have kept the Indian cultural in their mind and under notice are often bullet art colleges, universities and schools by their peers belonging to higher or upper middle class. Most of them agreed that it has been observed about that people who belong to higher or upper middle class or more likely to consume the western outfits and embrace western culture in their opinions and preferences then the middle or lower class people. These cases specially happen among the youth where class distinction is highly encouraged. Some of the managers argued that however, due to the generation of imitation and hypocrisy people tend to consume more of the Western outfits in order to show off their adoption of the Western culture and lifestyles.
The chapter has clearly elaborated the facts and findings about opinions of various residences who are actually the citizens of India. Their opinions have been hardly in favour of the growing multinationals and foreign investment as they have supported the fact that due to the growth of multinational sectors in the fashion industry and influx of foreign investment their tastes and preferences towards the Indian styles and outfits have literally changed.
From the above research it can be supported that there has been used effect over the Indian society market due to the increasing growth of urbanization and improvising multinational corporations. It is evident that the impact is well understood by the management of every organisation under the Government of India. It is seen that each and every people in the society of India have changed their lifestyle in terms of the changes through Western civilization. Most effectively, it is seen that the changing of Style and personality have also been impacted due to the large station or input of the multinational corporation over the lifestyle of the common people in India.
However, it can be also seen that there are people who would like to recommend options to the Government of India in supporting the Indian market from the large invasion of the multinational corporation. Surveys that have been conducted as a quantitative research work have shown that people recommending impose meaning of cooperation organisation and also to increase creativity in Indian product services. To view the larger picture of the input with the help of Multinational Corporation, it can be seen that the impact is huge and it is quite growing at a large pace.
5.1 Linking objectives
Objective 1: To explain the concept of globalisation and FDI in terms of the fashion industry in India
This objective has been clearly and evidently explained in the second chapter that is literature review with the subpart of 2.1. They have been a clear description of globalisation and foreign direct investment in that section. Efficient methods have been undertaken so as to understand proper value of globalisation and FDI in the society of India. The concept has been well discussed and provided with ample references that support effectiveness and efficiency of the concept.
Objective 2: To recognise the determinants of globalisation as well as foreign investment in India
The objective above has been very well discussed in the literature review section under the sub part of 2.8. The determinant happen we'll discuss the impact of those terminals have also been properly discuss in that part of it is a review. It support of authentic references it is clear that responses of research for against the understanding of exact determinants of globalisation and foreign Industries investment over fashion industry section in India happen been well understood.
Objective 3: To address and identify the impacts of growing multinational corporations on Indian culture
The above objective has been well discussed with the quantitative research section. Table showing the nature and the habit of the people regarding buying of Western clothing in a year, have shown that 53% of the total people surveyed have supported in buying clothes of Western Community or week. This clearly indicates the impact of foreign direct investment and privatisation. Table showing the response of the common people regarding their wish to visit market It is seen that Western market are being visited the most and is supported by most of the people being service
Objective 4: To suggest some effective recommendations for retaining Indian culture and tradition even after the growing multinational corporations and foreign investment
The above objective has been well discussed and supported with the table against the survey question number 12. It is seen that most of the recommendation have been in terms of improving the quality of domestic products which shows that people in India are trying to make the Indian clothing again remarkable as it was before. On the other hand similar amount of people supports taxation over MNCs and also setting out of training clothing fashion stores together.
5.2 Research limitations
The researcher has faced sincere limitations and constraints while conducting the entire research through various means and modes. Both ethical as well as accessibility issues have been encountered by the researcher while conducting survey and interview sessions. The researcher had to always keep in mind about framing up the questions of the questionnaire so that the dignity and moral value of the respondents were not hurt. The questions have been framed in the way to comfort and ensure the respondents for answering them properly however many of the respondents could not as they hesitated. Many respondents did not even want to perform the survey session and answer questions in a correct way and the respondents who performed mostly answered wrong or did not provide correct answer.
While accessing the journal articles and various websites as well as web pages the researcher has faced severe troubles in gaining information from them. Many websites and web pages contained improper information and showed irrelevant links which were not appropriate for the research and therefore it seemed to be time killing. Many journals often turned out to be of different languages which were eligible for the researcher to study and therefore consume the researcher’s time.
5.3 Future scopes
The project as accomplished by the researcher also serves as a further help to other researchers in order to take full advantage and the benefit of conducting a far more enriched research on a similar topic. Other researchers would be helpful from the analysis that has been conducted in this research regarding the opinions and views of respondents towards the change in the Indian culture brought down by western surface. This project would eventually be effective two other authors and researchers for carrying out their thesis on the reasons behind India being developing and developed day by day. Through various recommendations other researchers can get a way out to improve and retain the Indian culture throughout the world.
Various other authors can easily get to know about the recent condition of India in terms of fashion industry and adoption of western culture. They can work upon the fact that western culture is dominating over the Indian one due to the tastes and preferences developed by the Indian residents. The literature review part of this project is quite helpful to know about the theories on culture that were initially followed by the economy but with an increase in the day-to-day availability of Western clothes and outfits, the cultural theories have been quite less in practice.
Indian retailers must concentrate on producing innovative styles of outfits and accessories that would define fashion in an exceptional way which would attract the customers and prohibit them from visiting the multinational for buying their trendy apparels and fashion accessories. Evident researches have even added that the Indian retailers must also put a greater Also, an emphasis over increasing the quality of the product at a reasonable rate so that the middle class people would often visit the stores and recommend others for buying clothes and other accessories from them.
Encouraging privatisation of the domestic companies is also one of the most effective recommendations in order to increase the gross domestic product of India and make it away more developing than what it was. Privatising the companies would transform them into multinationals and thereby embrace the foreign investment with every aspect that any developing Nation must achieve. However, privatising the domestic companies disables the access of consumers towards the goods which are produced by India and grow and interest among them for consuming the goods which are manufactured by foreign companies due to higher quality and reasonable prices.
Set up more outlets with trendy clothing and fashion accessories:
Setting up of more outlets with fashionable products and accessories would face the government higher sales and revenues of domestic retailers who are Indian Giants of clothing and fashion industry. Growth in the number of outlets of domestic products both Indian and Western outfits may increase the options and choice bundles for the consumers to consume more of the products. Establishment of the domestic textile companies with lower prices and higher quality products would attract a greater number of customers both of whom are Indian as well as western and thereby increase the sales. Selling more Indian outfit is necessary than the Western ones in order to retain the Indian culture and tradition through the lifestyles and apparels.
Taxation on MNCs and foreign retailers:
Higher taxation on the multinational corporations would lead them to disinvest in India and let the Indian companies pursue success and growth. Motivate the Indian retailers of textile and fashion industry Multinational corporations must be taxed on a higher rate in order to operate within the country and sell their products and services to Indian customers. It has been always observed that for reducing foreign investment it would be quite beneficial to charge the multinational corporations and induce sale of domestic products on a large basis.
Improving quality of domestic products:
Improving the quality of domestic products and services is one of the best ways to retain the existing customers and attract newer ones. Higher quality of the products can be only ensured when the technology used in manufacturing the products is advanced and eligible production managers and handicraft specialists are hired and employed in the companies with a minimum pay scale that was satisfied their desire. Indian culture can be only upheld by inducing the Indian retailers to produce more of Indian outfits and accessories in an innovative way so that they not only the Indian customers are attracted but also the foreigners.
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