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ENCOR 4010 Research Project 1: Spoiled Mine Site Rehabilitation

Project title: Spoiled mine site rehabilitation costing modelling.

Analyse the Australia’s spoiled mine site rehabilitation.Explain What are the objectives of your project? Describe what you intend to achieve.

Answer:

Introduction:

Sustainable closure of coal mines are one of the biggest environmental issues. This get amplified as the spoil characteristics has found to be making rehabilitation costly and difficult. These are needed for reclaiming mine wastes. The cost modelling of improvement of spoiled mine site deals with a holistic and global approach towards abandoned mine restoring of land (Alvarenga et al., 2018).

This includes rehabilitation of mine wastes across the globe. This also covers integrated technologies like bioremediation of metalliferous soil. They also provide strategies for sustainable ecosystems of various mine spoiled dumps. This has been offering multiple novel methods to remediate drainage of acid mines.

The following report demonstrates a background of “Spoiled mine site rehabilitation costing modelling”. Next, various problem statements are identified. Then the study outlines multiple research questions. Next, a literature survey is done with a scope of the proposed projects. Next, the research methodology is analyzed along with scientific theory over which the method is based. Next, the resources needed for the project and the project schedule is discussed in this study.

Background and problem statement:

The present-day mining sectors with other industries across the world has been facing new challenges. This includes the ever-rising environmental and social environment and legislative awareness of the specific community, from where it operates. It is seen that globally about 0.4*106 square kilometre of land has been estimated to get disturbed through mining tasks. Thus it has contributed to serve various environmental outcomes that include creating vast amounts of spoils in mine.

The rehabilitation consists of the following.

  • Creating designs for proper landforms as per the mine site is considered.
  • Developing landforms that should behave and enhance in predictable way as per the established design principles.
  • Establishment of suitable sustainable ecosystems.

Designing of landforms regarding rehabilitation has needed holistic perspective of various mining objectives. To establish a cost model, every component and operation stage of the mine must be a part of the plan. Moreover, the plan requires a flexible for accommodating changes in technology and method (Koptsik et al. 2018).

The maximizing of planning resources are able to decline site disturbances and assure that materials such as waste rocks are closer to ultimate location. Here, the emphasis has been to gain and analyze data about that site. However, the research has two primary uses. It has been providing the baseline data regarding mine planning and important information for closure phase and rehabilitation.


This happen as the site is restored to any agreed usage of post-mining.

The main factors of mine site rehabilitation requires the following.

  • Legal requirements
  • Climate
  • Topography
  • Soils
  • Views of community

It must be reminded that community views are vital to decide the ultimate land use. This is because they are the site users. The community views are mostly vital to decide the ultimate land use since they are the site users. This expertise and knowledge is invaluable to understand the various aspects of the spoiled mine site (Novo et al., 2018).

Research Question and rationale:

Rationale of the research:

The idea of rehabilitation is not examined in the prior phases. Hence it needs more resources than the time expected during implementation. Since the site is used to mine for past time, there are various mining wastes that have been chemically and physically coming in contact with the surrounding environment. This, for example, has been spreading because of erosion that is harmful to the environment. The land rehabilitation has been beginning as the land is of no usage regarding industrial purposes and thus the authorities have been starting various techniques of land recovery. This is done through which the site is made helpful for the present society. This has been at least making that safe for people. This has been an outbreak and unwanted issues from residual chemicals in the soil.

Further, there are multiple cost-effective techniques that remedial or approaches regarding contaminated soils and different waste dumps. Here, for these methods and techniques of expenditure has been coming to existence that is calculated and further the most desired tool is also adopted. However, there are various research question rising, regarding whether the project has been worth doing scientifically. These are identified below.

Research questions:

Question 1: Has the project is able to highlight hidden aspects of mining with different disadvantaged to land ability and soil instability?

Question 2: The project involves various disciplines of engineering such as chemical, civil and mining. Hence, the debate is whether the cost modelling must be providing a close look as far as multiple inter-relationships are concerned?

Literature Survey:

It is seen that a wide area throughout the world is estimated to be distributed through various mining activities. Thus it has contributed to multiple critical environmental outcomes. This includes the creation of an enormous quantity of mine spoils. To analyze the acceptability of various rehabilitation completion criteria, indicators and objectives are to be considered. According to Novak et al. (2016) the rehabilitation hierarchy, to decrease the ability to restrict or minimize environmental harm must consist of the following.

  • Avoiding disturbances needed for rehabilitation
  • Reinstating natural ecosystems same as the original ecosystem.
  • Creating alternative result with a greater financial value that prior land usages.
  • Reinstating former land uses like cropping and grazing.  
  • Creating lesser usage of land value
  • Leaving the spoiled site in unusable condition and potential to develop further pollution or that has been reversely affecting various environmental benefits.

In determining whether this has been feasible to gain various levels at the top half of that hierarchy, the administering authority must consider various pre-mining land usages. This also includes the effective uses of various likely rehabilitated landforms and current usages and environmental values of different surrounding lands. Here, Wijesekara et al. (2016) explain that the development of lesser value uses ate acceptable as the use is acceptable to various relevant stakeholders. Further, it must be reminded that leaving that site in an unstable situation and potential to cause environmental harm is never acceptable.

Sustainable development and mine rehabilitation:

Epelde et al. (2015) highlight that poorly rehabilitated mines have shown complex legacy issues for companies, communities and governments. It has ultimately tarnished reputations of the overall mining industry. Moreover, access to resources has increasingly has become tied to the reputation of sectors. This also includes satisfactory mine rehabilitation and closure processes. This has been complicated towards organizational ability for developing new projects. Furthermore, planning has invariably raised the expenses of rehabilitation and closure of the mine. This has decreased the entire profitability. Considering a smarter and integrated approach towards this innovation is helpful to gain effective mine rehabilitation. This also includes a range of various sustainable development systems that are developed by various industries and organizations, driving improved practices.

Sustainable mine site rehabilitation and environmental aspects: 

The objective if every reconstruction in any natural ecosystem has been approximating what has been present before the mining. Moreover, in various distant sectors of Australia, the return of mine site towards stable natural ecosystem has been a preferable choice. As soon as it is successful, this provides the low-maintenance of ultimate land uses. Frumkin (2016) shows that this controls the release of effective pollutions from sites that are more densely populated in various sectors of Australia. This includes sites close to various popular centers and agricultural areas. Here, a wider range of options of land-use is available. These elements of mine site consist of potential to be utilized for community-based tasks and agriculture. This is a necessity for current management. Hence it is vital to deploy the earlier steps in various long-term capacities of local communities, community and local council groups for undertaking those tasks. Instead of any long-term commitments and enough resources, the controlled rehabilitation programs are ultimately failures.

Sustainable developments and social aspects: 

Cui et al. (2017) discussed that Australian mining companies are committed towards economic and social developments of communities where they operate. It has entailed the commitments for minimizing reverse effects of mining over nearby communities. This has also raised the problem to improve and maintain social sustainability and wellbeing of various affected communities.

Sustainable developments and business cases

 Here, the business case is to approach mine rehabilitation under a sustainable development system in a systematic and planned way. This can be implemented progressively on the entire project cycle. This includes the following.

Improved mine management

 It includes scopes in optimizing operations and mine planning as active mine life for effective resource extraction and post-mining land uses are done. Here, for instance Goloran, Phillips and Chen (2017) state that the reducing of double handling for waste materials and various topsoil and decreased sectors of land disturbances. It also involves recognition of segments of higher risks as priorities for the present research with remediation. Further, it includes progressive rehabilitation, providing scopes o test and develop various applied techniques. Lastly, it consists of a lesser risk of various regulatory non-compliance.

Developing stakeholder engagement

 This is to be done in planning and decision making. It includes more informed programs and strategies of development for indicating effects. This is ideally the part of community development plan from early in the mine life. This has consisted of the informed development of programs and strategies for addressing impacts as mentioned by Reed et al. (2017). This is ideal as the part of a community development approach for early in mine lives. It also consists of developed community receptiveness for further mining proposals. Moreover, it leads to developed public reputation and images.

Reduction of risks and capabilities

 It consists of material and financial provisions for various mine rehabilitations through more proper estimations of costs of mine rehabilitation as highlighted by Cristescu, Stenhouse and Boyce (2016). Moreover, there is a reduction of exposure to various contingent responsibilities that are related to the safety of public and various types of risks and hazards in the environment.


Langston (2017) analyzed that different heavy metals concentrations within mine spoil can affect the microbial activities and leading revegetation succession negatively. Here, the release of acids related to mine spoils like drainage of acid main across oxidation of pyrite has been able to develop adverse effects over the surrounding vegetations.

Identifying research gaps:

However, a first gap in the present research is that the significance of rehabilitation has appeared. This has been below the minds of various mine managers and has not been according to the priority level expected by the community.  Here the measure of the mining industry and ability to cause environmental harm has indicated that there is a necessity to develop the method in which mine rehabilitation of undertaken presently. However, this can be gained by developing different research programs and better regulatory and institutional arrangements. Here, the current situation has shown an essential financial and ecological risks to the country. Moreover, the regulatory authorities have required to create more rigorous approaches to assure that expected standards of rehabilitation are achieved.

The scope of the proposed Project:

Research objectives:

To understand this segment various research objectives are to be understood. They are highlighted below.

  • Providing a basic understanding of mine-site spoil characteristics.
  • Understanding different approaches regarding remediation of contaminants of mine-site.
  • Outlining potential values of different risk-based approaches regarding remediation.
  • Studying the vases of revegetation of mine sites at Australia regarding different practices of land uses.

Understanding the scopes:

The research must seek how bio-wastes can be used to mine spoil rehabilitation. There is detailed characterization regarding mine and biowastes has been spoiling environments that are required to develop the rehabilitation process. This usage of pretreated and stabilized bio-wastes is needed to minimize contamination of ecosystems. This must be scientific investigations and continuously maintained of spoils that are treated with biowastes that are necessary to be carried out. Further, various environmental risks related to heavy metals and nutrients that are leached from those biowastes are needed to be considered.

Moreover, there are enhancements of stocks of carbon through biowastes on low carbon that has been containing mine that is required to be studied. Additionally, regulations for mine spoiling rehabilitation through bio-wastes are needed to be updated and formulated are to be understood. Ultimately, LCA or Life Cycle Assessments are to be analyzed to be applied for biomasses. This is to be determined, and the research intends to seek the validity to store carbon as the ways of direction action climate change strategy of mitigation and dependency of bioenergy sources.  

Thus to summarize, the primary limitations of the resulting outcome shows exploitation of poor environmental deterioration and security and natural resources. There are poorly integrated and shortlisted national vision. Furthermore, there are also insecurity and vulnerabilities in conducting the research.

Research Methodology:

Here, the Coasian approach to commence a present situation and to find a more financially effective solution is adopted. It is a kind of primary research. Here, data is to be collected directly from primary sources (Lueck, 2017). This is opposed to a collection of information from research done by others. This data is obtained through observation. This fundamental cost-benefit analysis indicates that there are financial values to rehabilitate spoil piles of grazing of restored mined lands. This is the economic benefit that has been flowing from rehabilitation. Here, the Queensland Government has approbated vision of ESD.

Within this vision, EPA is established with specific environments attributes and values to get enhanced and protected. These strategies are developed for every mine within the latest paradigm differing from various policy done before (Hsiao et al., 2014). Moreover, there has been a disturbance of land usage and stable post disturbances in preserving downstream water quality.  Here, the hypothesis of the research has been within the vision of ESD, and it has been a cost-effective process of rehabilitation. This is done to secure various kinds of environmental attributes and the prescriptive regulations of stripping coalmines situated in Queensland, Australia.

Scientific Theory behind the methodology:

Here, in this research Coase theorem is considered. This indicates the most efficient solution to solve various interdependent uses of the current scenario. This also includes cases of pollutions, which is a bargaining method among elated property holders. The Coase theorem is lying on the basis of two primary ideas. The first one is zero transaction costs or expenses related to methods of selling and buying. The second one is free of individual choices. This is helpful to explain the unique cost advantages possesses by organizations in the current digital marketplace. It must be reminded that the transaction costs are approaching towards the value zero on conventional firms. Moreover, Coase Theorem comprises various additional applications like who pays for costs of pollutions.

As property rights are provided to polluters, the victims have been paying them to pollute. This develops a market-like solution. This must be akin to a scheme of payments for services of ecosystems (Reed et al., 2017). As the property rights are provided to victims, those polluters have been compensating the victims and buying every fit right to pollute. In this way, the expense of negotiated results is shared among various parties instead of any outside intervention.

Resources required for the project:

Building information modelling

The plans and clients must find the rise in benefits of using BIM or building information modelling. Here, everyone knows the cost-efficient approaches to create and store projected data. This has been allowing mostly accurate and 3-D design abilities for preventing clashes of myriad MEP systems and hookups of equipment. This is done beyond laboratory walls and within floors. There are also uses of 3-D Models regarding V-R, or Virtual Reality applies. Though these are in their early stages, however, they have included lightweight animations to guide the teams of constructions. Besides, the managers and lab owners have appreciated the detailed business of databases regarding various project materials, operation data and specifications. Apart from this, there are more capacities in leveraging BIM, and here much more progress is made.

Besides, this the long arc of operations and occupancies phases.

IoT

 Apart from this IoT or Internet of Things is a worth mentioning for the rise of potential for connecting of building elements for every other sensor, Internet and actuators. There are buildings with IoT has been compromising automatic actions with monitoring abilities that are sustainable, user-friendly and effective. Moreover, it is a rising trend having a most expensive potential for complex, installations that are system driven that are required for current research and academic laboratories.

Table 1: “Resources needed for the project”

Source: (Lechner, Kassulke & Unger, 2016, page number: 234-243)

Time schedule for the research:

Task Name

Duration

Start

Finish

Detailed characterizationofbiowastesandminespoilenvironment

1 wk

Wed 8/29/18

Tue 9/4/18

Utilization of stabilized or pretreated biowastes

4 wks

Wed 8/29/18

Tue 9/25/18

Continued maintenance and scientifici nvestigation of spoils

3 wks

Wed 8/29/18

Tue 9/18/18

Finding environmental risks

6 wks

Wed 9/26/18

Tue 11/6/18

Enhancement of stocks ofc arbon through biowasteson low carbon

2 wks

Wed 11/7/18

Tue 11/20/18

Creating regulations form in spoil rehabilitation using bio waste necessities

4 wks

Wed 11/21/18

Tue 12/18/18

Training the maintainers

4 wks

Wed 9/19/18

Tue 10/16/18


Table 2: “Time schedule for spoiled mine site rehabilitation costing modeling”

Source: (Created by Author)

Cost modelling of the research:

The following cost model is developed from principles based on mining criteria for drill penetrations rates, swell factors and rock densities. This industry-standard method is useful for equipment selection, cost allocation and personal allocation.

Production

Mine Type:

Spoiled Mine

Stripping Ratio of stripping:

1:1

Production of waste:

7,000 tons per day

Production of ore:

7,000 tons per day

 

Cost Summary

Operating Costs

 

 

Supplies & Materials

$/mt ore

$2.06

Hourly Labor

$/mt ore

3.47

Equipment Operation

$/mt ore

2.75

Salaried Labor

$/mt ore

0.34

Miscellaneous

$/mt ore

0.52

Total Operating Costs

 

$6.39


Table 3: “An estimated Cost model for spoiled mine site rehabilitation”

(Source: Created by Author)

Conclusion:

The above report helps in understanding to develop and deploy site specific plan of rehabilitation. This is helpful to gain optimal post-mining usage of land with flexibility. This is also helpful to include constant development through accommodating changes in technology and methods. Thus the study paves the way of greater understanding of direction to develop bioremediation and soil fertility. Any sustainable redeveloping of the mine site in Australia has needed degraded lands for recovering the land resources.  Apart from this, there is also a situation that is integrated well to different surroundings upgraded the characters of an environment and creating opportunity regarding economic redevelopment. The basis for the literature research there are some recommendations that formulated for improving the rehabilitation of coal mines in Australia. Here the approach is to diversify the processes used for treating acid mines drainages. Besides, another focus must be on developing a quality of land and covering wastes of coal mines. This is done by diversifying the various range of fertilizers. Any symbiosis approach can be improved through scraps from multiple acts like fertilizers of the soil. Here, one example can be using relations that are established with a water treatment power plant. This is to use waters of municipal wastes as fertilizer.

References: 

Alvarenga, P., Clemente, R., Garbisu, C., & Becerril, J. M. (2018). Indicators for Monitoring Mine Site Rehabilitation. In Bio-Geotechnologies for Mine Site Rehabilitation (pp. 49-66).

Cristescu, B., Stenhouse, G. B., & Boyce, M. S. (2016). Large omnivore movements in response to surface mining and mine reclamation. Scientific reports, 6, 19177.

Cui, J. L., Luo, C. L., Tang, C. W. Y., Chan, T. S., & Li, X. D. (2017). Speciation and leaching of trace metal contaminants from e-waste contaminated soils. Journal of hazardous materials, 329, 150-158.

Epelde, L., Lanzen, A., Blanco, F., Urich, T., & Garbisu, C. (2015). Adaptation of soil microbial community structure and function to chronic metal contamination at an abandoned Pb-Zn mine. FEMS Microbiol Ecol, 91(1), 1-11.

Fisher, R. M., Le-Minh, N., Sivret, E. C., Alvarez-Gaitan, J. P., Moore, S. J., & Stuetz, R. M. (2017). Distribution and sensorial relevance of volatile organic compounds emitted throughout wastewater biosolids processing. Science of The Total Environment, 599, 663-670.

Frumkin, H. (2016). Environmental health: from global to local. John Wiley & Sons.

Goloran, J. B., Phillips, I. R., & Chen, C. (2017). Forms of nitrogen alter plant phosphorus uptake and pathways in rehabilitated highly alkaline bauxite processing residue sand. Land Degradation & Development, 28(2), 628-637.

Gurung, B., & Dhakal, R. (2016). Municipal Waste Treatment Culture in Nepal.

Hsiao, T. Y., Chuang, C. M., Kuo, N. W., & Yu, S. M. F. (2014). Establishing attributes of an environmental management system for green hotel evaluation. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 36, 197-208.

Hudson-Edwards, K. A., & Kossoff, D. (2017). Role of redox-reactive minerals in the reuse and remediation of mine wastes. European Mineralogical Union/Mineralogical Society of Great Britain & Ireland.

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