• +1-617-874-1011 (US)
  • +44-117-230-1145 (UK)
Live Chat
Follow Us:

Effect Of Techno On Hospital Admin and Productivity

The effect of technology on hospital administration and productivity

Of Health Care In Abu Dhabi UAE

Chapter one

1.0 Introduction

In this study, research has been conducted upon the impact of technology and administration in the profitability of the hospitals. The hospitals of Abu Dhabi are the central focus in this study. Research aim, objective and questions are formed in order to conduct this research and continue in achieving them. In the phase of the increasing losses and risks in the healthcare sector in UAE, there has been an increasing need felt for studying the important factors for determining productivity and profitability in this sector. Significance of the study is provided along with its impact on the research outcome. The significance of medical technology to improve the level of communication and productivity through the application of medical equipment is also included in the study. The system was found to be very complex and healthcare organizations in UAE have faced significant challenges in the effective implementation of this project. Research questions in this study have the effectiveness that can provide maximum sustainability to the organizations in the competitive market place. The service related improvement can be determined through the active role of governing body of the hospital. In this chapter, all the important areas to be dealt in the study are introduced and explained in the rationale section. The research extensively focuses on hospital management and medical framework management to bring out the best possible information from the research. The scope of the research is vast considering the far reaching implications of the subject. There has been an attempt to effectively get data from as much authentic sources possible to help towards the better presentation of the research.

1. 1 Background of the study

The healthcare organizations in UAE have been subject to great pressure due to increasing level of healthcare risks in nation. All healthcare institutions across different emirates have been focus of scrutiny and monitoring of healthcare departments. It has been noted that most of organizations in the healthcare sector in UAE has been making efforts in order to increase the productivity and profitability of the healthcare organizations. The managers and those in charge of the administration of the healthcare organizations have been making attempts to determine the factors that need to be focused on for improving the productivity of the healthcare organizations (Sharma et al. 2016). In order to determine the measures that need to be undertaken for increasing the profitability of the organizations in the healthcare department, it is thus required to determine the areas that need to be focused upon or areas of improvement needs to be determined. Apart from that it has been seen that in recent times the healthcare risks in the organization has been increasing and there are various issues that the organizations have been facing that are making them face recurring losses (Folland et al. 2016).

Thus, it has become impending in this context that the healthcare organizations that they identify the ways in which they can improve the competency of the organization to increase their productivity. It is thus necessary to determine the areas that healthcare organizations need to focus upon so that they can improve their productivity. In this study, thus there would be need for understanding of the two major factors that are technology and administration that are absolutely necessary for the increased level of productivity in the healthcare organization. In this study, the main intention and aim of the study would be to determine the role of healthcare administration and governance and the importance of technological innovation in the productivity of the healthcare organizations. In the face of the increasing losses and risks in the healthcare sector in UAE, there has been a need felt for studying the important factors for determining productivity factors and profitability factors in this sector. The increased level of concern in the healthcare organizations had made it mandatory for organizations to understand their need for achieving higher financial gains and support for future developments and success. In the UAE historically hospitals came into being only in the last half century. The first hospitals were built with foreign aid and foreign funded hospital mechanism. However, in the last few decades the hospital sector of UAE has increased to a great extent. Unprecedented and extensive growth has been witnessed in the sector and a wide range of opportunities have been created with regards to the medical sector of the country. The growth and the expertise gained need to be effectively utilized by the country. The research is aimed towards providing a directive framework that will help to optimally utilize the opportunities that have been created in the health sector of the company.

1. 2 Statement of the Problem

In the past research studies, most of studies such as history of technology and statistics of several hospitals in UAE have focused on the various ways in which healthcare organizations have been operating and their importance in the health development of the people (Vankayala et al., 2014). It has been found that the manager in the healthcare organizations work for achieving the greatest quantity of output for the least efforts and inputs. To achieve this they make efforts to balance all the functional factors in the most optimal manner for making the best use of the available resources. In this regard, the documentation of the information technology had been found to be very necessary moreover in current situations where the role and importance of information technology had increased across all sectors (Ferreira et al. 2015). Most of the studies had focused on the resource management and the need for using the information technology for improving the quality of the healthcare practices. In this study the aim has been to analyze and understand the efficiency of the information technology- eHospital System in the field of healthcare organization and the various ways in which the information technology that had led to better productivity and profitability.

It has also been seen that most organizations in healthcare department in UAE have their focus directed towards the external support that would be required for increasing productivity. On the contrary the problem that is addressed in this study is the need for internal focus on the factors that would control profitability such as effective administration and governance practices (Sharma et al., 2016).

Thus this present study focuses on the need for better administration and governance practices in healthcare organizations; the staffing methods; degree of efficiency of the staff; support from the top level of the organization would be focused upon. Thus this study would address the association between the effective administration practices and method of governance and their impact on the productivity of the organization. The knowledge of this association between the increased levels of profitability in the healthcare organizations has often not been the focus of main studies. Thus the direct impact of the effective administration and governance of the healthcare organizations on the profitability and efficiency of the healthcare organization needs to be studied. This would be required to understand the measures that can be undertaken for improving the administration efficiency for increasing the financial success of the healthcare organization. Moreover it has also been seen that in the present times, the implementation and use of the electronic health records have been found to be more significant for increased level of productivity. Thus in this study, the aim of the study would be to analyze the manner in which the electronic health records and other technology can be used and implemented to reduce issues of documentation and increase the efficiency of health care organizations in maintenance of healthcare information and records.

It has also been seen that in many of the hospitals the infrastructures available are not being utilized properly. This is leading to both under productivity and underutilization of essential resources. The study will find the best way to tackle the issues that have risen due to the limitations. The underutilization of the resources has caused great wastage of essential materials. The study will focus on curbing the wastage of much required essential tools and hospital supplies towards ensuring optimal provision of effective medical services.

1. 3 Objectives of the study

The framing in the research objectives is necessary for the understanding of the focus areas of the study and the development of the research objectives would also help the further understanding of the research topic. With the aid of the research objectives it would be easier to sub divide the research topic. This would also help in the better categorization of the research topic into appropriate areas of consideration. The research objectives that would be categorized in this study are given as:

1. To understand the scope and range of technological services provided by healthcare in Abu Dhabi

2. To understand the structure of technological services on healthcare services in Abu Dhabi

3. To know the impact of technological services on healthcare services in Abu Dhabi

4. To evaluate the effect of social media network (Facebook) on the marketing strategy of healthcare service in Abu Dhabi

5. To understand the effect of laparoscopic surgery technology used of healthcare service in Abu Dhabi

1. 4 Significance of the Study

The study that would be conducted is aimed at understanding the importance of the administration and governance of the healthcare organizations and technology in UAE. The study is significant considering the fact the risks involved in the health care organizations has increased significantly and thus there is need for understanding the various factors that need to be considered for increased levels of productivity. The study would be conducted for the purpose of determining how the changes in the technology and technological innovation can impact the working of the healthcare organizations. Moreover, the study would be important for the realization that there is need for improving administration structure and the efficiency of corporate governance in the healthcare institutions across UAE. In this context, it can further be added that the responsibility of the healthcare administration and governance and the significance of technological innovation cannot be undermined in any way. The healthcare organization in UAE had been facing various issues in the healthcare promotion of the people and their health related risks. The data findings of this research study would thus aim at finding the manner in which the healthcare organizations in UAE can achieve more profitability and minimize the losses that such organizations are facing in current situation. Moreover, the study would also focus on the measure in which technological innovation is related to greater level of efficiency and how the application of the electronic health records would lead to better assessment of the healthcare documentation and information sharing.

1. 5 Research questions

The research questions are helpful for understanding the research topic in much detailed manner. The research question has its emphasis on the various sub topics that would be addressed in the study so as their relevance and importance can be determined in the research topic can be determined.

What is the scope and range of electronic records service provided by healthcare in Abu Dhabi?

What is the structure of electronic records on healthcare services in Abu Dhabi?

What is the impact of electronic records on healthcare services in Abu Dhabi?

What is the effect of social media network (Facebook) on the marketing strategy of healthcare service in Abu Dhabi?

What is the effect of laparoscopic surgery technology used to enhance the customer satisfaction and productivity of healthcare service in Abu Dhabi?

1. 6 Research Hypothesis

In this study, the research hypothesis needs to be framed and the research hypothesis would a statement of the prediction that would be made in the study and would also state what to

Expect from the study. The null and alternative research hypothesis in this study can be stated as:

H0 = The null hypothesis that is taken under consideration for assessing the technological situation in administration of healthcare and enhancing productivity of the health care of Abu Dhabi, UAE is that the technological advancement has strong impact in rendering betterment in the administration of healthcare and enhancing productivity of the health care of Abu Dhabi, UAE.

H1 = alternative hypothesis is that technology has no impact in the administration of healthcare and enhancing productivity of the health care of Abu Dhabi, UAE.

Ho: There is no effect of electronic records structure on healthcare services in Abu Dhabi

Ha: There is an effect of electronic records structure on healthcare services in Abu Dhabi.

Ho: There is no impact of electronic records on hospital service.

Ha: There is an impact of electronic records on healthcare services in Abu Dhabi

Ho: There is no effect of social media network (Facebook) on the marketing strategy of healthcare service in Abu Dhabi

Ha: There is an effect of social media network (Facebook) on the marketing strategy of healthcare service in Abu Dhabi.

1. Ho: There is no effect of laparoscopic surgery technology used to enhance the customer satisfaction and productivity of healthcare service in Abu Dhabi

Ha: There is an effect of laparoscopic surgery technology used to enhance the customer satisfaction and productivity of healthcare service in Abu Dhabi

Research Problem

Objectives

Research Question

Research Hypothesis

To understand the scope and range of electronic records service provided by healthcare in Abu Dhabi

What is the scope and range of electronic records service provided by healthcare in Abu Dhabi?

Ho: There is no effect of scope and range of electronic records services provided by health care in Abu Dhabi

Ha:There is an effect of scope and range of electronic records services provided by healthcare in Abu Dhabi

To understand the structure of electronic records on healthcare services in Abu Dhabi

What is the structure of electronic records on healthcare services in Abu Dhabi?

Ho: There is no effect of electronic records structure on healthcare services in Abu Dhabi

Ha: There is an effect of electronic records structure on healthcare services in Abu Dhabi.

To know the impact of electronic records on healthcare services in Abu Dhabi

What is the impact of electronic records on healthcare services in Abu Dhabi?

Ho: There is no impact of electronic records on hospital service.

Ha: There is an impact of electronic records on healthcare services in Abu Dhabi

To evaluate the effect of social media network (Facebook) on the marketing strategy of healthcare servicein Abu Dhabi

What is the effect of social media network (Facebook) on the marketing strategy of healthcare service in Abu Dhabi?

Ho: There is no effect of social media network (Facebook) on the marketing strategy of healthcare service in Abu Dhabi

Ha: There is an effect of social media network (Facebook) on the marketing strategy of healthcare service in Abu Dhabi.

To understand the effect of laparoscopic surgery technology used of healthcare service in Abu Dhabi

What is the effect of laparoscopic surgery technology used to enhance the customer satisfaction and productivity of healthcare service in Abu Dhabi?

Ho : There is no effect of laparoscopic surgerytechnology used to enhance the customer satisfaction and productivity of healthcare service in Abu Dhabi

H a : There is an effect of laparoscopic surgery technology used to enhance the customer satisfaction and productivity of healthcare service in Abu Dhabi

1. 7 Brief overview of methodology

The research methodology in this study is a systematic plan that would be undertaken for conducting the research process. For this study, the positive research philosophy is adopted for attempting logical discussions of the findings. Moreover, the descriptive research design had been considered to be most appropriate for the analysis of the primary and secondary result findings. In the study, the deductive approach would be used for deducing appropriate information from the research findings. The data collection procedure that would be selected for this study would be mixed method and both primary and secondary method of data collection would be used for the study. In this study for primary data collection, survey would be conducted on the customers of the healthcare organizations in Abu Dhabi and interview would also be conducted on the healthcare managers in Abu Dhabi. For the secondary data collection, literature review of the existing studies on the research topic would be conducted. The data collected shall be analyzed and discussed in the data analysis that would follow. Ethical considerations shall also be considered so that the data collection, use and application can be valid and reliable and that ethical use of the data can be possible.

1. 8 Structure of the study

A well-defined structure is needed in a study so that the study of the research topic can be attempted in a detailed manner. The segmentation and division of the research study would help the research study to observe the research topic in an effective manner.

Chapter 1 (Introduction): this chapter deals with the introductory and basic details of the research topic. In this chapter, the research objectives, research questions had been framed and the background, scope and research problem had been introduced.

Chapter 2 (Literature review): in this chapter, concepts, models, theories and existing studies related to the importance of administration and technology in the healthcare organizations had been discussed. This chapter had helped to improve understanding of the research aim and objectives of the study.

Chapter 3 (research methodology): in this chapter the process and design that had been used for conducting the research had been discussed.

Chapter 4 (data analysis and data interpretation): the data that had been collected in the research process, results and findings of the research process had been generated and analyzed. Data analysis had been done with the help of appropriate methods and techniques for understanding the response of the participants.

Chapter 5 (Case study and implications): This is a form of case study that is discussing the practical implication of the findings derived from the data and its implication for future research works. This part of study is the ending of the researchthat had been guiding the evidences of theoretical framework, conceptual appreciation and interpretations from the result derived from the data.

Chapter 6 (Summary and implication and recommendation for further research): the study had been concluded and appropriate results had been stated for appropriate understanding of the research topic. On the basis of the research findings that had been received from the data collection procedure, recommendations had been suggested for improving the contribution of administration and technology in the healthcare organizations in UAE.

1. 9 Definition of terms

1. Technological innovation: technological innovation would mean the introduction of advanced technology in the use and application of services with the use of high tech tools, techniques and devices

2. Electronic health records: it is the digital version of the paper chart and medical records and reports of the patients. They are electronic records that are patient centered and can be available to authorized users (Hsiao et al. 2014).

3. Tele medicine/ Tele health: it is a process that is involved with the process of distribution of the health related information through telecommunication technologies and electronic information (Weinstein et al. 2014).

4. M Health: Healthier mobile health is a term that is generally used for the utilization of mobile phones or any such wireless technology in the field of medical care (Singh et al. 2017)

1. 10 Scope and Delimitations

The research study aims to understand the impact of technological disruption on the administration capabilities in the healthcare organizations in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The scope of the research study and analysis would thus be to understand the impact of effective administrative capabilities and structure on the healthcare organizations. The aim is to take effective knowledge of the manner in which the healthcare organizations in UAE can improve its administration and governance for increasing the level of productivity. Moreover, considering the proposition that the healthcare organizations are now facing issues in catering the needs of the patients and the costs are also escalating in the healthcare organizations, there is need for increasing profitability. Thus the scope of the study would thus be to understand the scope of technological innovation through measures ashealth, electronic health records, Tele health for increasing the scope and efficiency of the healthcare organizations.

The research study would be that it would be limited to the study of the current position of the healthcare organizations in Abu Dhabi, UAE. This study would include analysis of the strengths and weaknesses in the healthcare organizations and its impact on the efficiency and productivity of the organizations. However, there are also other factors other than administration and technological innovation that also impact the productivity of the healthcare organizations. Such factors would not be taken into account in this study and that might limit the scope of the proper understanding of the factors affecting the productivity of the healthcare organizations in UAE. Apart from that there are technological devices and techniques that had been selected for technological innovation in the healthcare organizations. However there are also other advanced technologies that can be introduced in the healthcare organizations that might not be discussed in the study. Thus, such factors limiting the scope of the research study and thus the study that would be conducted would be specific to the research topic.

1. 11 Summary of the chapter

The need for understanding of factors that would be necessary for increasing efficiency in operation and productivity of healthcare organizations in UAE had been stated in the chapter. As it has been identified in this chapter, risks in healthcare organizations has been increasing and information sharing and database management in healthcare has also been ineffective. Thus this chapter has introduced the research topic and had provided a brief overview of the issues that need to be addressed in this study. The chapter had been sub-divided into other divisions such as research objective, research questions, research hypothesis. The background of the study and the problem statement had also been stated in the chapter. The scope and limitation of the study that would be conducted in the following chapters had also been introduced. On the basis of the research objectives, the literature review would follow for improving the knowledge of the research topic and to improve the extent of understanding.

Chapter Two

Literature Review:

2. 1 Introduction

In the recent years, the hospital management sector of UAE has witnessed significant growth. The development of the sector has been spurred by the technological advancements which have resulted in efficient hospital administration and management. The healthcare sector has been able to develop into a well-managed and economically beneficial sector for the country in the past few years. Efficient medical technologies have been utilized effectively and productively to contribute towards the healthy growth of the healthcare industry. Utilization of better resources has led to the higher productivity of the healthcare institutions and the rising health problems of the country have been managed satisfactorily. However, unlike the other corporate sectors, the healthcare industry has certain responsibilities attached to its ultimate operation and functioning in the country. It needs to be effective enough to tackle the healthcare requirement of the general public of the country (MOHAP– UAE, 2018).

Abu Dhabi has been one of the major cities of the country that has witnessed better productivity considering the healthcare sector. The study will focus on the various implications of healthcare management, operation, and productivity. Efficient technology and better management have worked greatly in favor of the hospital and healthcare institution sectors. It needs to be properly evaluated however, that how can the facilities of effective healthcare available for the public be further optimized for the benefit of the citizens. Abu Dhabi’s healthcare sector have to be the focus of the study as it is one of the main cities of the country and a great contributor towards the ultimate productivity of the country. The city is also known to have many residents who are suffering from ailments that need serious and spontaneous medical attention. Considering the health requirements of the people of Abu Dhabi there have been many changes made in the healthcare management sector in the past few years. Some of the changes have been beneficial however, there were other changes made that actually resulted in dissatisfaction among a lot of citizens. Especially, in some of the cases the elderly and health card owning population of the city were unsatisfied by some government regulations. The implications of the various aspects of developmental work that have taken place across the health sector need to be effectively analyzed and properly evaluated. The understanding of the issue through this can be essentially used towards the further development of the health sector (MOHAP – UAE, 2018)

The main factors that have affected the all-round development and improvement of healthcare facilities are many. The most important being better usage of more efficient technological aspects, effective utilization of improved management techniques and government intervention ensuring better implementation of health regulations. Technological improvement has been one of the biggest changes that have taken place across the city of Abu Dhabi. The improvement concerning technological advancement has not only affected patient oriented functions of the hospitals but also the general organizational communication and management of the healthcare institutions. Facilities have increased in regards to better examination and test results for the patients, better evaluation of the health issues have helped to form better knowledge of health issues and person specific health requirements. The accuracy or effectiveness of health checkups have increased manifold. The doctors are now able to understand the ailments of specific patients far better than they have been able to do in the past. The best development has been in the field of medicine where again, implementation of proper technological solutions have helped to bring about essential changes in medicinal productivity and development of effective medicines (MOHAP – UAE, 2018).

As far as organizational efficiency is concerned the developments have had great and vital impact on the ways in which hospitals and medical institutions were managed. Communication is one of the main factors when it comes to the management of health institutions. Effective levels of communication is required to establish proper coordination between the doctors, nurses, medical staffs, lab assistants and other people engaged with the operations of a healthcare institution. The proper implementation of technological advancements has helped in the efficiency of the hospital operations. Efficient hospital operations have been further optimized by the management. Thus, technology has been used to increase the most vital functional aspects of the hospitals around the city. Hence, keeping all of the essential factors in mind, the developments that have taken place need to be properly studied.

Profitability of Abu Dhabi Hospitals

Electronic patient management system

ICT

Radio technology

Technological innovation radiology

E-hospital system

Medical technology

Technology and administration

Law and act on medical health

Regulatory framework

Governing body

2. 2 Conceptual Framework

2.2 Conceptual Framework

(Source: Author)

In the conceptual framework the implications of the various aspects that affect the operation and functioning of the healthcare sector have been discussed. Medical technology gives rise to efficient performances of the Electronic Medical Records that help in efficient patient data management and implementation. The technology is implemented by the hospital administration and this leads to all round growth of the hospital productivity. The same way radio technology is implemented throughout the effective framework of the hospital. The administration uses technology to provide efficient functioning of the framework. The ICTs such as the electronic devices that are then used effectively coordinate the departmental functions. Thus the essential aspects of technology are optimized by the various functional aspects of the hospital to ultimately maximize profitability.

2. 3. Background of the healthcare sector of Abu Dhabi

2. 3. 1 Scope of healthcare in Abu Dhabi

Abu Dhabi’s health authority is responsible for the control and regulation of the healthcare institutions that operate across the emirate of Abu Dhabi. The health authority was responsible for overseeing the development work encompassing the healthcare oriented infrastructure across the city. The scope of healthcare in Abu Dhabi has increased manifold over the last few years. More and more residents are getting access to essential healthcare. The development of the health sector in the city has happened effectively in regards to the essential growth of new healthcare oriented infrastructure. There have also been effective investments in technology facilitated to a great extent by the health authority of Abu Dhabi. Capital allocation has also been done in effective ways by the major hospitals operating in the city to facilitate technological innovations in medical professions (George et al., 2015). There have been effective improvements in both private and public healthcare facilities across the city. There is a great scope for healthcare in the city. The city is also home to many expat communities lot of who need medical care more often. The intense heat that the city has to endure also creates the demand for healthcare requirements. There has however been a persistent problem regarding the availability of quality doctors to cater to the needs of the potential patients. Considering this there is a great scope for the city to become a major healthcare hub of the country. The infrastructural and technological growth of the health sector in the city has opened up possibilities for healthcare to grow and develop even more in the future. Doctors from various parts of UAE, the Middle East and the World are being invited to work in the new hospitals that are being built in and around Abu Dhabi. The city in the near future can even witness a healthcare revolution if the growth capabilities of the medical sector are optimized.

One of the major limitations to the growth of the health sector in the city is the prevalence of expensive healthcare systems. The expat communities face the bigger issues as their incomes generally tend to be lower than those of the original residents of the city (Barakat-Haddad et al., 2015). The expats however are required by the government to have medical insurance which help to take care of their medical expenses to a certain extent. In a recent move the government also proposed that certain health care card holders who used to het 100% health cover previously would only get around 90% of their health coverage. This has also led to the dissatisfaction of a substantial part of the city’s residents. In all it can be said that although much has been done to develop the health sector of the city effectively, there is still much room for improvement. Infrastructural growth of medical housing facilities and major hospitals has also led to much investment from the side of the government. There is an essential need for the healthcare system of the city to be treated as a welfare duty of the city authorities towards its residents.

2. 3. 2 Effectiveness of the hospital in Abu Dhabi:

Abu Dhabi’s health authority regularly publishes reports in regards to the standards of healthcare that has to be maintained throughout the city in order to ensure effective quality of healthcare. Health Authority of Abu Dhabi (HAAD) also regularly publishes information in regards to improvements in the health sector of the city. The healthcare facilities available in the city, though relatively expensive, have noticed significant development over the years. Many international experts are hired in special task forces that oversee the developments and issues in the health sector of the city. The city has tried to implement international standards of health across all the medical institutions operating within the city. This has resulted in the overall productive function of the medical facilities. The health services company in Abu Dhabi manages 57 health centers along with other facilities such as blood bank, herbal medicinal centers and rehabilitation. It can be said that the healthcare framework present across the city is quite successful when it comes to operation in the medical sphere. The government has maintained an effective healthcare framework through which, the general public of the city can be provided with quality health services. The government decisions taken considering healthcare mechanisms across the city has effectively met both the national healthcare standards while at the same time living up to the standards of international norms of healthcare (El Hassan et al., 2015).

The most recent developments in the hospital and medical sector of the city have been possible due to the role played by technology. Technology has facilitated better productivity concerning most of the essential aspects of the healthcare mechanism. The decisions of the healthcare authority have been essentially affected by the growth and advancement in technology. Abu Dhabi as a city always has been technologically and infrastructure wise sound. Obtaining highly productive and improved healthcare technology was facilitated by the capital investment of the local government. The result of this was that hospitals began to provide high performance healthcare services across the city. The qualities of doctors have also been effectively optimized due to the successful implementation of technological advancements. The patients across the city can now get to know their health issues better through effective health tracking equipments. Heath testing equipments are providing the doctors with accurate health data concerning the physical issues faced by the patients. The city has gone over a makeover considering the implementation of technological advancements over the health sector. The all round effectiveness of healthcare systems have been positively affected due to the implementation of improved technology (Hung et al., 2014). The health cover mandate that has been passed on the public of the city has also increased the financial capabilities of patients to afford health services. Health insurance has been mandated for every city resident, thus, the residents are all entitled for health cover. This can be said to be a plus when it comes to providing the best healthcare solutions to the most number of city residents. Abu Dhabi is one of the most improved cities in the country currently in regards to the effectiveness of healthcare services provided to the residents.

2. 3. 3. Range of service provided by the healthcare sector in Abu Dhabi:

Currently a wide range of essential health services are provided across the city to the residents. There are health facilities available for each and every division of healthcare. The city has a number of health councils that organize regular health camps and health awareness programs. As of now people in UAE are suffering from the same healthcare conditions that people suffer globally. There is significant presence of major health issues like diabetes, liver ailments, high or low blood pressure. The presence of serious health issues among the public necessitates the organizing of the health care services by the Abu Dhabi government authorities. There is increasing focus on providing essential health services and facilities. The main services that are provided are primary health services, dental care, maternity services, and diabetes care management. There are also other major and minor services that are being offered, which take care of the majority of health issues the patients suffer from. The primary services are focused on providing diagnostic and primary care to the patients. The public as well as the private sector companies essentially provide these services. The healthcare mechanism of the city also provide blood bank and rehab facilities (Hultgren, 2017). The blood bank facilities operating within the city have expanded their operations in recent times. There are now more blood banks in and around Abu Dhabi. The improvement in technology has made possible the better utilization of donated blood. Patients no longer have to wait long to get their blood requirements. The diabetes diagnostic service has also improved in recent years. There are several health clinics around the city that offer diagnosis for diabetes. Diabetes awareness camps are regularly held by government and private institutions and aiming towards better treatment for diabetes affected patients. The health camps are gaining in popularity across the UAE along with Abu Dhabi. Blood donation camps are held more throughout the year across the city. The blood donation camps have made sure that the city is self-sufficient in its blood reserves. The diabetes awareness campaigns have helped in the early diagnosis high or low sugar levels among many residents.

The various services that are offered today only began a few years ago and are affected by some limitations (Wang et al., 2018). The better implementation of technological advancements has however, helped in the effective organization of health oriented events. Technology has also facilitated the effective service provided concerning healthcare. People are increasingly being made aware of various health issues. Disease literacy is increasing among the people which are offering increased assistance to the doctors in providing remedies. The services being offered are also increasing every year as the health sector witness health growth across the emirate of Abu Dhabi. The city is slowly waking up to the need for the availability of essential healthcare facilities. The recent changes show a positive result concerning services available and the future predictions point towards further improvements concerning the same.

2. 4 Effect of Efficient Hospital Administration in Abu Dhabi

2. 4. 1 Structure of hospital administration in the hospitals of Abu Dhabi

In the modern concept of Hospital planning, the conventional idea of the Hospital being a remedy center for the admitted patients is no longer emphasized. In the modern environment the hospital is seen as an institution with the all-round expertise in providing medical assistance to the patients as well as providing services of ambulance and effective domiciliary care. Due to the rich history of hospitals across the globe, the engagement of excellent personnel and the great improvement in providing services to the patients have made the hospital a place to be considered a very special institution (Afifi, 2018). The hospitals now command immense prestige as an institution that is far greater than the availability of normal healthcare services. The capital investments in hospital infrastructure have also increased around the world. The roles and responsibilities of the modern hospitals have increased manifold in Abu Dhabi. New infrastructural developments have taken place which requires new and improved staffs and machinery. In Abu Dhabi despite the investment in the infrastructural development of the hospitals, there is still lack of maintenance across the hospitals and this has been an ongoing challenge for the health authorities.

In order to tackle the major challenges in hospital administration regional planning have been used as a structural mechanism for hospitals around the city. The Abu Dhabi Health Authority regulates the healthcare sector all around the city. The authority emphasizes on building locality specific healthcare services. There are general hospitals that cater to the basic requirements of healthcare across all the major medical divisions and specialized hospitals that take care of specific issues only like ENT, dentist, ophthalmology, orthopedics, etc. The private sector mostly consists of the general hospitals with the health authority managing majority of the administrative functions. The private sector consists mostly of specialized hospitals. Most of these are partially regulated by the health authority and significantly autonomous. Considering the availability or vacancy in hospitals, Abu Dhabi hospitals have good vacancy as a result of the newer buildings that are created. The method of payment that is emphasized on is indirect payment. Each resident of the city is mandated to be covered by health insurance. The hospital administration is done most of the times by the local authorities by the employment of very skilled international experts. The management of the major hospitals report directly to the health authority, so that the authority can effectively publish hospital reports. The private hospitals are mostly owned by large philanthropic institutions that are in some ways connected to the government of Abu Dhabi. There are very few commercial or profit making hospitals operating in Abu Dhabi. Despite the control of the government control the hospital expenses are relatively high. This is one of the reasons behind the health insurance mandate imposed by the health authority since 2006. In the end, the HAAD controls and regulates majority of the hospitals in Abu Dhabi in some way or the other.

2. 4. 2 Hospital administration system of Abu Dhabi

In the UAE majority of the hospitals utilize different levels of management levels to administer the operations and functions. At the lower levels, service providers like the nurses and the other staffs operate the productivity functions of the hospitals. Other than the nurses and the normal staffs this level also includes the laundry services, cooks and other support facilitating staffs. This level needs to be efficiently managed in order to ensure optimal operational activity. Above the level there are patient care managers who oversee the work of the support staffs. Normally they include doctors, however after some changes have been implemented these functions are also carried out by managers across the hospitals in Abu Dhabi. Department administrators come next, the functions of the administrators are to oversee the coordinated activities among the various departments (Yeboah, 2016). The functions of these departments are not only to supervise the patient care department but also the parallel departments of food processing, laundry, medicine, outdoor, etc. The responsibilities of the department are huge as they have to monitor and administer a large number of staffs. The Abu Dhabi authorities increasingly are looking forward to the essential optimization of this department as they are vital towards effective hospital functions. The next level of administrative management is the executive. These are the people departmental administrators report to and are the people who are deployed by the top level management to take care of hospital responsibilities. They consist of job roles such as the Chief executing officer, the chief nursing officer, the financial officers, etc. The implementation of modern hospital management systems along with effective information and communication technology has effectively affected these functions. Some of the limitations in regards to the functionality of the executives remain; however, most of the previous issues have been effectively resolved (Salama et al., 2014). The top level of hospital management in the UAE is the board or directors. In government run hospitals the health authority elects the board members, however in the other privately or non-profit owned hospitals the board members are selected from the management. There are also significant numbers of hospitals that are run by the religious councils across Abu Dhabi. In the bigger hospitals of the city the departments are much bigger and much more varied than the other such institutions. In many cases there are also department which, provide financial assistance to the patients. The growth in technology has helped in the better integration of the informational services of the hospital into the wider framework of hospital management. Admission of patients, billing, collection, information services, health education are now effectively managed through the department. Majority of the technological functionalities have improved in regards to this department. Thus, it can be said that the effective implementation of newer and better technological improvements have been well implemented by the authorities of health, despite suffering from some minor limitations.

2. 4. 3 Role of inventory management system in hospital management

Inventory management is an essential function of any business organization. The enterprises have to use efficient inventory management to improve their productivity. Hospitals across the UAE and Abu Dhabi are also trying to implement effective techniques in order to manage their inventories better than ever. The management of the unused elements of the hospitals is important. In Abu Dhabi hospitals suffered from low maintenance for a long time as excessive capital investment ensured better infrastructures; however, there were not many people to effectively maintain the hospitals (Brownie, 2015). This led to the wastage of materials as the inventory management functions were not effectively carried out. Majority of the hospitals across the UAE have high amount of unused materials. The unused materials in the hospitals mostly include the unused beds, utensils, expired medicines, unused equipment, unused devices, cooking materials etc. Effective management of these materials is required in order to optimize the productivity of the hospitals. Unused beds could be properly managed through their efficient utilization. Bed numbers that increase the hospital capacity should be sold off to the other hospitals. Unused equipments need to be properly managed (Mwangi, 2017). They could either be sold to the hospital equipment industry or be reallocated upon the expansion of the hospital functions. Similarly, used medicines can be returned to the drug manufacturers. The manufacturers can re-cycle the medicines and re-market the medical products. In order to perform proper inventory management functions, it is better that the hospitals order equipments and materials that can be optimally utilized. This will leave much lesser room for the mismanagement of the available resources and reduce wastage. Inventory management functions are very important for the hospitals that are operating in the UAE and Abu Dhabi. In the past there have been instances where the ultimate productivity of the hospitals has been hampered due to the wastage of resources. The effective management of inventory thus becomes very important towards the essential productivity output of the hospital. There can be specific inventory management teams that are deployed for the task of effective management of the inventory functions (Hejduková&Kureková, 2016).

There is another way through inventory management could be effectively done. Supply chain management of the hospital can be effectively managed to compliment the inventory management functions of the hospital. The supply management team could effectively figure out the requirement of supplies concerning the various departments of the hospital and systematically allocate resources in order to manage the functions efficiently. Nurses can provide details of the number of bandages or other materials required. Similarly the medicine department can provide the optimal requirement of medicines and medical products (Bercaw, 2016). The inventory management will help the hospitals in Abu Dhabi to function effectively and tackle the challenges of underutilization of the various available resources. The role played by the inventory management function will help to tackle some of the vital limitations and challenges concerning the UAE healthcare sector.

2. 4. 4. Activity comes under the administration of Abu Dhabi hospitals:

The hospitals across the UAE are increasingly emphasizing on the importance of community service. Abu Dhabi health authorities are following suit and maintaining a strong position concerning the implementation of social service event organization across the city. Healthcare awareness activities, free health checkup camps are being organized across the city in order to facilitate the social activity. The health authorities are taking initiatives to organize government health camps. There are also private health enterprises that are organizing similar events. Combing the efforts of both private and public sector healthcare entities, there are many health awareness events that are being held across the city each year (Cummings & Worley, 2014). Healthcare awareness among children needs to be increased as the children are getting affected by a number of serious health conditions at the present. The HAAD are increasingly focusing on effective health programs in the various schools and institutions to cultivate healthy lifestyles among the children. Awareness campaigns are also being held across many industrial areas to increase health hazard safety awareness among many workers. Abu Dhabi being a major commercial center of the country houses many industries. The workers in some cases have to work in conditions that can cause severe health hazards. The HAAD is trying to raise awareness about working conditions among both the employers and the employees.

There are other more functional activities carried out by the hospital authorities. The activities focus on the monitoring of the patients in the facilities. There is also the activity of proper allocation of staffing across the various functions of the hospitals. The proper functioning and productivity provided by some of the main people, like the Doctors or the Nurses have to be effectively supervised. Throughout the various internal levels of the hospitals, the activities help in the effective operation of the various functions. There is an essential need for the hospital framework to operate properly. The internal activities mostly focus towards the same. The activities are presently being efficiently carried out throughout many hospitals across the city. The activity of the executive department is to efficiently provide information of the operations to the general managers. The general manages take the final decision with regards to the steps that will be taken by the organization to increase efficiency of functions. The activities are wide ranging across the various levels of the hospital (Al Mazrouei et al., 2015). The supply chain management keeps track of the daily supplies of essential items that include medicines, utensils, hospital beds, equipments, food items, cooking equipments. In the most important institutions there are separate supply chain management systems for the separate departments of the hospitals. This help in the efficient utilization of inventory functions of the hospitals. The nurses and doctors are effectively managed by the executive departments. The executive also manages coordination between the various departments.

2. 4. 5 Basic elements of the Abu Dhabi hospital administration

  • Planning

Planning of hospitals around the UAE was one of the main challenges faced by the authorities during the time of infrastructural development phase (Ginter et al., 2018). Planning of hospitals is the basic requirements of Abu Dhabi Healthcare sector. Efficient forecasting of activities through better technology usage is being emphasized. The planning needs to integrate factors like opportunity, objectives, requirements, remedy and organization.

  • Organization

Organization is an essential aspect towards the proper functioning of a hospital. Organizational planning is done in the healthcare sector of Abu Dhabi by dividing the activities of the hospital into different segments (El Hassan et al., 2015). The departments serve to provide better structural strength towards the hospitals management mechanism. The departments are further divided in to managerial and production functions.

  • Staffing

It is a very essential part of hospital management, without effective staffing the actual productive operations of the hospitals will fail. Abu Dhabi health authority is increasingly looking forward towards the recruitment of qualified and quality staffs (Kundu et al., 2016). Staffing has been optimized by pre considering the requirements. Recruiting nurses and clerks are the focus of the healthcare sector currently.

  • Coordinating

Coordination is a very important function of the healthcare enterprise. Effective communication should be maintained between the various departments to ensure smooth running of business functions. The executive departments maintain regular coordination with the departmental heads that in turn coordinate with the departmental staffs. Orders are put through to the various departments by using the various levels of organization.

  • Reporting

The lower level employees report to the departmental managers or supervisors, the supervisors report to departmental heads, the heads are then answerable to the higher management or the executives who are then answerable towards the directors. The reporting functions are effectively managed through Information and communication technologies. The doctors and nurses, in many cases report directly to the executives.

  • Budgeting

Hospital is a high capital enterprise and the operation functions require further capital input from time to time. Budgeting is done in most cases by the senior management or the hospital boards. Increasingly, budget planning is gaining acceptance and aspects such as recycling, inventory management and other budget management techniques are being utilized.

  • Supervision

Supervision of the staffs is essential for the productive growth of a healthcare enterprise. The departmental heads and supervisors are given the task of supervising the essential staffs like the nurses, the supply clerks, support staffs. Doctors are supervised by the senior doctors and the head of the medical departments. Staffs are effectively supervised through the organizational system.

  • Evaluation

Track records of the production functions of the hospitals are managed throughout the year. There are also performance matrices through which employee performances are evaluated. The health authority provides annual healthcare development records. Patient satisfaction scores are being used increasingly.

2. 4. 6 Factor affecting the administration of Abu Dhabi hospital to deal with efficient quality work:

Several factors affect the healthcare sector of Abu Dhabi. One of the major issues is organization of the hospitals. In the past, lack of coordination between the departments resulted in the lower performances of the hospitals in the UAE along with Abu Dhabi. Technological advancement has made it extremely necessary that the hospital ensures optimal functioning of all the departmental units.

The effective management of hospitals is still a major limitation when it comes to the efficient functioning of a hospital. There is an ongoing issue concerning the involvement of the top management in the operations. The board does not effectively interfere in the running of the hospital governance. The executives are given responsibilities of the efficient operation of all the departments however there is a very unprofessional lack of commitment towards the productivity of the healthcare services (Mathew et al., 2016). The attitudes of the corporate owners or the board members affect efficient quality of work to a great extent. In most of the cases this leads to a lack of motivation for the staffs that tend to underperform. It can be said that most of the times essential decisions in regards to the proper management of the operations are taken by the higher executive department, which is supposed to directly report to the hospital board.

There is also a lack of professionalism among the hospital staffs. This can be partially due to the non-intervention of the higher board members. The staffs many times have been seen to underperform across the various hospitals in the city (Alali et al., 2015). The support staffs suffer from lack of motivation. Due to this factor productivity can get affected when it comes to serving the patients. Patient satisfaction has also been affected due to this factor affecting the hospitals across Abu Dhabi. Lack of proper intervention from the board further increases this issue as the staff does not get any performance pressure.

Non maintenance of the hospitals affects the quality of work substantially. It can be said that proper maintenance of the hospital is required in order to integrate and induce work culture among the staffs. There are a lot of hospitals which are affected by non-maintenance (Moonesar, 2015). Inventory functions are not effectively managed leading to the wastage of resources, which further affect the quality of productivity.

There are other factors that also lead to the inefficient functioning of quality staffs. There is lack of strong hospital network across the city. The health authorities have also, not been able to effectively manage all the available limitations of the health industry. The government should thus, try to implement measures that will work towards building an efficient work culture across the health sector.

2. 4. 7. Factors Responsible For Development of Hospitals

Healthcare has been one of the sectors in which UAE has witnessed rapid and effective growth over the years. The UAE is a multi-cultural society with large variations in its demographics. Many of the people affected by medical conditions are immigrants who require special care in a faraway place they work in. Healthcare sector development thus, becomes an important proposition with regards to the country.

Abu Dhabi is affected by the same conditions as a lot of people are working overseas. There are factors that are further responsible for the growth of hospitals and other medical institutions across the UAE. Life expectancy of the people have increased, this has resulted in a lot of old age related medical condition that a substantial portion of the population of the country are suffering from. There is also the presence of a high number of lifestyle related health conditions across the UAE. The people are suffering from obesity and health conditions related to their lifestyles (Haque& Al Kindi, 2015). The percentage of population suffering from lifestyle health issues in the UAE is the highest in the Middle East (Mozaffarian et al., 2016). In order, to effectively tackle the rising health concerns among the greater part of its population, the government has deemed it necessary to invest in the healthcare sector of the country. The market of healthcare is increasing at a fast pace across the country. There is high processed food consumption in the UAE as well as Abu Dhabi. This has become one of the main reasons behind liver ailments increasing among the population. There has been a sharp rise in diabetes. More people are now affected by diabetes or high sugar levels. Almost 20% of the population of UAE is known to be suffering from diabetes and Abu Dhabi is no exception (Al Afari&Elanain, 2014).

The increasing number of health conditions and a rise in unhealthy lifestyle among the people has given rise to the increasing importance of building more hospitals and healthcare facilities. This is one of the biggest reasons behind the rapid increase of the health sector of UAE and subsequently Abu Dhabi (Drotz&Poksinska, 2014). One of the growing concerns in the present times is the increasing rate of heart diseases among the people. This has led to the government investing more towards the development of the health sector. There has also been a rapid increase in the population of the country. This makes it more likely than in the future health conditions will affect far greater people than it does today. The factors have significantly contributed to the growth and development of more hospitals in the city and country. Abu Dhabi and UAE have thus witnessed an exceptional growth in its health industry.

2. 4. 8 Effect of hospital administration for service expansion

The Affordable Care Act had created new opportunities for the healthcare organizations in many nations and has also attempted to create opportunities through which service expansion can be possible ( Affordable Care Act (ACA) - HealthCare.gov Glossary. 2018). It has been suggested by the reports of healthaffairs.org (2018) that the service expansion of the healthcare organizations would be very significant for the increased revenue gains. Thus the healthcare organizations are attempting to strain all their available resources for the best utilization of the services so that the level of expansion can be possible. The Affordable Care Act has been providing opportunities to the hospitals for greater healthcare insurance coverage and that most of the hospitals would achieve great benefit in the cost savings. Thus the hospitals would look forward for service expansion for greater productivity. However, it has also been stated that the need for expansion of services is determined by the support of resources and capabilities of the healthcare organization (healthaffairs.org. 2018). It is the administration support and that management that determines the need for expansion of services. It has been seen that the administration support of the hospitals in UAE has been facing various challenges that has been creating hurdles for service expansion. As per Omer et al. (2015), the effect of the hospital administration has been struggling to face the increasing costs and maintain balance of quality that has further been bearing dooming chances for expansion of services. There is also connection between the administration set up and the manner in which the extent to which the expansion would be possible and successful.

In expansion of services, the practices of the administration facility of the hospitals is demanding and challenging. The hospital executives and the management have to undergo transformational change for facilitating the expansion scheme (Omer et al. 2015). The administration set up should also have access to competing and professional healthcare professionals so that it does not affect the profitability of the hospitals to undertake expansion. This is the challenge that most healthcare organizations in UAE face as they have shortage of professional and executives and that affects the prospect of expansion. In the opinion of Malik et al. (2016), the hospital administration also needs to ensure that the number of registered nurses; licensed and vocational nurses; health aides; nursing aids; surgeons and physicians are adequate for expansion. All these needs are to be considered by the administration system so that they can put into practice the best plan for addressing the needs of the expansion services. The measures through which the administrators of the hospitals build strong and effective relationship with other healthcare official and professionals need to be considered. Additionally, it has also been stated by Malik et al. (2016) that if the administration does not keep the hospital attractive then the potential for expansion would be in grave doubt. Moreover it has also been pointed out by Hussain and Malik (2016) that the healthcare organizations in UAE can opt for expansion only in the scenario where the administration can assure the benchmarking practices and specialization strategy needed by the staff. The hospital administration system thus has direct impact on the determination of the capacities, strategies and resource allocation that is required for expansion of services.

2. 4. 9 Effect of hospital administration on the productivity

The focus on the organizational research it had been seen that in the healthcare settings, the experience of the staff and the management and nature of ownership also has significant impact on the manner in which productivity can be managed. It has further been stated by Hussain and Malik (2016) that in the healthcare practices of the hospitals in UAE, it has been observed that in the healthcare organizations, the cumulative experience and productive efficiency have a curvilinear relationship in the case of the private hospitals(Al Dahdah et al., 2015). It has been stated by Hasan et al. (2016) that in the proprietary hospitals and in the non-profit hospitals, the nature of administration and the tradeoff costs are different from that of the public organizations. The government backed and owned public hospitals, act as safety medical needs provider and the administration of the public hospitals in UAE is to provide healthcare facilities to the general public irrespective of the costs incurred (Hasan et al. 2016). Thus the nature of their administration is different from that of private hospitals that are managed by the private organizations. The public hospitals operate in a very challenging environment in UAE than that of the private hospitals and the research studies suggests that most of the public hospitals that are struggling had been suggested to be privatized so that their level of efficiency in productivity can be increased (Hasan et al. 2016).

Thus it has also been added by Hasan et al. (2016) that in UAE there has been a need felt for the privatization of the public hospitals so that they can redefine their administrative strategies for staying competitive. As opined by(Freel, 2018), that administration system and the hierarchy that is found in the private hospitals is more effective, with better productivity levels. The need for better administration through privatization has been felt from another concern and that is the issue of cost and quality that has been affecting the productivity of the healthcare organizations negatively. There are various scholars such as (Freel, 2018) that have reviewed the healthcare practices and administration of the private and public healthcare organizations (Milenkovic et al., 2016). Scholars on the study of the Usuaebusiness.org (2018) are of the opinion that the most significant manner in which the administration impacts the productivity of healthcare organizations is through its involvement in the cost and quality. The productivity growth in the healthcare organizations is determined by the manner in which the administration of the healthcare organization undertakes the allocation of the resources in order to enhance the quality and control the costs ( Usuaebusiness.org. 2018). It has been seen that since in the public healthcare organizations, they are guided by welfare of the people in general and the staff is recruited in a complex system, the administration is often affected by lack of control and effective management practices (Usuaebusiness.org, 2018). Whereas in the private hospitals, there is individualized administration structure and thus efficiency in administration is possible. Scholars have further pointed out that in the private hospitals, the administration is linearly related with the allocation of resources, recruitment of staff; management practices. This linear relation adds to the increase in the multifactor productivity (MFP) that not only helps to oversee the costs involved but also helps to detect any financial loss that may occur. It has been stated by Hasan et al. (2016) that in the public hospitals in UAE, the administration system is very complex and is controlled and managed directly by the government. Often times it is seen that the public health care organizations, due to ineffective administration affects the management efficiency and the allocation of resources that leads to increased cost level and thus affecting the productivity. Thus, in order to provide better health facilities to the patients in UAE, it is required by the public healthcare organizations to improve their administration facilities to increase possibility for better productivity.

2. 4. 10. Governing body in the healthcare sectors of Abu Dhabi

In Abu Dhabi, UAE, the central body that has control over the administration and governance of the healthcare bodies is the Ministry of Health and Prevention. It is the federal authority that governs the healthcare bodies, programs and associations, and also provides a comprehensive healthcare provision for all the residents and citizens. It provides curative and preventive health services to the people in UAE through subsequent healthcare activities and services. The Ministry of Health and Prevention has established subsequent healthcare authorities that are health based in the Emirates (MOHAP - UAE. 2018). The focus of the MoHP is however to monitor the healthcare facilities of Dubai and Abu Dhabi and other northern emirates such as Ras Al Khaimah, Sharjah, Fujairah and Ajman, Umm Al Quwain. This is the national body for heath regulation and has all the different regional and local health bodies in UAE under its supervision and regulation ( Ministry of Health and Prevention - UAE. 2018). This body also disperses all the healthcare related policies and practices for the better and coordinated healthcare regulation and development of healthcare bodies (Ministry of Health and Prevention - UAE. 2018). There are also various local and regional health authorities that look after the regional healthcare provisions and health needs of the people in UAE. The Emirates of Dubai and Abu Dhabi also have local health authorities and such authorities operate towards the objective and vision of the Ministry of Health and Prevention for the regulation and development of healthcare (Elmagd et al., 2016). The Department of Health in Abu Dhabi is that local organization under the Ministry of Health and Prevention that has been established through a special Decree 1 in 2007 as a form of local entity under the government (Seha.ae. 2018). This body was previously referred to as the General Authority of Health Services for the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. This body has been established to provide healthcare facilities to the citizens in Abu Dhabi and for fulfilling the healthcare requirements for offering healthcare services as per the international standards ( Seha.ae. 2018). The major practices of this body is the regulation of the public as well as private healthcare hospitals and organizations in Abu Dhabi by means of laws, policies, regulations, audits and inspections. In 2005, the Department of Health overtook the operation of the public hospitals as well as the primary centers for healthcare that was earlier managed by the Ministry of Health (Seha 2018). The Department of Health is now managed by the Abu Dhabi Health Services Company (SEHA). The SEHA delivers the healthcare services to the nationals as well as the expatriates under the regulation of the Department of Health. At present there are more than 50 primary healthcare centers, 5 special centers, 12 hospitals (general and community) and also dental centers in public sector (Seha.ae. 2018). This authority also supervises the delivery of healthcare services to over 800 facilities in the private healthcare sector. This department also controls the licensing, regulation, quality control of all the healthcare centers and also healthcare professionals in Abu Dhabi with a vision for developing the healthcare sector and to monitor healthcare risks and facilities (Seha.ae. 2018).

2. 4. 11 Strategy to remove administration issues in the hospital of Abu Dhabi

Sound and effective healthcare services had always been considered synonymous with providing the people healthcare solutions to the people in the country. In this regard the Emirate of Abu Dhabi undertakes various projects for delivering healthcare services. According to Barrett (2017), one of the serious concerns that the Abu Dhabi economy has been facing is the ability to execute healthcare projects for addressing the rising demand for healthcare services. Studies have brought forward attention to challenges that hospitals face in addressing the healthcare projects that involve IT solutions. As per Khthir et al. (2017), another challenge that the hospitals and medical centers have been facing is also with the efficiency with which such organizations undertake the project planning is also not that effective and productive. Due to ineffective IT implementation in the healthcare projects, the lives of the patients face great risk. It has also been added that significant amount of project failures had also been caused to poor management of the projects and lack of supportive staff. In the case of the healthcare organizations in Abu Dhabi, it has been seen that challenges have also been found is in the proper allocation of resources, cost and time allocation and the ineffective risk mitigation strategies. It has further been pointed out by Drummond et al. (2015) that one of the significant instances where the healthcare system in UAE has failed to implement healthcare project has been with the implementation of the Clinical Information System (CIS) or Hospital Information System (CIS). The system was found to be very complex and the healthcare organizations in UAE had face significant challenges in the effective implementation of this project. It further needs to be added here that the service instruction in medicine has been seen to be lacking in the hospitals and that is also restricting the capacity of the healthcare organizations to improve healthcare practices ( Health Care Challenges Facing Administrators Today. 2018). The abilities and experience of the doctors, attendants, and experts have also been found to be uncompetitive as compared to the other healthcare officials and experts in other nations. There is thus lack of experienced and certified doctors and physician and one of the reasons for such issues has also been regarded as the improper streamlining of the regulations of the Board Certified Physicians. This has created issues in the selection and retention of qualified doctors, thus leading to issues of staff retention and problem of understaffing in the hospitals and medical centers. The center for change and development in the healthcare organization had been found to be in the issues of medicinal negligence and the conflict n the permission strategies for the doctors and physicians. Apart from that Drummond et al. (2015) have pointed out that Abu Dhabi hospitals have also been facing challenges in the acquisition of the therapeutic data in the healthcare organizations. The hospitals and the medical insurance companies in Abu Dhabi have been facing the recurrent challenges of the medical insurance of the patients. Many times it has been seen that they are facing issues in determination of their medical cost coverage. Moreover due to lack of effective doctors and physicians availability in UAE, the hospitals have to hire doctors and physicians from other countries and this reliance on other nations has dampened the growth opportunities and had escalated the costs.

2. 4. 12. Legislation followed by the healthcare sectors of Abu Dhabi

As pointed by Koornneef et al. (2017), one of the significant issues that the healthcare sector in UAE has been facing in the current situation is that there are about 20% doctors and about 15% nurses that had left their jobs in UAE health organizations in 2017. This has increased the burden of healthcare facilities and thus there is need for increasing the attraction for the doctors, nurses, specialists, surgeons and other healthcare professionals to the medical units (Koornneef et al. 2017). Thus the administration of the healthcare organization needs to formulate workplace policies in order to attract and retain staffs in the healthcare units. There is also need for the medical centers to approach the UK and US medical units to recruit them in the administrative positions in the governance of the healthcare bodies. According to van Weel et al. (2017), the frequent departure of the doctors, nurses, health professionals have brought attention to the fact that there is need for effective human resource policies to impact better retention capacity in the healthcare sector. According to ALSADAN et al. (2015), there is also a need felt for maintaining transparency in the streamlining of the licensing system of the Board Certified Physicians. This is required for solving the issues of recruitment of the physicians and their retaining so as to solve the issue of understaffing in the hospitals. There has also been a need felt for providing means for increasing the frequency of healthcare education and the training facilities for the healthcare officials and staff in the hospitals and clinics so to have access to qualified workers in the medical centers (ALSADAN et al. 2015). There is need for creation of a pipeline through which the Emiratis can gain knowledge and training for becoming qualified healthcare officials. As per García (2015), this would address the issue of shortage of healthcare officials and would also decrease the reliance on the international workforce. This would not only help to elevate the healthcare infrastructure but also increase the level of productivity and also help to lower the escalating costs in the healthcare organizations. According to García (2015), the Ministry of Health and Prevention and Abu Dhabi Health Services Company (SEHA) needs to make plans for developing the state of art facilities and the regional work practices. There has also been a need felt by van Weel et al. (2017) for better integration of the healthcare services of the healthcare bodies with that of advanced healthcare technology and ICT services for improving the overall quality of healthcare services.

2. 4. 13. Administrative support for the healthcare practices

Healthcare is one of the priority areas for UAE Government and thus the government had undertaken strict legislation for making improvements in this sector. It has been seen that the regulatory environment in Abu Dhabi has been supportive of the growth in the healthcare sector that had witnessed in the last decade and is also making efforts for further improvement to achieve the healthcare goals in the Economic Vision 2021. The legislation at the Federal Level can be dated back to 1980s and there are also free zones in UAE such as Dubai Biotechnology and Research Park and Dubai Healthcare City that follow their own legislation. The public healthcare organizations follow the legislations and rules set by the Ministry of Health, Dubai Health Authority (DHA) and Health Authority-Abu Dhabi (HAAD) (Healthcare regulation in the UAE. 2018). As per Abu Dhabi Law No. 1, the HAAD is mandated to provide highest level medical as well as healthcare insurance for developing the healthcare sector ( Healthcare regulation in the UAE. 2018). The HAAD had formulated various regulations and policies for addressing the healthcare requirements. The policies also take into account the authorization, operational regulation, licensing as well as compliance requirements in the clinicians, hospitals and facilities. The HAAD also regulate the national and international accreditation and permissions. The SEHA was established under Abu Dhabi Amiri Decree No. 10 of 2007 that operates as a joint stock company under the government of Abu Dhabi ( Healthcare regulation in the UAE. 2018). As per the Decree No. 10, the legislations of the public health facilities are managed by the SEHA. It regulates about 12 hospital facilities in Abu Dhabi, 2,644 licensed hospital beds and others facilities. In the opinion of Nair et al. (2016), as per the Law No. 13, passed by His Highness Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the regulatory bodies would control the development of the comprehensive healthcare facilities and also manage the international funding policy. In the words of Nair et al. (2016), all the principal facilities in the public and private sector in Abu Dhabi would be regulated under the supervision of HAAD and SEHA as per the Abu Dhabi Amiri Decree No. 10 of 2007.

2.5 Technology on Productivity of Health Care in Abu Dhabi

2.5.1 Overview of technology in the healthcare sector of UAE

The UAE is one of the most popular world's best adopters of EMR. As ahead of schedule as 2008 the Abu Dhabi Health Services Organization (SEHA) actualized an EMR framework created by Cerner to connect their 11 healing facilities and 39 centers in Abu Dhabi. 2 In 2012, The Dubai Health Authority completed a overview to decide how far along its healing centers were in their endeavors to agree to Electronic Therapeutic Record Adoption Model (ENRAM) – the universal benchmark to quantify a healing facility's endeavors to receive a paperless, computerized framework). The review found that just about 70% of the healing facilities in Dubai were at the early phases of EMRAM. 3 Rating healing facilities from organize 0, which implies having no electronic therapeutic record framework by any means, to organize 7 where the healing facility applies a completely paperless therapeutic record framework, the middle score of healing facilities in Dubai by late 2014 was 2. 5. Advance has been impeded by the extensive ventures required; as indicated by Mohammad Al Redha, Director of Health Data and Data Analysis Department at the DHA, by and large a UAE clinic would spend between 2- 10% of its financial plan keeping in mind the end goal to make the change.

2.5.2 Impact of information and communication technology in the hospitals of Abu Dhabi

One of the major breakthroughs in the healthcare sector of UAE is the implementation of the usage of effective communication technology. The increasing usage of effective communication technologies is helping health sector companies to tackle some essential healthcare issues. The usage ICTs have also been properly implemented in the Abu Dhabi health sector leading to the widespread growth of effective healthcare across the city. The usage of communication technology by nurses have increased their service capabilities and helped them to coordinate better with the doctors. In the health sector of a city like Abu Dhabi there has always been a high requirement for better communication in hospitals in order to coordinate the different functions of the hospital in a better way. The technological advancements in the field of communication used in organizations such as the hospitals have opened up opportunities for innovative services. Nurses for example, can now provide telecare services to patients without actually having to admit them in the hospitals. This has facilitated the accommodation functions of the hospitals as many patients are no longer required to be admitted and can avail the same care at their homes.

Another very important aspect connected with the implementation of information and communications technology is connected with the use of electronic health records by the nurses and doctors. The use of this kind of communication technology concerning the records of the patients has helped the doctors to lower the use of paperwork. The keeping of electronic records of patients in devices through which the records can be easily communicated to the other doctors handling a particular case has opened up new opportunities for the doctors. They can now effectively consult expert doctors, who are situated far away or even in the western countries considering the patients they handle. Communication technology can effectively help in the coordination of care and surgical activities. The doctors can be effectively directed in regards to the operation procedures and the methods to be used by senior surgeons. Many hospitals operating in Abu Dhabi have branches across the UAE and the Middle East. The branches can now effectively communicate with each other in order to provide or discuss solutions concerning the complicated medical cases they might handle.

2.5.3 ICT and health care

ICTs are being used to optimize organizational mechanisms throughout all the major industrial sectors across the world. In medical or healthcare institutions their significance have increased manifold. In some of the revolutionary medical breakthroughs ICTs have played crucial parts.

Physicians working in hospitals in rural or remote places are able to properly diagnose complex medical issues among their patients (Miah et al., 2017). However, the implementation of ICT facilities like online diagnosis will help the doctor to efficiently understand the issue of the patient and commence with the required treatment.

In certain places advanced electronic health record systems are helping doctors to figure out whether newly prescribed and recommended medical procedures are being used in specific cases. In case of any discrepancies between the recommended treatment and the normal hospital procedures, the directors can me made effectively aware of the issues.

CT-scan devices and other diagnostic devices can now be efficiently used to provide health details and test results to important places across the world. A scan report in one hospital can be forwarded via e-mail to another hospital with better expertise in handling serious illnesses, if and when required.

Patients can directly interact with the doctors without having to visit the hospitals. The patient can provide the details of his/her medical condition to the doctor via communication channels. There have been great deals of changes brought forward by the use of ICT in the medical sector. Additionally there are platforms where the patients can interact with doctors directly through video conferences where the details of the conditions can be provided as well.

Information and communication technologies have effectively transformed medical enterprises. They have not only made patient to doctor interaction more effective than ever before but also efficiently affected the coordinative interactions between the doctors and the other support staffs. ICTs have also facilitated internet or online health programs which have affected the external operations of hospitals. The general public is made aware of health conditions and their primary treatment. This way the health sector has been effectively touched by the development in technology over the years. As a sector depending much on information, it has benefitted in many different ways.

2.5.4 ICT driving productivity growth

The wide ranging ICT capabilities have helped to increase productivity function of healthcare services. Abu Dhabi has successfully implemented ICTs across the city hospitals and healthcare centers. Significant changes have been seen in productivity as a result of the usage of better communications technology. The major improvements can be seen in the sphere of patient satisfaction. The usage of ICTs has largely helped the doctors and nurses to understand the actual issues affecting the patients’ health. The implementation of the systems has improved the scope of healthcare (Patel &Patel, 2016). The doctors have been able to essentially help the patients with care that is recommended across the globe for specific medical conditions. Surgeries have been successful due to the implementation of ICT as the pest surgical procedures were determined but surgeons through their interactions with international health institutions. The capital investments ensured that only the latest ICTs are used to assist the operations of the hospitals. This effectively ensured that the productivity gained will be sufficient and optimal in regards to the operation of the hospital. Nurses were also able to provide better services than before. ICTs helped the nurses to better organize their daily duties.

The implementation of ICTs to ensure better reporting and work allocation functions ended in success. The essential people were able to coordinate among themselves, which resulted in their better performances. This inevitably led to the increased productivity of the hospitals. Health checkup functions improved, providing patients with accurate health data. There has been all round better function of the essential aspects of a healthcare center. Combining the improved functioning of all the essential departments productivity increased largely(Kiwanuka et al., 2015). The patients were much happier with the overall services than they have been in the past. Productivity increased in regards to the number of days patients had to spend in the hospital bed. The bed days were much reduced by the proper implementation of ICTs across the hospital framework.

2.5.5IT investment and hospital performance

The healthcare sector of the UAE is due to witness further growth in the years to come. The present healthcare market of the UAE is valued at around 17 billion US Dollars. The UAE spends around 26 percent of the total spend of the Gulf countries in healthcare. In the past years UAE has paid special attention towards the improvement of the health sector. The government now plans to invest in the emerging medical tourism market (Akenroye&Kuenne, 2015). The number of hospitals has gone up in the country in cities like Dubai, Abu Dhabi, etc. The investments have spurred due to the increasing intervention of the government and also private firms looking forward to make good use of the market opportunities. The investments have largely affected the growth of infrastructure across the UAE and Abu Dhabi has been greatly affected. The investments have also been effectively made in order o provide the hospitals with the best possible communication and data gathering equipments (Alam et al., 2018). Investments made in the IT functions of the hospitals in Abu Dhabi have focused on the data gathering and communications technology.

There have been sufficient investments in providing the hospitals with equipments that can provide accurate data concerning the health functions of the patients. There have also been investments in technologies that help in optimizing the organizational framework of the hospitals. In Abu Dhabi the all-round investments made in healthcare have exceeded the investments made in the previous years (Alzoubaidi, 2016). Investments are also being made in newer propositions like the newly conceived idea of Medical tourism that will help overseas patients who seek medical care in the UAE. The investments in such proposition will also require the investors to focus more on IT requirements. The IT requirements will effectively support medical tourism (Haluza&Jungwirth, 2015). Considering to investments in Abu Dhabi HAAD has decided to further increase investments to optimize the healthcare sector.

2.5.6 Communication

Communication is an essential aspect of hospital management. Communication requirements in the medical facilities are extremely essential for the proper functioning of the organizational framework(Alharbi et al., 2015). The Abu Dhabi health authorities have tried to significantly improve the communication framework that exists in the hospitals. ICTs have been able to improve the communication issues that existed between the various departments across the medical sector of UAE. The same can be said in case of Abu Dhabi. There has been better utilization of communication devices. The hospitals now effectively use email, data storage and sharing, video calling facilities and other important communication devices. Communication requirement between separate organizations working in different parts of the world have also been optimized to a certain extent. UAE hospitals now take part in video conferences to communicate with renowned health organizations across the globe. Additionally, knowledge sharing platforms are effectively utilized across the country and hence also in Abu Dhabi. In the city patients with complex issues are getting better treatments than before as the doctors are maintaining effective communications with experts in the field of studies of various medical anomalies. There have been all-round improvements in the utilization and availability of communicational platforms due to greater investments. In efficient technologies the government and the corporate houses have invested greatly.

3. 5.7 Electronic data storage and sharing

Patient data needs to be maintained at all levels of the hospital. The data is essential for providing the patients with better all-round healthcare services. Thus, there have been plans by the investors to invest more on this aspect of technological requirement. The hospitals have increased their functional capabilities due to increased usage of data storage and sharing mechanisms (Uluc&Ferman, 2016). Patient data is stored effectively and then used to provide systematic treatment. The data helps the doctors to identify specific target areas of medical care. Storage of data in the UAE hospitals was a major concern previously and required immense levels of paperwork. There was also an imminent danger of losing vital patient database. The ICTs have helped to effectively tackle the issue and now huge patient databases can be kept safe in the hospitals computerized storage systems. Electronic data also helps the hospitals to effectively convey patient data to the various foreign medical institutions for essential reference. Data storage and sharing functionality have been optimized largely by the Abu Dhabi hospitals. However, limitations still exist which, need to be addressed in the future.

2.6 The impact of medical technology on healthcare

2.6.1Overview of the medical technology approach in the healthcare sectors of Abu Dhabi

In the study of Aungst et al. (2014) rapidly changing medical technology and its availability in the process of high technological innovation is used in the therapeutic and diagnostic process. The changing pattern of treatment not only increased the process of technological innovation in the organization but also reduced the level of death in this country. The invincible application of technology in the service in the organization has effective impact on the operational success (Lucia et al. 2014). Today the medical technology has been more advance and it helps to improve the practice level of the hospitals. The diagnostic treatment facility reduced the chance of miss management in the healthcare organization. Increasing pressure in the healthcare sector is found due to the lack of resources. In comparison with the resource allocation, it has been found that lack of technological innovation in the hospitals. In terms of management and operation of the service sector, the transaction form of operational efficiency of the healthcare sectors.

Tahmaseb et al. (2016) argued that, building medicinal facility in the hospital is very tough for the management of the hospital authority. The vital inquiry would be done in the innovation that gives data that was most certainly not beforehand easy to get to and the new data may result in the cure different types of curable and incurable disease. In the research study of Seol et al. (2014), innovation in the medical technology helps the service provider to give proper prescription on the disease after having the effective test result. Innovation evaluation has to empower the process of medical treatment and provide sustainable process to increase range of service in the healthcare organization. The author Malik et al. (2015), it will significantly add to better usage of the best medicinal services assets. Applications of the technology in the service sector improve the process of business operation of the hospitals. Through the operational success, it has seen that technological efficiency can build the level of efficiency in the service sectors. The operation success of the hospitals can be improved through the application of the technology. The development initiative of the hospitals can be managed through the innovations of medical technology. Demand related technological innovation has been come under the consideration by the initiative of government. The management authority of the hospitals needs to improve technological innovation through the application of the instruments. In not only the area of medical technology improvement but also the communication process of the hospitals is benefited by this process.

2.6.2 Benefits of medical technology in the healthcare sectors of Abu Dhabi

In the opinion of Marro, Bandukwala and Mak (2016), the benefit and effectiveness of medical technology is found to be very dominating in feature and it is associated with the process of patient’s health. Medical technology is used in the process of mitigating risk associated factor. In finding appropriate hazard in the organization, it is very necessary to deal with the process of managing risk associated factor. In the modern age, the intensity of the risk has been increasing very rapidly and the need of medical technology is very high to provide strength to the people in the process of mitigating risk associate factor (Addison, 2017). The risk control and measurement and such action can allowed to make strong infrastructural development process in the operational success of the healthcare organization can be managed through the application of medical technology in the infrastructural development of the hospitals (Sharaf&Orhan, 2014). Taking care is not enough for the management of the healthcare organization to improve operational success, efficiency of the hospitals can be measured through the level of treatment. After the control and measurement on the efficiency of technology, the management of the hospitals can ensure health and safety of the patients. Most people of Abu Dhabi believe that the healthcare system of UAE is not effective like all other developing country (Golden, 2017).

In the research journal “E-learning & information communication technology (ICT) in nursing education: A review of the literature. Nurse Education Today” by Button, et al. (2014), a survey has been conducted on the 877 patients of Abu Dhabi to understand the quality of service that is provided by the hospitals. The methods and application of medical service providing sustainability has been found to be very effective that can allow the management of the hospital authority to deal with the process of giving treatment. In the survey, it has been seen that 67% of the total respondents said that the method of treatment using in the hospitals of UAE is not very effective in order to deal with the process of managing option.

Most of the people of UAE intrinsically trust that the UAE healthcare system management process services framework is protected and a few nations utilize it as a measuring stick (Lucia et al. 2014). In the process of this suspicion is legitimate, it is additionally a actuality that in the vicinity of 44,000 and 98,000 number of the people of UAE are died in the last year by heart cancer and colon cancer (Wildevuur&Simonse, 2015).

The process of medical treatment affects huge number of people, as there has not been properly adopted medical technology. Apart from that, it has been found that, a number more noteworthy than the quantity of individuals executed yearly from auto crashes, bosom tumor or AIDS. Late investigations have assessed that solution blunders alone record for more than 7,000 passing is annually (Ker et al. 2014). They add up to national cost (counting lost salary, inability furthermore, restorative costs) and the diagnostic cost is running between the costs of $17-$29 billion dollars annually. Restorative innovation has in this example help decrease dreariness and mortality from the range of positive and negative service giving by electronic remedies those doctors to know whether there is sedate medication or medication sustenance collaboration. In the opinion Dranove et al. (2014), a few frameworks goes similar to giving data on doctor profiling and malady administration yet in addition observing and evaluating the mind conveyed to each part in the wellbeing design. Through the application of this medical technology, it has been found that the level of operational success of the organization has been increased through this process of management. As opined by Sims, ReedandCarr (2017) the operational success can be measured through the applied technology used in the organization. Monitoring is considered as the significant factor that allow to imply an effective and this process has negative impact in the process of managing operational success of the study. The operational success of the care organization can be improved through the process of applying medical technology.

The advantage and viability of therapeutic innovation is observed to be exceptionally commanding in highlight and it is related with the procedure of patient's wellbeing. Medicinal innovation is utilized as a part of the way toward relieving hazard related factor. In finding suitable peril in the association, it is exceptionally important to manage the way toward overseeing hazard related factor. In the cutting edge age, the power of the hazard has been expanding quickly and the need of restorative innovation is high to give quality to the general population during the time spent alleviating hazard relate factor. As opined by Sims, Reed and Carr (2017), the hazard control and estimation and such activity can permitted to make solid infrastructural improvement process in the operational achievement of the medicinal services association can be overseen through the utilization of therapeutic innovation in the infrastructural advancement of the doctor's facilities. Taking consideration isn't sufficient for the administration of the social insurance association to enhance operational achievement; effectiveness of the clinics can be estimated through the level of treatment. After the control and estimation on the proficiency of innovation, the administration of the clinics can guarantee wellbeing and security of the patients. Huge number of people of Abu Dhabi trusts that the human services arrangement of UAE isn't compelling like all other creating nation (Ahmadi, Nilashi and Ibrahim, 2015).

2.6.3 Medical technology in Diagnosing and treating breast cancer

In the research journal of “Plasma Sources Science and Technology” by Keidar (2015), the medical technology is found to be very effecting to detect breast cancer. Despite of the fact, that the medical technology can helps to detect the process to make effective process of detecting reason of the disease. Fantechi et al. (2014) argued that radiological treatment in this process can allow the patient to deal with the treatment and therapy that helps to reduce the problem of the patient. The treatment process can be conducted very properly through the radiological technique that helps to reduce the level of cancer. Despite of the progress of the technology, it is very necessary to have suitable technological innovation to increase the level of survival in the cancer. The most important factor is that from the resent medical survey of UAE. The significant factor is that, increasing factor of breast cancer can create negative impact on the life of the people. Due to the high cost of breast cancer treatment, people are not likely to have proper treatment. Through the application of the technology in the breast cancer, the people can be able to deal with the process of management of the treatment.

Fluid biopsy: During the treatment of testing, it has been found that re-biopsies are needed in order to deal with the process of management. As per the study of Zhang et al. (2014), the therapy and treatment helps the patient to get prevention very rapidly. Fluid biopsy extracts cancer cells from a simple blood sample. It has been found that Illumina, the DNA sequence giant can be tested in this process that can allow the doctors to make the treatment process very effective.

Molecular cancer diagnostics is the most effective treatment process that can allow the patient to get very fast recovery from the breast cancer. The treatment plan is based on the DNA test to make up generic problem and to provide the patient instant recovery. The therapy is very reliable and can easily affordable by the patient. In the research study of Nakamura et al. (2014), through the DNA testing process, genetic problem of the patient can be identified that helps to analyze the intensity of problem to give proper solution. The health and safety of the patient can be maintained very properly through the application of this technology in the healthcare organization. This technological application has sustainable impact through the operational success of the treatment.

Multifunctional radiology has opened the window of opportunity in the process of managing operational success of the technology. This technology has effective impact to cure the level of this problem. This radiological process of cancer cure is based on the blood sample test. As opined by Von Woedtke et al. (2014), the healthcare organization of Abu Dhabi has to be very effective in terms of management and operational success of the healthcare organization. The most important process of management in the healthcare organization is to provide sustainable development process of management and consideration of the healthcare organizational management. The radiological technology is the process of reducing the level of problem that the healthcare organization faced to make the operational success. Through the process of using this technology, the healthcare organizations of Abu Dhabi have achieved popularity in the market place. The most effective process of providing latest technological solution through the innovative idea of management is that to deal with the operational success. Through the innovation of technology, the hospital of Abu Dhabi can improve the level of technology in the healthcare organization. The most significant factor of the technological innovation is to deal with the patient’s health. The health and safety can be improved through the technical innovation (Lucia et al. 2014).

2.6.4 Use of medical technology for heart attacks

In the research study of Yadollahpour and Rezaee, (2014), the therapeutic innovation is observed to be exceptionally affecting to recognize bosom growth. In spite of the reality, that the medicinal innovation can distinguishes the procedure to make compelling procedure of identifying reason of the infection. Radiological treatment in this procedure can enable the patient to manage the treatment and treatment that diminishes the issue of the patient. The treatment procedure can be directed legitimately through the radiological method that decreases the level of tumor. Regardless of the way that in advance of the innovation, it is exceptionally important to have reasonable mechanical development to expand the level of survival in the tumor. Through the DNA testing process, hereditary issue of the patient can be recognized that breaks down the force of issue to give legitimate arrangement (Lucia et al. 2014). The wellbeing and security of the patient can be kept up legitimately through the utilization of this innovation in the medicinal services association. This mechanical application has economical effect through the operational achievement of the treatment. In the words of Vankayala et al. (2014), the treatment process in the heart attack can be anticipated through the management and innovation of the problem of technology can be improved. Through the internal development initiative of the hospitals, the radiological treatment process can be managed very properly. The management and operational success of the healthcare organization can be improved through the management related initiative of the hospitals. As opined by Broersen et al. (2014), the medical technology of Leadless pacemaker has positive impact in order to reduce the intensity of heart attack. The technological innovation has been found to be very effective that can allow the patient to get relief from the operational success of the patients. From the compliances, technology in the process of reducing the intensity of heart attack from the society is the major contribution of the society. Apart from that, it can be said that, in UAE healthcare organization are very effective to deal with the low cost treatment to the patient. Through the application of the technology, the patient of Abu Dhabi hospitals can get reliable service of heart problems through the application of the technology in the process of reducing the heart attack in UAE.

Conventional pacemakers comprise of a little battery-worked control source embedded under skin. The term Wires known as leads convey electrical driving forces to the heart muscle to help keep up a typical pulse. Despite the fact that pacemakers are when all is said in done exceptionally dependable, the leads speak to the feeble connection in the framework. At the point when intricacies do emerge, they frequently include a broken lead (which can cause a glitch) or a disease at the addition site. Likewise, a few people have anatomical contrasts that make it hard to embed the lead. The leadless pacemaker is a small, independent unit that is set within mass of the heart through a thin, adaptable tube called a catheter. The treatment process of the operation canbe improved through the application of technology. As opined by Broersen et al. (2014), Valve -in-valve procedure is another medical technology that helps to ensure the process of management and operational success of the healthcare organization. The most important factor of this technology is that to improve operational success. From the different technological point of view, it has been analyzed that through the operation the patient can be able to deal with the process of management. Apart from this, it can be said that the procedure is applied in most of the effective healthcare organizations of UAE that helps that them to deal with health and safety of the patient.

In the words of Vankayala et al. (2014), this innovation has successful effect to cure the level of this issue. This radiological procedure of malignancy cure depends on the blood test. The human services association of Abu Dhabi must be extremely powerful as far as administration and operational accomplishment of the medicinal services association. The most imperative procedure of administration in the human services association is to give feasible improvement procedure of administration and thought of the social insurance authoritative administration. The radiological innovation is the way toward lessening the level of issue that the medicinal services association looked to make the operational achievement.

Protein patch for heart muscle growth is another effective innovation in the technology that helps to maintain sustainable development process in the service providing facility of the healthcare organization. This process is done through the tissue growth instead of doing any operation. Apart from that, this process helps to maintain patient’s health. This technical innovation considerably involves more patients to have this treatment instead in order to deal with the success of the organization. The patients are likely to use this treatment rather than choosing the process of operation. The innovative idea helps the care organizations of Abu Dhabi to increase more patients’ involvement.

2.6.5 Possible causes of unnecessary usage and increase cost in the Hospital of Abu Dhabi

In the healthcare sectors service are provided as per the need of the customers where best technology are used. Among the gulf countries, the abundance of technology is very in Abu Dhabi hospital rather than the other GCC countries. The people of GCC countries are likely to take necessary treatment in the hospitals of Abu Dhabi rather than chose other hospitals. The recent survey of 2014, provide result that 33% people of Dubai, 44% Kuwait and 70% people of Oman come in Abu Dhabi healthcare organizations for the better treatment. Due to the increasing popularity in GGC country, the service cost of the hospitals of Abu Dhabi has been increased very rapidly. The hospitals of Abu Dhabi has been focused on the innovation of thee medical treatment and in this process the care center has to expanse more money for the technological innovation of the hospitals. The most significant factor is that the development initiative of the hospitals has been comes under the consideration the technological sustainability. In the process of technological sustainability, the hospitals of Abu Dhabi havetoexpanse more in the process of managing business level improvement in the different service sector. Marketing of new technology has been designed the area of opportunity in the business market to increase the level of popularity. Apart from this, it can be said that, Abu Dhabi hospitals has been taken initiative in the process of managing the business level of intensity in the operational success through the innovation of the technology. On the other hand, given facility to the patients is very costly because the hospitals have to expanse more for the process of innovation. Some important and significant way has been implemented in the hospitals to increase the level of consumer’s involvement. Direct consumer’s advertisement has been done in the hospitals that positive impact for to create a sense of trust on the mind of the patients. The evidences are given on the process of management and operational success where advertisement on the pharmaceuticals efficiency has been presented in front of the customers in order to make them very happy.

Financial initiatives may result high cost of medical service in the business market of Abu Dhabi.

Thehospitals of Abu Dhabi havebeen taken some initiative to increase the level of patient’s involvement. Money has been allocated in the different important area of the company to provide maximum facility to the patients. Therefore, the service charge has been increased as per the expanse of the hospitals. Though the use of technologically advances machineries is very high in cost than service, charges are fixed as per the cost of the service. Some additional cost of the service has been categorized as per the way of treatment. From the hospital survey, information has been collected on the three-category service in the hospitals of Abu Dhabi. In the elite class service on the hospitals, the patients are given all kind of service and that is very expansive.

2.6.6 Benefits of electronic medical record for the increasing productivity and profitability of the healthcare sectors of Abu Dhabi

Functionary effect of electronic health record is to provide demographic and clinical health information. The patient related information refers to identification information as well as other encountered information. The most significant factor of the patient’s demographic function related information is to identify the notion of action that the medical representative of the hospitals should take in order to maintain development initiative of the hospitals. Before starting treatment, it is very necessary for the hospitals authority to have enough information on the patient’s general case study in order to deal with the development initiative of the hospitals. The clinical note of information helps the hospital authority to make proper case study on the patients.

Second function of the EMR is to provide support of decision making in the area of treatment. EMR is very important to give stress on the result on the clinical test. EMR give alert in the abnormal test that helps the doctors and the nurse to take decision on these medical problems. Example can be given where it has been found that the allergic medicine can be prescribed or if it is known drug affect is likely to occur and provide reminders care such as tests due prescription. In the process of treatment, the effectiveness of EMR has been found to be very positive in feature that provides maximum facility to the service provider to get suitable treatment. The functionary allocation of the technology has positive impact to increase popularity of the hospitals in the market of Abu Dhabi. The system is required to hold all kinds of medical information of the patients who are admitted in the hospitals. This case study of the patient’s health can be used for the further treatment in the hospitals.

Third importance of the function is the prescription and entry. The order entry process in the electronic medium has effective impact on the operational success of the hospitals. EMR is required to allow the provider to conduct the process of entry in order to deal with the development initiative of the hospitals. The records are needed in the process of management of patient’s record. Different types of order and required function of the hospitals can be managed very properly through the application of this record management system. The operational activity of the hospitals can maintained to increase popularity of the hospitals. The hospitals of Abu Dhabi are reliable to take operations of the hospitals under the data management system for the future references.

The fourth function of EMR system is to provide huge number of information on the symptoms of disease. At the time of entering data on patient’ health, huge number of information has been uploaded on the patient’s health and operational problems that has been found in the report. The report generation process has been conducted through the help of electronic health record and this process eventually helps the service provider to take suitable decision on the health. The report works as the supportive work on the process of maintaining operational success of the hospitals.

Support Security and confidentiality on the patients’ health is the most important effect of EMR. The technological application helps to protect medical data of the patients. The data on the patient’s health are input in the hardware system has positive impact to crate medical facility. Apart from this, it can be said that, the process helps the management of the healthcare organization to crate safety environment on the medical care. EMR maintain data very protected and it has positive impact to maintain hospital’s popularity. The main advantage of EMR is to generate clinical data report of patient’s health. The confidentiality of the data is maintained very properly that has positive impact on the patient’s security management. Strong data management software has been used in a process that can allow the medical representative to deal with maintaining case study of patients. The security system is very tough in the patient’s record management process in database system can be managed very properly through the application of the software system. The possibility of hacking is very low in this process that security pin is entered to protect data upon the patient. The documents are protected and used for further improvement of the patient’s treatment. The most significant factor of the patient’s health data management is to use it for the further reference on the treatment. The successful treatment process is provided by the hospitals through the application of this data base management system. It is very clearly analyze that the data management process of patient’s health cannot be maintained properly without the help of EMR system. The functional security can be provided very properly to the service provider through the application of this system. In the login facility of the data base management process of the hospital, it has been found that the record management process helps to carry out the data management process very properly.

The development in medicinal services innovation is pervasive in the hospitals of Abu Dhabi. Innovation has created broad results both for clients and for suppliers. Innovative appraisal has positive impact to maintain patient’s health. The service management process can be impaired if the doctor has report upon the past case of the patients. Future advance relies upon the present interest in explore, advancement, also, instruction. It does not explore such terrible issues to decide among the care provider to give suitable result of the treatment. Innovation is advancing so quickly that the rest of the world (creating nations) is not been able to make up for lost time. People groups still have quick access to imaginative average advances late. In spite of, the high expenses along with the multi effecting quality of restorative innovation, application of innovation proceeds to spread. The pros on medicinal facility reduced the level of disadvantage. Innovation is a deal on the medical technology that can improve individual satisfaction, safeguard monetary profitability and keep the high cost of the healthcare facility.

2.7 Medical Records Technology Programs in Abu Dhabi hospital

In the study of Aungst et al. (2014), Innovation is seemingly found in the healthcare sector in UAE through the transformational process in the technological innovation. For the foster improvement and faster clinical decision-making, innovative idea in the medical health is very effective. Healthcare in UAE is undergoing through the innovative idea on the transformational process to meet with the desire of the customers. The UAE Health Authority (HAAD) has defined the need of innovation in the medical technology for the achievement of higher opportunity. Most of the cases, data management threat is found in the hospitals that ensured the process of managing operational success of the care organization. Healthcare IT system has been improved in the process of managing internal and external system of management and operation of the organization. Three major part of innovation is, service users management, database management and equipment management (Amadi-Obi et al. 2014). These three areas need innovative system technology to deal with operational success. Demand of technology in the service sector need effectively allows making operational success of the healthcare organization. In the words of Vankayala et al. (2014), the demand of the technology in the service sector is seen in the treatment. The use of radiology has created the window of opportunity for the service to increase the level of patient’s satisfaction. The consumers who are demanding for the rapid technology need an innovative idea of management. In the words of Vankayala et al. (2014), the radiological treatment in the medical area increased the process of improving demand. The technology not only save time of the customers but also has improved the chance of getting highly effective treatment of the never curable disease. The technological orientation is not found to be very effective in feature in the hospitals of UAE. In the process of technological operation electronically to the PHR or EMR, the process has effective impact to resolve technological issues of the service sectors. The process effectively managed to identify operational success of management in the area of data management and efficiency management. Through the healthcare technology, the choice of life has come in to the suitable process of management. The services users can see benefit of this process as the time required s very less. The technological operation in the service sector has positive impact to meet with higher amount of the patient’s involvement in the hospitals. The hospitals of UAE are not technologically equipped. The management authorities of the UAE hospitals are not effective enough to have proper understanding on the application of technology in the different service area of hospital. The healthcare sectors of UAE need to improve the notion of technology as the terms of medical equipments due to the overall development of the hospitals.

In the study of Aungst et al. (2014), from the history of Abu Dhabi Healthcare industry, it has been identified that social insurance IT framework has been enhanced during the time spent overseeing inside and outside arrangement of administration and activity of the association. Three noteworthy piece of development is, benefit client’s administration, database administration and gear administration. These three regions require creative framework innovation to manage operational achievement. Request of innovation in the administration segment require viably permits to make operational accomplishment of the human services association. The request of the innovation in the administration area is found in the treatment. The utilization of radiology has made the window of chance for the administration to expand the level of patient's fulfillment. The purchasers who are requesting for the fast innovation require a creative thought of administration. The application of the technology in the medical service sector helps to improve the level of internal and external dispute.

2.8 Biggest technological advancement for the healthcare of Abu Dhabi in last decade

In the words of Vankayala et al. (2014), the research on the electronic health record is the most effective process to improve database management system of the service organization. In the healthcare, the scope of technology is increasing the chance and opportunity of the organization. The data monitoring process in the healthcare sector helps to understand service related sustainability of the organization in the market place. Different types of devices are used in the service sector to maintain protective growth of the company. Through the technological advancement it has been found that successive growth and development initiative of the service sector. From the data monitoring to data transfer technological advancement has been found to be very effective in feature along with the achievement.

In the process of healthcare improvement of Abu Dhabi, the role of data innovation is highly significant and important. With the prolonged application of electronic management records (EMR), Tele-health administrations the process of record management has become very effective that can provide maximum chance to person to deal with the effective management process. The record management process in the healthcare organization creates the window of opportunity to track, manage and secure personal data of the employees in the organization. The management of this innovation is very sustainable for organizational expansion. The use of EMR is very high in application in Abu Dhabi where the patient CT scans get sustainable result from the use on the data base management. This technological innovation has ensured in involvement of the patients in the hospitals. Apart from that, this process creates the sense of innovation in the process of treatment.

In the study of Aungst et al. (2014), high account of medical service provider of facilities along with the facility of surgical and medical operation is available in the hospitals of Abu Dhabi. This highly acceptable treatment facility in the hospital of Abu Dhabi can crate positive impact on the operational success of the company. Different types of facility are provided in the hospitals that have positive impact maintaining the operation success of the hospitals. The success can be improved through the application of the technology. The development initiative of the hospitals can be managed through the innovations of medical technology. Different typesof technology such as CT scans and X-ray also add to the advantages that data innovation conveys to solution. Biggest technological advancement of the healthcare organization has been discussed below.

2.8.1 The electronic health record

In the opinion of Ahmadi, Nilashi and Ibrahim, (2015), the electronic health record management has meaningful use that helps to focus on the database management system of the hospitals. The electronic heath record system helps to manage information of the patients in the database management system. Electronic Health Record (EHR) helps to gather record of the patients in their past case. In the words of Vankayala et al. (2014), the software included personal information of the service users such as patient demographic, history of the case and other relative information. The ability of Electronic Health Record (EHR) is to generate complete record for the future reference. The radiological report of the patient helps to demonstrate the progressive form of management and operation of the organization. In the decision making and support of the healthcare organization, it has been seen that this process helps to improve quality service providing capacity of the hospitals of Abu Dhabi.

Figure 1: Electronic health record application in Abu Dhabi Hospitals

(Source: Ahmadi, Nilashi and Ibrahim, 2015)

Tahmaseb et al. argued that, while the electronic health record system has created centralized level of service efficiency as detailed information has been given in the database. Most of the healthcare sectors of Abu Dhabi use this software system as long-term benefit can be achievable in this process. One of the most reasonable accesses of this system is that varied care is given in all the country. Service related process of the sector can come under the consideration through the application of this technology. UAE medical survey provides clear evidence on the use of Electronic Health Record system where 764 big hospitals revealed that they use this software.

2.8.2M Health

Mobile heath care device in the care sector has opened the window of opportunity as the cords and wares enabled the physician and the patients to check the health care process. From the global market report of the healthcare, data has been collected that 20 million hospitals are creating the opportunity of making healthcare progress through the application of this technology (Ahmadi, Nilashi and Ibrahim, 2015). Smartphone and tablets helps to access information of the hospitals along with the cost of service. Tahmaseb et al. argued that, in the modern era, patients are likely to use technology that provides them highest facility to get information of the ideal hospital and it saves their time. This tool can be us by the care professionals and service users for documentation and orders. MHealth is not only a wireless connectivity. It provides space to the users to become active players in the procedure of treatment. The treatment connecting communication process through the biometric helps to access the process of medical treatment. Healthcare opportunity is achieving through the application of this device. The device is very easy to handle therefore; patients are likely to use this device rather than choosing other.

Figure 2: mHealth as per market size

(Source: Ahmadi, Nilashi and Ibrahim, 2015)

2.8.3 Telemedicine/telehealth

Especially in the rural setting of UAE healthcare sector consistent benefit is found as resources are found to be very dominating in features. For the intensive care, units in the healthcare sector of the healthcare sector are using this system for the further improvement of the hospitals. The medical survey report of Abu Dhabi healthcare organization shows the result that 26% of the urban hospitals are using this tool for the service providing facility. The healthcare service becomes more considerable through the application of this process (Ahmadi, Nilashi and Ibrahim, 2015). In this tool, claims of the patients are automatically generated and fees of service are automatically generated through this course of action. This electronic tool generated automatic saving process where the patients use for the service of the data. Apart from this it can be said that telemedicine clinics also reduce timeout of the office cost for the employees of the healthcare organization. In the vast form of organizational access, it has been found that this process helps to provide huge form of data can be accessed properly through the application of this tool.

2.8.4 Portal technology

Portal technology is the contributing form that helps the patients to be the active player in the healthcare organization. The tool is helping to create profile in the care organization that the patient select. In this portal, all the reports of the patients are saved that can refer for their future reference. The medical record can be accessed through the online process where the patient can seen daily update of their status (Ahmadi, Nilashi and Ibrahim, 2015). This type of medical technology is very helpful and it allows the patient for better educate about their care that is provided by the care organizations. Abu Dhabi healthcare organizations seemingly like this process as the chance of having conflict between patients and the organization can be reduced in this process. Telemedicine clinic tools help to empower the patients of the care organization.

2.8.5 Remote monitoring tools

In the opinionofDranove et al. (2014) more than 2.5 million patients of Abu Dhabi care organizations are using this tool to get benefit of the healthcare service. The tool helps to monitor patient’s health through the regular monitoring. The most helpful process of this tool is that the access can help to modify patient related data from the different access. This portal is very helpful from the different perspective of the patients. From the security related perspective on the patient’s health, it can be said that security related process of the patient can be maintained through the application of the data. The remote controlling process on the electronic care access, it has been found that the access has effective impact in the process of improving personal information of the patients in the care organization. It can be said that transmission of the data, the management of the care organization can be able to deal with the profitability related factor of the care organization. The data management process of the hospitals can be managed very properly through the application of this tool; the management of the organization can be able to deal with the process of managing data.

2.8.6 Sensors and wearable technology

The wearable technology is developing along with the amount of yearly development rate of 16. 4 percent in every that information is provided by the Transparency market research e report of Abu Dhabi. Wearable restorative gadgets and sensors are essentially another approach to gather information, which is evaluated by the national authority of healthcare of UAE that one of the points and motivations behind social insurance. The variable innovation technology in the service sector has positive impact in the process of health and social care improvement of the hospitals. "Anything at present utilizing where a perceptive sensor could be is a piece of that arrangement,” The wireless technology in the service sector helps to provide huge number of information in this process of management. From the market research of Abu Dhabi, it has been seen that the data management process of the care organization helps to access huge number of data from the different sources. Patients are likely to gather information about service related offers of the organization.

2.8.7 Wireless communication

Wireless communication use in the hospitals of UAE is very effective in the process of managing the tracking system of the patient. The hospitals are cutting up the process of having registration in the hospital. The traditional system of registration is removed after the application of this system. In the internal development of the hospitals, the use of wireless communication is very effective in the process of increasing internal communication in the process of managing internal development of the organization. The hospitals of UAE are using this process of communication to improve internal development process of the organization. The communication process in the hospitals improved the service quality of the hospitals in order to deal with the process of managing business level of intensity of operation of the organization. The system management of the internal communication has effective impact in the process of increasing the level of patient’s involvement.

2.8.8 Real-time locating services

In the opinion Dranove et al. (2014), the data-monitoring tool has the effective impact in order to make operational success of the hospitals. The hospital has focused on the inventory management and operation in order to deal with the process of operational success. The data tracking system has positive impact in the process of managing business intensity in terms of management and operational success. The hospital authority of UAE has adopted this technology to deal with the allocation process. The tracking system of the research instruments can be managed properly through the application of this technology. This tool can helps to improve flexibility of the hospital by improving the service of medical equipment purchasing track and distribution track. The technology is used mainly in the process of equipments management operation. The tool is very flexible in the process of the managing operational success of the hospital in the market. Particularly, it has been achieve that the hospitals of the UAE are very often to improve their operational success.

2.9 Summary

The electronic health record system in the health care helps the management and the patient to access all the relative information on patient’s health. The medical health record applied in terms of management and operational success of the organization. Through the adaptation of the technology, it has been found that different types of administrative tasks through the application of the technology. Therole of information and communication technology adaptation in the healthcare sectors of Abu Dhabi clearly evaluated the chance and opportunity adopted by the organizations due to the adaptations. Strong administration system in the healthcare sector helps to improve efficiency level of the hospitals and the care users are become very effective by the service quality. Electronics health record is the significant features of management and application of the care organization. Through the automation of the medical technology, issues and challenges of the healthcare sectors of UAE can be benefited.

Governing body of the UAE hospitals are involved with the process of improve quality service sustainability of the organization. Healthcare agenda of UAE is based on the quality improvement of the products and service that is offered by the organizations. Improving health and wellbeing of the care organization can be managed as per the operational success of the organizations. In terms of management and operational success of the care, organization can be improved through the operational success of the organization. Through the application of the technology in the service sector, it has been identified that technological innovation helps to identify the range of service sector in the organization. In the administration process, it has been seen that suitable structure of the administration has effective impact in the process of managingbusiness intensity in the process of management. The main services that are provided are primary health services, dental care, maternity services, and diabetes care management. Also other major and minor services that are being offered, which take care of the majority of health issues the patients suffer from. Through the implantation of the technology in the service sector, the management of the organization can be able to deal with the process of making effective care service process in the organization. UAE healthcare sectors are very effective to provide range to service in terms of management and operational success of the organization, it has been seen that management related initiative of the service sector can come under the consideration in the process of administrative form. Both the strong administrative function and technological improvement helps to determine key initiative of the company in the competitive business market. Electronic health record process of the hospitals helps to maintain organizational profitability as has been seen that patients become satisfied as they can get case study of their previous health. Electronic database management system has suitable impact in the process of improving care management system of the organizations.

The government of Abu Dhabi hospitals has effective impact to manage and operational success in the organization. Some regulatory framework has been established in the organization to improve the quality and care process of the service sectors in the market. The regulatory framework aims to determine key objective through the supportive rules and regulation. There is significant presence of major health issues like diabetes, liver ailments, high or low blood pressure. The presence of serious health issues among the public necessitates the organizing of the health care services by the Abu Dhabi government authorities. There is increasing focus on providing essential health services and facilities. The initiative of the management authority helps to maintain popularity of the company in the market place. The governing bodies of Abu Dhabi hospitals are involved with the process of giving proper demonstration on the service providing capacity of the care organization. Through the proper demonstration, the care organizations can be able to deal with the development initiative of the service sector in the market place. The main services that are provided are primary health services, dental care, maternity services, and diabetes care management. Also other major and minor services that are being offered, which take care of the majority of health issues the patients suffer from. The primary services are focused on providing diagnostic and primary care to the patients. Through the technological improvement of the service sector in the process of managing business level of business intensity in the process of management can change the notion of healthcare organization. Technological innovation in the service sector can change the area of management. The service sustainability of the organization can be managed through the application of medical technology in the service sector. The public as well as the private sector companies essentially provide these services. The healthcare mechanism of the city also provide blood bank and rehab facilities.

2.10 Gap in literature

After conducting the above literature review, it has been found that there are certain gaps in the present literature and the future studies need to address the research gaps. It has been seen that in this present study focus has been given on the positive application of IT technology in the healthcare sector where specification has not been given on the negative implication of e-Hospital system to manage indoor and outdoor patient in the hospital.

The focus has only been given on UAE’s imports a lot of essential medical equipment’s from Canada. The transportation system and the internal system of healthcare sector management are described after reviewing secondary literature. The gap that needs to be addressed is that, there have not been explanations on the internal issues that management authorities are facing for quality assessment.

There have been some gaps in literature in regards to the implications of the more recent technological developments on the functionality of hospitals. Thus, it was not properly understood from the literature whether the ever changing advancements in technology can have large variations in regards to their impact on administration of hospitals. Hospitals in Canada are known for how fact they can cater to the health problem of a patient. These countries enable life-saving organizational mechanisms to tackle essential illnesses of the people. The Canadian and U.S health systems are much ahead of the UAE in terms of precision and efficiency. Therefore, the gap is found as the present literature cannot get enough authentic information on the implication of Electronic Health Record management process in the workplace.

Chapter Three

Procedure &Methodology

3.1 Introduction

The present chapter is concentrating on the research methodology adopted in order to collect the data for the research. It can be diversified with different research design to be adopted for the research supported with relevant research approach and philosophy. Moreover, data collection method is also mentioned in the chapter to link it with the variables and hypothesis. The application of research instrument in the research and its measure of relevant is also covered in the chapter along with ethical ground of collecting the data for the research. Statistical test and analysis of the data collected in also followed by the methodology in order to derive the findings of the research. The section of the study also emphasizes on the discussion of the result of the data collected supported with relevant logic to support the hypothesis. The health care practice of Abu Dhabi is the point of interest of the research there is growing need among common people regarding efficient functioning of the healthcare sector. Hence, it is important to tackle the corresponding risk associated with the healthcare sector effectively.

The monitoring of healthcare departments are taken under consideration for better understanding of the existing environment in the hospital segments of the healthcare division of Abu Dhabi. It is been found that most of the healthcare sections of the country are in the verge of getting confronted with low productivity and administrative effectiveness. Though there is presence of technological advancement yet the productivity is not up to the mark as perceived based on the anticipated demand. Naturally as a consequence, the profitability of the organizations is reflecting monotonically decreasing trend of performance in the competitive market place. In the last quarter of the 20th century, two scores and a decade before there were very few hospitals in Abu Dhabi (Ahmadi et al., 2015). The initial inauguration of hospital came through foreign aided funding mechanism though by the last decade the hospital sector have enhanced its productive performance as well as profitability in a significant manner. Extensive growth and development in the form of infrastructural development as well as technological development followed by effective management strategies had rendered wide range of opportunities in the medical segment of Abu Dhabi. The research aimed to create a directive framework through both qualitative and quantitative statistical analysis to identify the factors effectively that are responsible for utilizing the opportunities in the healthcare sector as well for assessing the impact of technological situation in administration of healthcare and enhancing productivity of the health care of Abu Dhabi, UAE.

3. 2 Research Philosophy

The research philosophy guides a research in the credible direction regarding the process of acquiring data and analyzes it scientifically. Positivism is the research philosophy that reflects that quantitative methods are the most suitable way of research while interpretative research philosophy encompasses humanistic methods that are qualitative by nature (Addison, 2017). Here, positivism is included to scrutinize the data in the most authentic and scientific manner as attainable by the tools used to conduct and conclude about the research.

3. 3Research Design

The present chapter is concentrating on the research methodology adopted in order to collect the data for the research. Research Design is the overall strategy that is being chosen to integrate the various components of the research in a coherent and logical manner. It effectively considers the research problem based on the blueprints of collection, measurement and analysis of data. Moreover, data collection method is also mentioned in the chapter to link it with the variables and hypothesis. The application of research instrument in the research and its measure of relevant is also covered in the chapter along with ethical ground of collecting the data for the research. Statistical test and analysis of the data collected in also followed by the methodology in order to derive the findings of the research. The section of the study also emphasizes on the discussion of the result of the data collected supported with relevant logic to support the hypothesis. The health care practice of Abu Dhabi is the point of interest of the research there is growing need among common people regarding efficient functioning of the healthcare sector. Hence, it is important to tackle the corresponding risk associated with the healthcare sector effectively. The research will adopt a quantitative method in order to assess the subject. The quantitative data gathered will be used in order to understand the implications of the study and will be discussed thoroughly.

3. 4 Research Approach/ Strategy

The deductive approach is adopted to carry out with the present research as the information gathered for the research is mainly for practical implication and cannot be applied theoretically (Al Mansoori et al., 2018). In other words, it can be said that deductive approach is suitable for the study as the practical implication is derived from the use of different theories in the study, which is mainly based on technology utilized in hospital administration and for the purpose of managing productivity in Health Care in Abu Dhabi UAE.

3. 5 Hypothesis development

The null hypothesis that is taken under consideration for assessing the technological situation in administration of healthcare and enhancing productivity of the health care of Abu Dhabi, UAE is that the technological advancement has strong impact in rendering betterment in the administration of healthcare and enhancing productivity of the health care of Abu Dhabi, UAE. Hence the alternative hypothesis is that technology has no impact in the administration of healthcare and enhancing productivity of the health care of Abu Dhabi, UAE.

3.5.1 Dependent Variable

The dependent variable is mainly hospital administration and productivity as the use of independent variables on different aspects of technology is applied in the study to analyze the impact and positive changes of Health care centers in Abu Dhabi.

3.5.2 Independent Variable

The independent variables that are majorly taken under consideration comprises of Electronic patient research management systems, e-hospital services, Technological Advancement, Quality of Service and Infrastructure of Health Care Hospitals, etc. as per the null hypothesis.

3. 6 Data Collection

Within the study, both primary and secondary data have been collected through conduction of survey on the customers of the healthcare organization of Abu Dhabi followed by conduction of interview upon healthcare managers. Based on the data collected, the data analysis is carried out to derive the issues faced in technological situation regarding administration of healthcare and enhancing productivity of the health care of Abu Dhabi. The data collected is analyzed and findings are included to show the result of carrying out the research.

3.6.1Research Instrument development

The research instruments that are taken under consideration is the quantitative data collection in the form of the survey questionnaire with the help of survey monkey where the characteristic of the customers are assessed corresponding to their respective response.

The research instrument is designed in order to accurately understand the implications of technology in the health care facilities across Abu Dhabi, UAE. Five point liker scale is being utilized to assess the responses of the respondents critically and quantifying them in the form of processed raw data. In the liker scale the audiences were asked to rate the importance of technology, its feasibility across the hospital administration and other essential case related questions on a scale to 0-5. This scale is used in order to quantify data available for better assessment. Apart from that, to critically examine the effectiveness of the responses feasible statistical deductions is made through quantitative regression analysis that puts forth the nature of impact of the independent variables on the dependent variables and validate the objective of the research significantly.

3.6.2Pilot study of the research instrument

The pilot survey was conducted in survey monkey and the sample size of the pilot survey was 100 respondents. Their sample responses is being validated by the usage of Cronbach’s Alpha, through which the reliability of the test is being assessed followed by estimating the consistency of the data that are being processed from the information obtained from the respondents. Cronbach’s Alpha renders the measurement that assesses the reliability of a set of test items. As per the set of scales used in this problem of Technological situation in Administration of Healthcare and Enhancing Productivity of the Health Care of Abu Dhabi, UAE the internal consistency is being estimated by the usage of Cronbach’s Alpha. It is not a statistical test rather it is a test of reliability or consistency. With an increase in the number of items, there is a rise in the value of the Cronbach’s Alpha and in addition, if the average of the interim correlation is low then the value of alpha will become low. However, if the average inter-item correlation rises the there will be a corresponding increase in the value of the Cronbach’s Alpha considering the number of items as constant. As per the set of scales used in this problem of Technological situation in Administration of Healthcare and Enhancing Productivity of the Health Care of Abu Dhabi, UAE the internal consistency is being estimated.

Cronbach’s Alpha renders the measurement that assesses the reliability of a set of test items. As per the set of scales used in this problem of Technological situation in Administration of Healthcare and Enhancing Productivity of the Health Care of Abu Dhabi, UAE the internal consistency is being estimated by the usage of Cronbach’s Alpha. The study is being conducted before the finalization of the relevant questionnaire that would be suited best for the study. To ensure the reliability, dependability and authenticity of the implemented research the credible technique of Cronbach’s Alpha is used in the pilot study.

Item Variances of Technological situation in Administration of Healthcare and Enhancing Productivity of the Health Care of Abu Dhabi, UAE

Sample population

Total

Administration & Productivity

Age

Gender

Inventory management

Technological Advancement

Quality of Service

Infrastructure of Health Care Hospitals

1

18

0. 02

0. 02

0. 0025

0. 02

0. 014475

0. 014875

0. 019475

2

18

0. 019794

0. 019794

0. 0025

0. 020202

0. 014376

0. 01496786

0. 019426589

3

18

0. 019889

0. 019889

0. 0025

0. 020305

0. 01449

0. 014961474

0. 019591837

4

12

0. 01969

0. 020094

0. 0025

0. 020102

0. 014427

0. 015057923

0. 019774684

5

20

0. 019895

0. 019895

0. 002499

0. 020204

0. 014556

0. 015050998

0. 019722222

6

16

0. 020707

0. 020707

0. 002698

0. 021132

0. 015132

0. 015509608

0. 020379224

7

17

0. 021208

0. 021603

0. 002898

0. 021927

0. 015523

0. 015193758

0. 02079545

8

16

0. 022008

0. 022098

0. 003096

0. 022355

0. 016072

0. 015317592

0. 021209503

9

22

0. 022885

0. 022969

0. 003291

0. 022841

0. 016455

0. 01540692

0. 021834388

10

24

0. 023612

0. 023343

0. 003469

0. 023611

0. 016979

0. 015731485

0. 02179809

11

21

0. 023953

0. 024017

0. 003658

0. 024442

0. 016772

0. 016172217

0. 022144665

12

15

0. 024422

0. 024657

0. 003822

0. 024751

0. 016982

0. 016490374

0. 022456668

13

18

0. 025156

0. 025115

0. 004004

0. 025373

0. 017158

0. 016918399

0. 022833978

14

14

0. 025935

0. 025827

0. 004155

0. 025585

0. 017504

0. 017235053

0. 023383997

15

19

0. 026158

0. 026531

0. 004298

0. 026027

0. 017987

0. 017540264

0. 023754743

16

12

0. 02671

0. 02671

0. 004469

0. 026708

0. 018462

0. 017830901

0. 024291924

17

18

0. 027229

0. 027145

0. 004639

0. 027409

0. 018797

0. 018127331

0. 024656083

18

22

0. 02731

0. 027814

0. 004806

0. 027902

0. 019259

0. 01842149

0. 025132016

19

17

0. 027945

0. 028495

0. 004927

0. 027951

0. 019627

0. 018801791

0. 024847553

20

18

0. 028356

0. 028555

0. 005038

0. 02836

0. 019948

0. 019047

0. 024995683

21

18

0. 028979

0. 028978

0. 005195

0. 028977

0. 02029

0. 019328115

0. 025109266

22

18

0. 029381

0. 028941

0. 005349

0. 029581

0. 020302

0. 019547441

0. 025436649

23

18

0. 029985

0. 029287

0. 005443

0. 029943

0. 020599

0. 019819883

0. 025887396

24

12

0. 029916

0. 029832

0. 005529

0. 03033

0. 020896

0. 02001331

0. 026240646

25

20

0. 030468

0. 030208

0. 005606

0. 030904

0. 021285

0. 020277079

0. 026555344

26

16

0. 030762

0. 030761

0. 005675

0. 031443

0. 021542

0. 020444681

0. 026882981

27

17

0. 031132

0. 031268

0. 005809

0. 03172

0. 021827

0. 019643998

0. 027189138

28

16

0. 031671

0. 031631

0. 005942

0. 0315

0. 022059

0. 019379915

0. 027493048

29

22

0. 032158

0. 032112

0. 006072

0. 031855

0. 022335

0. 019081388

0. 02778844

30

24

0. 032366

0. 031839

0. 006119

0. 032364

0. 022541

0. 019308765

0. 027203281

31

21

0. 032061

0. 031996

0. 006242

0. 032806

0. 021806

0. 019555593

0. 027110978

32

15

0. 032399

0. 032118

0. 006276

0. 032468

0. 021594

0. 019776886

0. 026984303

33

18

0. 032873

0. 032445

0. 006394

0. 032573

0. 021347

0. 020011342

0. 027251953

34

14

0. 033264

0. 032898

0. 006414

0. 032139

0. 021587

0. 02003774

0. 027582937

35

19

0. 032841

0. 033343

0. 006427

0. 032451

0. 021859

0. 020246497

0. 02784448

36

12

0. 032877

0. 032877

0. 006533

0. 032875

0. 022123

0. 020247122

0. 028163107

37

18

0. 03288

0. 033184

0. 006637

0. 033189

0. 022352

0. 020447305

0. 02841851

38

22

0. 032317

0. 033595

0. 006739

0. 033165

0. 022604

0. 020645333

0. 028566683

39

17

0. 032694

0. 03389

0. 00673

0. 032571

0. 022656

0. 020832815

0. 027735567

40

18

0. 032977

0. 033306

0. 006712

0. 032852

0. 022873

0. 020788475

0. 027446746

41

18

0. 033214

0. 033214

0. 006803

0. 033212

0. 022899

0. 020973802

0. 02712358

42

18

0. 033489

0. 032534

0. 006893

0. 033431

0. 02249

0. 020903802

0. 02734291

43

18

0. 033837

0. 032366

0. 006857

0. 033279

0. 022472

0. 021080598

0. 027576268

44

12

0. 033125

0. 032526

0. 006813

0. 03354

0. 022665

0. 020984893

0. 027602796

45

20

0. 033293

0. 032776

0. 006761

0. 033858

0. 022844

0. 021153237

0. 027809958

46

16

0. 033074

0. 033073

0. 0067

0. 034013

0. 022787

0. 021031903

0. 027811229

47

17

0. 033317

0. 033196

0. 00677

0. 033776

0. 022968

0. 019748836

0. 028010095

48

16

0. 033601

0. 033433

0. 006837

0. 032915

0. 022885

0. 019099228

0. 028206838

49

22

0. 033705

0. 033531

0. 006903

0. 033144

0. 023058

0. 018415285

0. 028176239

50

24

0. 033401

0. 032616

0. 00682

0. 033399

0. 02295

0. 01854764

0. 02704621

51

21

0. 032454

0. 032261

0. 006879

0. 033458

0. 021689

0. 018602758

0. 026518669

52

15

0. 032667

0. 031871

0. 006784

0. 032479

0. 021058

0. 018729153

0. 025956834

53

18

0. 032887

0. 032073

0. 006836

0. 032073

0. 020392

0. 018771998

0. 026117827

54

14

0. 032896

0. 032273

0. 006728

0. 030998

0. 020528

0. 018510064

0. 026232801

55

19

0. 031832

0. 032464

0. 006611

0. 031185

0. 020592

0. 018624078

0. 026387888

56

12

0. 031358

0. 031358

0. 006653

0. 031355

0. 020648

0. 018336461

0. 026490684

57

18

0. 030849

0. 03154

0. 006692

0. 031287

0. 020774

0. 018441996

0. 026639825

58

22

0. 029647

0. 031698

0. 00673

0. 030753

0. 020817

0. 018545434

0. 026462825

59

17

0. 02977

0. 031611

0. 006591

0. 02952

0. 020556

0. 018541593

0. 025087641

60

18

0. 029929

0. 030388

0. 006444

0. 029676

0. 02067

0. 018209165

0. 024364263

61

18

0. 029785

0. 029786

0. 006471

0. 029784

0. 020383

0. 018300029

0. 023606598

62

18

0. 029935

0. 028466

0. 006496

0. 02962

0. 019555

0. 017941993

0. 023719933

63

18

0. 030031

0. 027787

0. 006331

0. 028959

0. 019223

0. 018024376

0. 023737876

64

12

0. 02868

0. 027566

0. 006158

0. 029095

0. 019314

0. 01764068

0. 023439489

65

20

0. 028466

0. 027692

0. 005977

0. 029161

0. 019285

0. 017714682

0. 023540781

66

16

0. 027737

0. 027736

0. 005787

0. 028934

0. 018914

0. 017305384

0. 023217182

67

17

0. 027856

0. 027478

0. 005792

0. 028188

0. 018993

0. 015540704

0. 023310232

68

16

0. 027888

0. 027592

0. 005795

0. 026688

0. 018597

0. 014506284

0. 023401211

69

22

0. 027611

0. 027308

0. 005797

0. 026793

0. 018667

0. 013437509

0. 023045806

70

24

0. 026796

0. 025755

0. 005585

0. 026795

0. 018246

0. 013475551

0. 021371853

71

21

0. 025211

0. 024889

0. 00558

0. 026473

0. 016461

0. 013339512

0. 020409913

72

15

0. 0253

0. 02399

0. 005355

0. 024856

0. 015411

0. 013371524

0. 019413638

73

18

0. 025268

0. 024068

0. 005343

0. 023939

0. 014326

0. 01322308

0. 019468901

74

14

0. 024895

0. 024015

0. 005106

0. 022225

0. 01436

0. 012672913

0. 019368576

75

19

0. 023193

0. 023954

0. 004859

0. 022289

0. 014216

0. 01269245

0. 019417886

76

12

0. 022208

0. 022209

0. 004837

0. 022207

0. 014064

0. 012116543

0. 019305268

77

18

0. 021189

0. 022267

0. 004813

0. 021758

0. 014088

0. 012127586

0. 01934858

78

22

0. 019347

0. 022172

0. 004786

0. 020713

0. 013923

0. 012136532

0. 018846455

79

17

0. 019218

0. 021704

0. 004518

0. 01884

0. 013348

0. 011941238

0. 016926772

80

18

0. 019253

0. 019841

0. 004242

0. 018873

0. 013359

0. 011320366

0. 015768456

81

18

0. 018727

0. 018728

0. 004204

0. 018727

0. 012758

0. 011316655

0. 014575766

82

18

0. 018754

0. 016769

0. 004165

0. 018182

0. 011511

0. 010670065

0. 014583115

83

18

0. 018596

0. 015579

0. 003871

0. 01701

0. 010865

0. 010657828

0. 014385328

84

12

0. 016606

0. 014976

0. 003569

0. 017022

0. 010853

0. 009985474

0. 013761305

85

20

0. 016009

0. 014978

0. 003258

0. 016834

0. 010616

0. 009964781

0. 013756346

86

16

0. 014768

0. 014769

0. 002939

0. 016225

0. 009931

0. 009266686

0. 013106852

87

17

0. 014764

0. 014128

0. 00288

0. 014967

0. 009907

0. 007018983

0. 013093519

88

16

0. 014542

0. 014117

0. 002819

0. 012826

0. 009197

0. 005598471

0. 013078095

89

22

0. 013882

0. 01345

0. 002756

0. 012807

0. 009164

0. 004143454

0. 012396554

90

24

0. 012556

0. 011256

0. 002415

0. 012555

0. 008428

0. 004086461

0. 010176625

91

21

0. 010329

0. 009877

0. 002345

0. 01185

0. 006117

0. 0037582

0. 00877837

92

15

0. 010293

0. 008465

0. 001991

0. 009591

0. 004646

0. 003694916

0. 007345621

93

18

0. 010007

0. 008418

0. 001915

0. 008161

0. 003141

0. 003353891

0. 007294046

94

14

0. 00925

0. 008111

0. 001548

0. 005805

0. 003071

0. 002513788

0. 006976859

95

19

0. 006905

0. 007795

0. 001172

0. 005744

0. 002718

0. 002437687

0. 006919039

96

12

0. 005406

0. 005407

0. 001086

0. 005406

0. 002356

0. 00157164

0. 006589152

97

18

0. 003874

0. 005339

0. 000996

0. 004572

0. 002276

0. 001486918

0. 006525034

98

22

0. 001388

0. 004989

0. 000905

0. 003014

0. 001901

0. 001400047

0. 005695322

99

17

0. 001003

0. 004136

0. 000508

0. 000496

0. 00101

0. 001011553

0. 003227719

100

18

0. 000912

0. 001629

0. 000102

0. 000402

0. 000917

0. 000100083

0. 001631333

From the raw data as obtained from the survey and its respective analysis the variances are estimated and processed in the aforementioned form.

Cronbach’s Alpha is not an estimate of unidimensionality or homogeneity rather is reflects the fact that whether a set of data is reliable or not. It incorporates the consistency regarding how closely the set of items in the data are related with each other. It is not a statistical test rather it is a test of reliability or consistency. With an increase in the number of items there is a rise in the value of the Cronbach’s Alpha and in addition if the average of the interim correlation is low then the value of alpha will become low. However, if the average inter-item correlation rises the there will be a corresponding increase in the value of the Cronbach’s Alpha considering the number of items as constant. From the analysis it is being found that the value of Cronbach’s Alpha is 0.73084148. 0.00 reflects no consistency at all though 1.0 reflects perfect consistency of the scores in the measurement. Hence, it reveals the fact that in the scores obtained, about 73.08 % of them have good internal consistency and hence 73.08 % of the variance is a reliable variance. Since it is above 70 % level so the data is credible. Value of Cronbach’s Alpha above 75 % would have been much more reliable however, a value close to 75 % have moderate reliability and so further statistical analysis can be proceeded based on this data. Clearly in this context about 100-73.08 = 26.92 % of the variance is unreliable variance or error variance.

3.6.3 Data Collection procedure

Based on the questionnaire the survey has been conducted to delve into the issue by directly interacting with the consumers of the product and services and assess the qualitative significance of the analysis. Survey monkey would be used for collecting the response of the customers. Managers were interviewed regarding the issue of technological advancement and its related impact on the administration and enhancement of productivity in the health care segments of Abu Dhabi, UAE.

3. 6. 4 Population Sample

a. Survey on customers

The sample size that is taken in the research is 100 respondents. Hence the size of the population sample is 100 respondents and the research populations are the customers who use the services of the hospitals of Abu Dhabi, UAE. The sample size consisted of patients, doctors, medical staffs, and technicians of medical equipments, medical equipments operators and other people that have shared experiences in hospital management and services. The sample size was determined on the basis of people that will be able to give the most important insights into the subject matter.

b. Survey on Managers

For the interview purpose, 5 managers have been selected for collecting their response (in appendix the interview responses are being represented)

3.7 Statistical Test used for the Analysis of the Data

The statistical test comprises of the regression analysis to check the feasibility of the test upon the dependent variable with respect to the independent variables quantitatively .

Data analysis encompasses two part of the assessment techniques. One is the qualitative technique where the factors that impacts the technological situation in administration of healthcare and enhancing productivity of the health care of Abu Dhabi, UAE is qualitatively measured based on the proportion of responses and the other part is the quantitative analysis where based on the responses the processed raw data is quantified and analyzed segregating dependent and independent variables separately and scrutinizing the impact of the independent variable or the predictor variable upon the dependent or response variable. Appropriate qualitative and quantitative analysis through Cronbach’s Alpha, ANOVA test, chi square and regression techniques are applied that are being supported with relevant survey results based on the response of the participants.

To analyze the data as obtained from the survey and based on that the responses of the information are quantified in the form of process data which are again evaluated by the usage of Cronbach’s Alpha. Cronbach’s Alpha measures the reliability of the data, whereas ANOVA determines that whether there exist any significant difference between the means of three or more independent variables namely, technology, electronic health record and healthcare system of Abu Dhabi.

Finally regression analysis is done to analyze the impact of the independent variables upon the dependent variables and examine their prevailing relationship. Separately this can be discussed as follows:

3.7.1 Data encoding

The data gathered through the survey questionnaire was encoded into Microsoft Excel version 2007 and appropriate statistical analysis was executed on the data.

3.7.2 Chi Square Test for examination of values with respect to expected values

Chi square test was conducted to assess the goodness of fit in terms of the considered data. It decided whether there exists any significant difference between the actual observed set of items in the quantitative analysis which is experimental and the theoretical or expected set of values of those items or data under consideration.

3.7.3 ANOVA test for identifying difference between independent variables

ANOVA test was conducted to determine the relationship between the means of the independent variables; electronic patient report management systems, medical technology, e-hospital services. The variables are electronic patient report management systems, medical technology, e-hospital services, etc.

3.7.4 Regression analysis for analyzing impact of impact of independent variables upon the dependent variables

Regression Analysis has done to analyze the impact of the independent variables upon the dependent variables and examine their prevailing relationship. Thus, the effective impact of e-hospital services, electronic report management, etc., on hospital administration, technology implementation has been analyzed.

3.7.5 Cronbach’s Alpha for testing reliability of statistics

The raw information that has been obtained is being processed in the form of data which are again evaluated by the usage of Cronbach’s Alpha. This data observation is very helpful for numerical data observation.

3. 8 Ethical protocol statement

Ethical consideration reveals the fact that the data are taken from authentic sources and to maintain the reliability of the sources that are used for the research, genuine database are incorporated based on the pilot survey and corresponding analysis that is included in the analysis is significantly valid.

The responses collected is only for the purpose of research and will not be used anywhere apart from education purpose. The respondents replied to the survey during their leisure time

As per the normal ethical protocols no unfair means of getting information have been used. Moreover, no kind of manipulation technique has been used in order to influence the people used in the sample survey. The data gathered have focused on sources that can provide the least biased perspectives on the matter. The researchers have not use any kind of fake data in the formation of this study. All the data sources have been pre checked in regards to their authenticity. Ethical consideration has been made in regards to the objectives of the research. The study is thus aimed toward only bringing forward positive intended outcomes from the study. The researchers have not used any kind of force on the sample of people.

4. Reference

Elmagd, M. A., Sami, M. M., El-Marsafawy, T. S., Al Jadaan, O., &Mossa, A. H. (2016). The effect of socio-economic status on the effective students’ participation in physical activity: A cross sectional study from RasAlkhaimah Medical and Health Sciences University-UAE. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/9eaa/8414da65dcbd695c7063a216a9791c4e81da.pdf

Mozaffarian, D., Benjamin, E. J., Go, A. S., Arnett, D. K., Blaha, M. J., Cushman, M., ... & Howard, V. J. (2016). Executive summary: heart disease and stroke statistics-2016 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 133(4), 447-454. https://www.scholars.northwestern.edu/en/publications/executive-summary-heart-disease-and-stroke-statistics-2016-update

Addison, P. S. (2017). The illustrated wavelet transform handbook: introductory theory and applications in science, engineering, medicine and finance. https://books.google.co.in/books

Affordable Care Act (ACA) - HealthCare.gov Glossary. (2018). HealthCare.gov. Retrieved 22 March 2018, from https://www.healthcare.gov/glossary/affordable-care-act/

Afifi, M. (2018). Cross sectional study on lifelong learning's determinants among medical students in RAK Medical & Health Sciences University, UAE. JPMA.The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 68(3), 394- 399. http://www.jpma.org.pk/PdfDownload/8602.pdf

Ahmadi, H., Nilashi, M., & Ibrahim, O. (2015).Prioritizing critical factors to successful adoption of total hospital information system. Journal of Soft Computing and Decision Support Systems, 2 (4), 6- 16. https://jscdss.utm.my/index.php/files/article/view/48

Akenroye, T. O., &Kuenne, C. W. (2015). Key Competencies for Promoting Service Innovation: What are Implications for the Health Sector?. The Innovation Journal, 20(1), 2. https://www.innovation.cc/scholarly-style/20_1_2_akenroye-kuenne_key-competencies.pdf

Al Afari, T. S., &Elanain, H. M. A. (2014). Procedural and distributive justice as mediators of the relationship between interactional justice and work outcomes: An empirical study of the UAE public health care sector. Journal of Applied Business Research, 30(4), 1091. https://www.cluteinstitute.com/ojs/index.php/JABR/article/download/8657/8651

Al Dahdah, M., Du Loû, A. D., &Méadel, C. (2015). Mobile health and maternal care: A winning combination for healthcare in the developing world?. Health Policy and Technology, 4(3), 225- 231. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Marine_Al_Dahdah/publication

Al Mansoori, S. A. N. A., AbYazid, M. S., Khatibi, A., &Azam, S. F. (2018). STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT AND THE HEALTHCARE SECTOR IN ABU DHABI (SEHA): A THEORETICAL REVIEW. European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies. https://oapub.org/soc/index.php/EJMMS/article/download/301/868 (Al Mansoori et al., 2018)

Al Mazrouei, A. M., Al Faisal, W., Hussein, H., El Sawaf, E., &Wasfy, A. (2015). Determinants of Workplace Stress Among Healthcare Professionals in Dubai, Physicians Experience. Advances in Applied Psychology, 1(1), 31- 34. http://files.aiscience.org/journal/article/pdf/70340013.pdf

Alali, J. A., Alalili, M. S. K., Bashir, H., Dweiri, F., & Al-Kubaisi, A. Y. (2015, March). Using statistical process control charts for monitoring birth weight at a national level. In Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (IEOM), 2015 International Conference on (pp. 1- 5).IEEE. http://ieomsociety.org/ieom_2015/papers/440.pdf

Alam, K., Mim, E. H., &Sikder, S. M. (2018). Home Tele-Health System (Doctoral dissertation, United International University).http://dspace.uiu.ac.bd/bitstream/handle/52243/172/Home%20Tele-Health%20System.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Alharbi, F., Atkins, A., &Stanier, C. (2015).Strategic framework for cloud computing decision-making in healthcare sector in Saudi Arabia.In Seventh Int. Conf. eHealth, Telemedicine, Soc. Med (Vol. 1, pp. 138- 144). https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Fawaz_Alharbi5/publication/297380576_Strategic_Framework_for_Cloud_Computing_Decision-Making_in_Healthcare_Sector_in_Saudi_Arabia/links/56deab4308ae46f1e9a0e257.pdf

ALSADAN, M., EL METWALLY, A., Anna, A. L. I., JAMAL, A., KHALIFA, M., & HOUSEH, M. (2015). Health Information Technology (HIT) in Arab Countries: A Systematic Review Study on HIT Progress. Journal of Health Informatics in Developing Countries, 9 (2). http://jhidc.org/index.php/jhidc/article/viewFile/138/187

Alzoubaidi, A. R. (2016). Cloud Computing National e-health services: Data Center Solution Architecture. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security (IJCSNS) , 16(9), 1. http://paper.ijcsns.org/07_book/201609/20160901.pdf

Amadi-Obi, A., Gilligan, P., Owens, N., & O’Donnell, C. (2014). Telemedicine in pre-hospital care: a review of telemedicine applications in the pre-hospital environment. International journal of emergency medicine, 7(1), 29. https://link.springer.com/article/10. 1186/s12245- 014- 0029- 0

Aungst, T. D., Clauson, K. A., Misra, S., Lewis, T. L., & Husain, I. (2014). How to identify, assess and utilise mobile medical applications in clinical practice. International journal of clinical practice, 68(2), 155- 162. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10. 1111/ijcp. 12375/full

Barakat-Haddad, C., Zhang, S., Siddiqua, A., &Dghaim, R. (2015).Air quality and respiratory health among adolescents from the United Arab Emirates. Journal of environmental and public health, 2015. http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/jeph/2015/284595.pdf

Barrett, S. E. (2017). Health Literacy and the Culture of Health in the UAE. https://www.zu.ac.ae/main/en/phn2017/_images/lectures/Sharon-Barett.pdf

Bercaw, R. (2016). Lean leadership for healthcare: approaches to lean transformation. Productivity Press. http://www.michiganlean.org/Resources/Documents/Slides%20_%20Lean%20Leadership%20for%20Healthcare_%20MLC%2010- 2014.pdf

Broersen, L. H., van Pelt, G. W., Tollenaar, R. A., &Mesker, W. E. (2014). Clinical application of circulating tumor cells in breast cancer. Cellular Oncology, 37(1), 9- 15. https://link.springer.com/article/10. 1007/s13402- 013- 0160- 6

Brownie, S. (2015). The Changing Role of Nursing: Opportunities for Nurse-led Services for the Management of Chronic Disease and Diabetes in the UAE. Informa Life Sciences, 124. https://ecommons.aku.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1078&context=eastafrica_fhs_sonam

Button, D., Harrington, A., &Belan, I. (2014). E-learning & information communication technology (ICT) in nursing education: A review of the literature. Nurse Education Today, 34(10), 1311- 1323. http://www.academia.edu/download/39480181/E-learning__information_communication_te20151028- 16716-vvn4ct.pdf

Cummings, T. G., & Worley, C. G. (2014). Organization development and change.Cengage learning. http://www.mcs.gov.kh/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Organization-Development-and-Change.pdf

Dranove, D., Forman, C., Goldfarb, A., & Greenstein, S. (2014). The trillion dollar conundrum: Complementarities and health information technology. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, 6 (4), 239- 70. https://pdc.eller.arizona.edu/sites/mis/files/documents/events/2013/mis_speakers_series_chris_forman.pdf

Drotz, E., &Poksinska, B. (2014). Lean in healthcare from employees’ perspectives. Journal of health organization and management, 28(2), 177- 195. http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:748017/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Drummond, M. F., Sculpher, M. J., Claxton, K., Stoddart, G. L., & Torrance, G. W. (2015). Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes. Oxford university press. http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/48284/20603.pdf

El Hassan, M., Elnour, A. A., Farah, F. H., Shehab, A., Al Kalbani, N. M., Asim, S., ...& Abdulla, R. (2015). Clinical pharmacists’ review of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in a tertiary hospital in Abu Dhabi. International journal of clinical pharmacy, 37(1), 18- 22. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Asim_Elnour/publication

Fantechi, E., Innocenti, C., Zanardelli, M., Fittipaldi, M., Falvo, E., Carbo, M., ...&Ponti, A. (2014). A smart platform for hyperthermia application in cancer treatment: cobalt-doped ferrite nanoparticles mineralized in human ferritin cages. ACS nano, 8(5), 4705- 4719. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10. 1021/jm401853a

Ferreira, D., & Marques, R. C. (2015). Did the corporatization of Portuguese hospitals significantly change their productivity?. The European Journal of Health Economics, 16(3), 289- 303. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rui_Marques12/publication

Folland, S., Goodman, A. C., &Stano, M. (2016). The Economics of Health and Health Care: Pearson International Edition. Routledge. http://www.academia.edu/download/48799796/The-Economics-of-Health-and-Healthcare- 7th-Edition-Sherman-Folland-Allen-Goodman.pdf

García, M. (2015, December). The Impact of IoT on Economic Growth: A Multifactor Productivity Approach. In Computational Science and Computational Intelligence (CSCI), 2015 International Conference on (pp. 855- 856).IEEE. http://american-cse.org/csci2015/data/9795a855.pdf

George, J., Kumar, V., & Kumar, S. (2015).Data Warehouse Design Considerations for a Healthcare Business Intelligence System.In World Congress on Engineering. http://www.iaeng.org/publication/WCE2015/WCE2015_pp308- 311.pdf

Ginter, P. M., Duncan, J., & Swayne, L. E. (2018). The Strategic Management of Healthcare Organizations.John Wiley &Sons. http://erl.ucc.edu.gh:8080/jspui/bitstream/123456789/3016/1/%5BLinda

Golden, M. (2017). U.S. Patent No. 9,656,092. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Haluza, D., &Jungwirth, D. (2015). ICT and the future of health care: aspects of health promotion. International journal of medical informatics, 84(1), 48- 57. http://www.academia.edu/download/44287234/ICT_health_promotion.pdf

Haque, A., & Al Kindi, B. A. (2015).Mental Health System Development in the UAE.In Mental Health and Psychological Practice in the United Arab Emirates (pp. 23- 34). Palgrave Macmillan, New York. http://www.academia.edu/download/37750509/Mental_Health_Systems_Dev.pdf

Hasan, S., Farghadani, G., Al Haideri, S. K., &Fathy, M. A. (2016).Pharmacist Opportunities to Improve Public Self-Medicating Practices in the UAE. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 7(11), 459. http://file.scirp.org/pdf/PP_2016111715003938.pdf

Health Care Challenges Facing Administrators Today . (2018). online.sju. Retrieved 23 March 2018, from https://online.sju.edu/graduate/masters-health-administration/resources/articles/health-care-challenges-facing-administrators-today

Health Care Challenges Facing Administrators Today . (2018). online.sju. Retrieved 23 March 2018, from https://online.sju.edu/graduate/masters-health-administration/resources/articles/health-care-challenges-facing-administrators-today

Healthcare regulation in the UAE | Lexology .(2018). Lexology.com. Retrieved 23 March 2018, from https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=64f01b6b-e0c0- 46bd-ba70- 4519873dec42

Healthcare regulation in the UAE | Lexology .(2018). Lexology.com. Retrieved 23 March 2018, from https://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=64f01b6b-e0c0- 46bd-ba70- 4519873dec42

Hejduková, P., &Kureková, L. (2016). National health systems’ performance: evaluation WHO indicators. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 230, 240- 248. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877042816311326/pdf?md5=038a81f2e974d86a43565c909d223432&pid=1-s2. 0-S1877042816311326-main.pdf&_valck=1

Hsiao, C. J., Hing, E., & Ashman, J. (2014). Trends in Electronic Health Record System Use Among Office-based Physicians, United States, 2007- 2012. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Esther_Hing/publication

Hultgren, N. E. (2017). Central Blood Pressure Regulation in Relation to Obesity in Youth (Doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota). https://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/handle/11299/191275/Hultgren_umn_0130M_18491.pdf?sequence=1

Hung, S. Y., Chen, C. C., & Wang, K. H. (2014). Critical Success Factors for the Implementation of Integrated Healthcare Information Systems Projects: An Organizational Fit Perspective. CAIS, 34, 39. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f314/46fd44307c50c7aedd766d537afb48a34a00.pdf

Hussain, M., & Malik, M. (2016). Prioritizing lean management practices in public and private hospitals. Journal of health organization and management, 30(3), 457- 474. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Matloub_Hussain/publication

Keidar, M. (2015).Plasma for cancer treatment. Plasma Sources Science and Technology, 24(3), 033001. http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10. 1088/0963- 0252/24/3/033001/meta

Ker, J. I., Wang, Y., Hajli, M. N., Song, J., & Ker, C. W. (2014). Deploying lean in healthcare: Evaluating information technology effectiveness in US hospital pharmacies. International Journal of Information Management, 34(4), 556- 560. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Yichuan_Wang3/publication

Khthir, R., Elhamdani, S., Hatab, I., Espina, F., Asuncion, G., &Akpanudo, S. (2017). How safe is Healthcare? Perceptions within the Healthcare Community and the general public. Marshall Journal Of Medicine, 3(2). http://dx.doi.org/10. 18590/mjm. 2017.vol3.iss2. 9

Kitaw, Y., Ye-Ebiyo, Y., Said, A., Desta, H., &Teklehaimanot, A. (2016).Assessment of the training of the first intake of health extension workers. The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development (EJHD), 21(3). http://www.ejhd.org/index.php/ejhd/article/viewFile/534/395

Kiwanuka, A., Kimaro, H. C., &Senyoni, W. (2015). Analysis of the Acceptance Process of District Health Information Systems (DHIS) for Vertical Health Programmes: A Case Study of TB, HIV/AIDS and Malaria Programmes in Tanzania. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries , 70(1), 1- 14. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Wilfred_Senyoni/publication

Koornneef, E., Robben, P., & Blair, I. (2017). Progress and outcomes of health systems reform in the United Arab Emirates: a systematic review. BMC health services research, 17(1), 672. https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10. 1186/s12913- 017- 2597- 1

Koornneef, E., Robben, P., & Blair, I. (2017). Progress and outcomes of health systems reform in the United Arab Emirates: a systematic review. BMC health services research, 17(1), 672. https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10. 1186/s12913- 017- 2597- 1

Kundu, D., Chopra, K., Khanna, A., Babbar, N., &Padmini, T. J. (2016).Accelerating TB notification from the private health sector in Delhi, India. indian journal of tuberculosis, 63(1), 8- 12. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Debashish_Kundu2/publication

Lucia, O., Maussion, P., Dede, E. J., &Burdío, J. M. (2014). Induction heating technology and its applications: past developments, current technology, and future challenges. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 61(5), 2509- 2520. http://oatao.univ-toulouse.fr/12156/1/Oscar_12156.pdf

Malik, H. H., Darwood, A. R., Shaunak, S., Kulatilake, P., Abdulrahman, A., Mulki, O., &Baskaradas, A. (2015). Three-dimensional printing in surgery: a review of current surgical applications. journal of surgical research, 199(2), 512- 522. http://www.academia.edu/download/39150779/55a77c6f08ae345d61db3e07.pdf

Malik, M. M., Abdallah, S., &Hussain, M. (2016). Assessing supplier environmental performance: Applying analytical hierarchical process in the United Arab Emirates healthcare chain. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 55, 1313- 1321. http://shop.tarjomeplus.com/Uploads/site- 1/DownloadDoc/992.pdf

Marro, A., Bandukwala, T., &Mak, W. (2016). Three-dimensional printing and medical imaging: a review of the methods and applications. Current problems in diagnostic radiology, 45(1), 2- 9. http://www.cpdrjournal.com/article/S0363- 0188(15)00112- 7/abstract

Mathew, S., Salman, P., Khurshid, S., & Luke, A. M. (2016). Awareness of First Aid Among Undergraduate Students in Ajman, UAE. IOSR J Dental Med Sci, 15(6), 30- 8. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Simy_Mathew3/publication

Miah, S. J., Hasan, J., &Gammack, J. G. (2017). On-Cloud Healthcare Clinic: An e-health consultancy approach for remote communities in a developing country. Telematics and Informatics, 34(1), 311- 322. http://www.dl.edi-info.ir/On-Cloud%20Healthcare%20Clinic%20An%20e-health%20consultancy%20approach.pdf

Mike Freel, B. (2018).5 Challenges Hospital Administrators Must Overcome to Succeed in Today’s Rapidly Changing Industry . Beckershospitalreview.com. Retrieved 22 March 2018, from https://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-management-administration/5-challenges-hospital-administrators-must-overcome-to-succeed-in-todays-rapidly-changing-industry.html

Milenkovic, M. J., Brajovic, B., Milenkovic, D., Vukmirovic, D., &Jeremic, V. (2016). Beyond the equal-weight framework of the Networked Readiness Index: a multilevel I-distance methodology. Information Development, 32(4), 1120- 1136. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Marina_Jovanovic-Milenkovic/publication/282491965_Beyond_the_equal-weight_framework_of_the_Networked_Readiness_Index/links/565d7f0008aefe619b25e005.pdf

Ministry of Health and Prevention - UAE .(2018). Mohap.gov.ae. Retrieved 22 March 2018, from http://www.mohap.gov.ae/en/Pages/default.aspx

Ministry of Health and Prevention - UAE .(2018). Mohap.gov.ae. Retrieved 22 March 2018, from http://www.mohap.gov.ae/en/Pages/default.aspx

Moonesar, I. A. (2015). The Role of UAE Health Professionals in Maternal and Child Health Policy (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University). http://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2648&context=dissertations

Mwangi, B. M. (2017). Factors Influencing Adoption of ICT Strategy in the Kenyan Public Health Sector–A Case Study of the Kenyatta National Hospital (Doctoral dissertation, United States International University-Africa). http://erepo.usiu.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/11732/3300/BERNARD%20MAGANJO%20MWANGI%20MBA%202017.pdf?sequence=2&isAllowed=y

Nair, S. C., Ibrahim, H., &Askar, O. S. (2016). Comparison of good clinical practice compliance and readability ease of the informed consents between observational and interventional clinical studies in the Emirates. Perspectives in clinical research, 7(3), 123. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4936070/

Nakamura, T., Fukiage, M., Higuchi, M., Nakaya, A., Yano, I., Miyazaki, J., ...& Nakayama, T. (2014). Nanoparticulation of BCG-CWS for application to bladder cancer therapy. Journal of controlled release, 176, 44- 53. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168365913009693

Nakamura, T., Fukiage, M., Higuchi, M., Nakaya, A., Yano, I., Miyazaki, J., ...& Nakayama, T. (2014). Nanoparticulation of BCG-CWS for application to bladder cancer therapy. Journal of controlled release, 176, 44- 53. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168365913009693

Omer, F., Hassan, N., Hussain, H., Mana, S., &Awad, O. (2015). Travel Health, Gaps in Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Among Dubai Travellers, Dubai, UAE. Int J Prev Med Res, 1, 126- 131. http://files.aiscience.org/journal/article/pdf/70240022.pdf

Patel, S., & Patel, A. (2016).ABig DATA REVOLUTION IN HEALTH CARE SECTOR: OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES AND TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS. International Journal of Information, 6(1/2). https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/8f5a/a9f84c87dfc313997b90480de627498db43a.pdf

Salama, H., Hussein, H., Al Faisal, W., Belhool, K., El Sawaf, E., &Wasfy, A. (2014). Health-related quality of life in transfusion-dependent thalassemia major patients and associated factors in Dubai, UAE, 2011. MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL OF FAMILY MEDICINE, 7(10). https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/05ee/da6e4ca3f8d4ba421a928534c90951ab3b31.pdf

Seol, Y. J., Kang, H. W., Lee, S. J., Atala, A., &Yoo, J. J. (2014). Bioprinting technology and its applications. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, 46(3), 342- 348. https://academic.oup.com/ejcts/article/46/3/342/2755268

Sharaf, O. Z., &Orhan, M. F. (2014). An overview of fuel cell technology: Fundamentals and applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 32, 810- 853. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032114000227

Sharma, L., Chandrasekaran, A., Boyer, K. K., & McDermott, C. M. (2016). The impact of health information technology bundles on hospital performance: An econometric study. Journal of Operations Management, 41, 25- 41. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272696315300085

Sharma, L., Chandrasekaran, A., Boyer, K. K., & McDermott, C. M. (2016). The impact of health information technology bundles on hospital performance: An econometric study. Journal of Operations Management, 41, 25- 41. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272696315300085

Sims, T., Reed, A. E., & Carr, D. C. (2017). Information and communication technology use is related to higher well-being among the oldest-old. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 72(5), 761- 770. https://academic.oup.com/psychsocgerontology/article-abstract/72/5/761/2632140

Singh, K., Landman, A., & Bates, D. W. (2017). Mobile Health Apps: The Authors Reply. Health Affairs, 36(6), 1144- 1144. http://www.healthaffairs.org/doi/full/10. 1377/hlthaff. 2017. 0482

Singh, N., Singh, A. K., & Singh, V. K. (2015). Design and performance of wearable ultrawide band textile antenna for medical applications. Microwave and optical technology Letters, 57(7), 1553- 1557. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Drvinod_Singh/publication

Slusarczyk, M., Lopez, M. H., Balzarini, J., Mason, M., Jiang, W. G., Blagden, S., ...&McGuigan, C. (2014). Application of ProTide technology to gemcitabine: a successful approach to overcome the key cancer resistance mechanisms leads to a new agent (NUC- 1031) in clinical development. Journal of medicinal chemistry, 57(4), 1531- 1542. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10. 1021/jm401853a

Tahmaseb, A., Wismeijer, D., Coucke, W., &Derksen, W. (2014). Computer technology applications in surgical implant dentistry: a systematic review.International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, 29. http://secure.perio.org/sites/default/files/files/PDFs/Meetings/2012AM/FCE11_Ganeles2.pdf

Uluc, C. I., &Ferman, M. (2016). A comparative analysis of user insights for e-health development challenges in Turkey, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Egypt and United Arab Emirates. Journal of Management Marketing and Logistics, 3(2). http://dergipark.ulakbim.gov.tr/jmml/article/download/5000196811/5000170455

vanWeel, C., Alnasir, F., Farahat, T., Usta, J., Osman, M., Abdulmalik, M., ... &Tarawneh, M. (2017). Primary healthcare policy implementation in the Eastern Mediterranean region: Experiences of six countries. European Journal of General Practice, 1- 6. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10. 1080/13814788. 2017. 1397624

Vankayala, R., Lin, C. C., Kalluru, P., Chiang, C. S., & Hwang, K. C. (2014).Gold nanoshells-mediated bimodal photodynamic and photothermal cancer treatment using ultra-low doses of near infra-red light. Biomaterials, 35(21), 5527- 5538. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142961214003251

Von Woedtke, T., Metelmann, H. R., &Weltmann, K. D. (2014). Clinical plasma medicine: state and perspectives of in vivo application of cold atmospheric plasma. Contributions to Plasma Physics, 54 (2), 104- 117. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10. 1002/ctpp. 201310068/full

Wang, Y., Kung, L., & Byrd, T. A. (2018). Big data analytics: Understanding its capabilities and potential benefits for healthcare organizations. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 126, 3 https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Yichuan_Wang3/publication

Weinstein, R. S., Lopez, A. M., Joseph, B. A., Erps, K. A., Holcomb, M., Barker, G. P., &Krupinski, E. A. (2014). Telemedicine, telehealth, and mobile health applications that work: opportunities and barriers. The American journal of medicine, 127(3), 183- 187. http://www.academia.edu/download/42581191/Applications_that_work.pdf

Wildevuur, S. E., &Simonse, L. W. (2015). Information and communication technology–enabled person-centered care for the “big five” chronic conditions: scoping review. Journal of medical Internet research, 17(3).

Yadollahpour, A., &Rezaee, Z. O. H. R. E. (2014). Electroporation as a new cancer treatment technique: a review on the mechanisms of action. Biomedical & Pharmacology Journal, 7(1), 53- 62. http://www.biomedpharmajournal.org/dnload/ALI-YADOLLAHPOUR-and-ZOHRE-REZAEE/BPJV07I01P53- 62.pdf

Yeboah, D. A. (2016).A framework for sustainable health care. International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences , 5(4), 1- 12. http://www.garph.co.uk/IJARMSS/Apr2016/1.pdf

Zhang, X., Dong, Y., Zeng, X., Liang, X., Li, X., Tao, W., ...&Feng, S. S. (2014). The effect of autophagy inhibitors on drug delivery using biodegradable polymer nanoparticles in cancer treatment. Biomaterials, 35(6), 1932- 1943. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142961213012647

(2018). Seha.ae. Retrieved 22 March 2018, from https://www.seha.ae/English/Pages/default.aspx


Appendix

Survey on Managers

Managers were surveyed regarding the issue of technological advancement and its related impact on the administration and enhancement of productivity in the health care segments of Abu Dhabi, UAE. This can be incorporated as follows:

Q1: How technology is used to improve the sanitary segment in the hospitals & Health Care sectors in Abu Dhabi UAE?

The health care segments highly need latest technology based equipments that can serve the prospective patients and customers in the best possible way. For implementing such objective the based possible resources are identified and added in the equipments that are being used for utilization of the medical resources in the most effective way to satisfy the potential consumers.

Q2: How technology is used to enhance the qualitative standards of the medical equipments in the health care sector of UAE?

The qualitative standardization is made on basis of the requirements of the medical aid that each of the health care as well as the hospital divisions want to render to the customers. Scientific justification and experiments are done accompanied by suitable methods for testing the affectivity of the latest technology equipped instruments that are perceived to render better results to the medical service and if they reaches the best possible and feasible standards as fixed by the medical authorities only then they are passed for final evaluation and implementation of te customers.

Q3.How the doctors services are upgraded by administrative segments of the hospitals to render better treatment of patients?

The administrative segments prefer to monitor and channelize the medical ids according to requirements and for effective mobilization of the medical resources it is been critically regulated and administered by the administrative segments of the health care divisions and hospitals.

Q4: How administration governs the allocation and distribution of the staffing system in the health care sector effectively?

The channelization of the human resources is one of the major maneuver that are strategized in accordance with the medical requirements of the potential consumers as well as the sectional doctors that are responsible for the medical activities.

Q5: Do the inventory management system in the health care segment is effective enough to raise the productivity of the hospitals in Abu Dhabi?

Inventory management is one of the major tools for managing the medical as well as the other important resources that are assets to the company and have future return value. From the perspective of operational efficiency it can be incorporated that the effective allocation of the inventory invigorates the possibility to create the availability of the necessary equipments it the right time and at the right amount. Hence the medical, financial assets, human resources, etc as well as other inventories are effective management to provide complementary benefits to the health care as well as the hospitals of Abu Dhabi, UAE at the time of requirement.

Resources

  • 24 x 7 Availability.
  • Trained and Certified Experts.
  • Deadline Guaranteed.
  • Plagiarism Free.
  • Privacy Guaranteed.
  • Free download.
  • Online help for all project.
  • Homework Help Services

Testimonials

Urgenthomework helped me with finance homework problems and taught math portion of my course as well. Initially, I used a tutor that taught me math course I felt that as if I was not getting the help I needed. With the help of Urgenthomework, I got precisely where I was weak: Sheryl. Read More