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Evaluating the impact of employee motivation on job performance

Evaluating the impact of employee motivation on job performance - a case study on Hilton Hotels

Abstract

In this research work, the researcher focused on the topic “Evaluating the impact of employee motivation on job performance - A case study on Hilton hotels”. In the introductory chapter of the research work, the aims and objectives have been explained. The questions have been made as per the objectives that were used for the survey using questionnaires. In the literature review, the theories have been used that helped to gain knowledge on the concept of employee motivation and job performance of them. Their relationship explains that they are dependent on each other, where good performance can be provided if the employees are motivated. In the research method, the appropriate tools and techniques have been used to carry out this research work. Deductive approach, positivism philosophy, and descriptive design have been used besides survey using questionnaires. The data analysis chapter involves collection of the quantitative data from the 61 employee samples of the Hilton hotels. The researcher in the conclusion and recommendation chapter links the objectives with the objectives of the research. The limitations and future scope of the study have also been given here by the researcher.

Chapter1: Introduction

In a workplace, an employee is always stuck in a stressful condition, to fulfil the job role, bringing success to the organisation. However, very few organisations focus on the issue of eliminating this stress and motivating them. This research, focused on employee motivation and the way it affects their job performances, leading to customer satisfaction. The aims, objectives and rationales have been discussed here, that are based on the questions and set by the researcher.

Background of the Study

Nowadays, the business sphere has become very competitive, making it very challenging to stand in the market, creating a name and position. As per Kehoe and Wright (2013, p.362), the revenue and the overall growth also face various problems due to such competition. This is the reason; the organisation needs to manage its capital, materials and human resources in an intelligent and impressive manner. Among these, the human resource holds the utmost importance, because they are the ones who contribute majorly to the success of the organisation. Their hard work, intelligence and unique way of working help the organisation to grow.

However, as per the view of Nyberg et al. (2016, p.1754), in various hotels of UK, employees are not encouraged by the managers; that as a result, affect their performance negatively. Thus, it fails to increase the productivity of the hotels and does not enhance customer satisfaction. This research probes deep into the concept of motivation that has to be given to the employees, which is important for their effective working, ushering the organisation towards their goals. The manager does not behave in a friendly manner, insulting the weakness of the employees that make the employees lose their confidence, affecting their work, negatively. Therefore, it is clear, that if the employees are not given motivation, their job performance will not get better.

Background of the company

The Hilton hotel founded on May 31, 1919, has it’s headquarter in Virginia. It has more than 570 hotels in almost 6 continents. The Hilton hotel provides a unique and contemporary feel to the guests, where the rooms are facilitated with smart, thoughtful designs and amenities, that are also redesigned based on the request and specifications of the guest or occasion. The restaurant here, serves the best dishes, including the healthy breakfast in the room. The hotel promises friendly

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service of the employees and is facilitated with work-out, spa facilities. The hotel is also engaged in various charitable works (hilton.com, 2017).

Rationale

Nowadays, a number of hotels are emerging in the UK business market; therefore, it is very difficult to survive in the competitive market. The resources if are not managed properly with care, chances are the organisation will fail miserably to stand in the market. Among the resources, human resource is the most important one, who works with their emotions, intelligence and hard work in achieving the organisational goal. As asserted by Anitha (2014, p.56), the employees need to be continuously provided with encouraging words and support. They need to be rewarded for their good work, and whenever they do any mistake, must be rectified, instead of discouraging or insulting them. However, not all the hotel industry follow this and therefore misbehaves with the employees if found doing any error. This makes the performance of the employee poor, leading to the overall fall in the productivity of the organisation.

Even, in this age of technological advancement and globalisation, this issue is quite farfetched, since the hotels, after reaching to a point of recognition and fame, does not bother to provide to an employee if work is not done properly. As per Gerhart and Fang (2014, p.50), the hotel industry invests in keeping the best staff, in place of some inefficient non-trained employee. Similarly, on the other hand, an employee after finding out, is not being treated properly or is given the due credit in one hotel will not hesitate to move to the other hotel. However, this creates a negative impact on the name of the hotel. Hilton hotels have also failed in the past to implement the effective motivational strategies, like rewards, employee cards, leaves, incentives; and this did not motivate the employees to work harder as compared to the other hotels in the market.

However, after the application of motivational strategies, the number of employees increased from 130,000 to 152,000 in the year 2016. This has also increased the net profit of the hotel, which increased from 7.58 billion dollars in 2009 to 11.66 billion dollars in 2016. The employees are recruited, providing them with the bargaining agreements, which have written on it all the pay rates, employee benefits, and hours of working and so on. Incentives, leaves, refreshments were implemented to encourage and motivate the employees, which increased the overall productivity.

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Research aim

The aim of the research is to know about the impact of motivation on the job performance of the employees of the Hilton hotels, and the way it is bringing customer satisfaction.

Research Objectives

  • To identify the factors influencing employee motivation
  • To analyse the process in which Hilton hotel motivates its employees for enhancing job performance.
  • To evaluate critically the impact of motivation on the job performance of the employees in the context of Hilton Hotel, UK
  • To provide the recommendation to enhance the job performance through effective motivational strategies for Hilton hotel

Research questions

  • What are the factors influencing employee motivation?
  • How the Hilton hotel motivates its employees?
  • What are the impacts of motivation on the job performance of the employees of Hilton hotel?
  • How to enhance the job performance through effective motivational strategies?

Significance of the Study

The significance of this research lies in the fact that it will help to know about the ways every employee in the Hilton hotels are motivated, that as a result increase their productivity. The study will also help to understand the relationship between the motivation and the job performance. It will further help other researchers to get an idea about the customer satisfaction, and its dependency on the service of the employees.

Structure of the dissertation

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Chapter 3: Research Methodology

Chapter 4: Data analysis and findings

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation

Figure 1.1: Structure of dissertation

(Source: Researcher)

Summary

The Hilton hotels have established its name and position in the market. The reason behind its success lies in the services it provides to the customers. However, the employees, who are always motivated by the manager for their work, are providing the services. The researcher in this study has outlined the aims of the study. The researcher has also framed questions that have helped to know the way motivation enhances the job performance.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.0Introduction

The business of the hotel industry is developing every day, fulfilling the ever-changing demands of the customers. The satisfaction of the customer is the key to the success of the organisation; that comes from the behaviour and attitudes of the employees. That is why the employees need to be encouraged to work harder.

Conceptual framework

Employee Motivation

Factors-

Empowerment,

Significance- These help the

incentives, recognition

employees to work efficiently, to

achieve the organisational goals.

Job performance

Significance-

Good

job

Factors- Team work, work

ambience, tools and resources

performance

brings

recognition

and rewards. Poor

performance

Impact of employee motivation

on job performance

Encourage to work hard, and efficiently

Lack of motivation, decreases the willingness to work

Figure 2.1 Conceptual Framework

(Source: Researcher)

Employee motivation

Concept of employee motivation

Employee motivation, as the term suggests is the strategy or process by which an employee can be motivated by the seniors. However, the motivation can be given in the form of inspiring and encouraging words, or it can be given through incentives, rewards for their hard works. According to Shahzadi et al. (2014, p.569), sometimes, leaves, refreshments also create a good impact on the effectiveness of the work of the employees. These motivations, work as a wonder, providing energy, creativity, enthusiasm to work more efficiently. They become more committed to their works, bringing success to the organisation, even at the time of shrinking.

Significance of the employee motivation

In every organisation, side by side with customers, the satisfaction and happiness of the employees remain the key factor in bringing growth to the organisation. According to Dysvik and Kuvaas (2013, p.430), the employees if are not treated well by the managers, the employees might not feel the urge to work. This can lead them to leave the job. The efficient employees thus are encouraged by monetary incentives or other rewards. Similarly, the inefficient, unskilled employees are also motivated through encouraging words, training programmes, and so on. Insulting or demotivating them can create a bad impact on the mind, working style of the employee. This can also lead to the bad name and reputation of the organisation, or the manager. However, as per Korschun et al. (2014, p.22), the managers are also well aware of the fact, that no two people will be motivated by the same motivational strategies. That is why, the driving factors that motivate each of the employees are found out by the managers. Some might get motivated by rewards, recognition, like ‘employee of the month' or incentives, and some might prefer more time to spend with their family and friends. The managers, for the latter kind of people, implement programs that give ample time to spend with the family members, include various leaves and so on. Sometimes, a friendly and relaxed environment in the workplace is also desirable. As per the view of Pinder (2014, p.45), the employees when, are acknowledged for their correct and honest work, it as a human nature, makes them feel good. Similarly, for their errors, the managers rectify them and help them to do their work more effectively. Their feedbacks and complaints regarding the work environment or the behaviour of the seniors also help the managers to find out the reasons behind the de motivation of the employees.

Factors that affect motivation

Various factors affect motivation resulting in the effective work of the employees.

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Empowerment: The human resources are best utilised through empowerment; the ability to take one's decisions. The employees when to feel that they are important to the organisation, and their opinions, viewpoints are necessary for the decisions makings; they are then been empowered. As argued by Dwivedula et al. (2017, p.610), if they are ignored, or their opinions are not given importance, it can discourage them. Empowered employees, can put their best efforts to the work, giving best and innovative ideas. They feel more committed towards their work, with a sense of responsibility.

Teamwork: The entire organisation is viewed as a team, therefore when one employee fails at a job, the entire organisation fails, to provide the collective effort of the success. In a team of employees, when few of the employees are lazy, involve in politics, or are engaged in bullying the hard working ones, it affects the entire team negatively. However, when one member works with dedication, it motivates the other employees as well.

Continuous training: As per Cao et al. (2013, p.172), every employee is not well trained and knowledgeable in their respective fields. Instead of discouraging them, they are provided with motivating words, and various training programmes. This will help to improve them, and will also help to gather knowledge that is not known to them.

Rewards and recognition programmes: Employees work for their monetary gain this is one of the driving forces that keep the employees perform. Therefore, when they are introduced to rewards, recognitions, or any other non-monetary materials, they are encouraged to work more, efficiently.

Herzberg’s motivation theory

The employee motivation that enhances the job performance can be best explained by the motivation theory of Herzberg. It depends on two factors, namely the hygiene factors and the motivator factors.

Hygiene factors: As per Smith and Shields (2013, p.192), these factors include salaries, wages, and good relationships with the co-workers, seniors, the quality of the supervision, job safety and security, the condition and culture of the workplace, and the maintaining balance between work and family life. These factors, not necessarily motivate the employees, but their absence makes the employee lose their interest in their job.

Motivator factors: These factors highly motivate the employees and include the factors like personal achievement, recognition like ‘employee of the week’, sense of responsibility,

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promotion, growth in the workplace and so on. As per Malik and Naeem (2013, 45), these provide job satisfaction to the employees that make them to their work more effectively. They feel their importance in the workplace and thus become more committed to their work.

Hygiene factors

Motivator

factors

  • Salaries, wages, relationships with the co-workers, quality of the supervision, job

security, culture of the workplace, maintaining balance between work and family life

  • personal

achievement, recognitions, sense of responsibility, promotion, growth in the workplace

Figure 2.2: Herzberg’s motivation theory

(Source: Smith and Shields 2013, p.192)

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

The reason behind the need of motivation to the employees can also be explained with the help of Hierarchy of needs theory, propagated by Abraham Maslow. It is represented by a pyramid where the most basic needs of any individual are put at the bottom, and this includes the physiological needs.

Physiological needs: It includes the basic needs of every human being; like food, water, clothes, shelter. No individual can survive without these needs.

Safety: As per the view of Cao et al. (2013, p.177), after the physiological needs are met, they then seek for safety and security. This security includes financial security, safety from natural calamities, safety in terms of health and well-being. This is the reason; they opt for job or save money for financial security, or build facilities that will help from natural disasters.

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Belonging-love: The next need is the presence of close and dear ones, like family, friends or spouse.

Self-esteem: The former three needs only help to live a life; however, to live with dignity is the key to a happy and successful life. That is why people need recognition, respect in their workplace and family. Their achievements are what make them live a life with respect.

Self-actualization: According to Datta (2014, p,455), every human being is born with certain talents, however very few of them can actually realise their true potentials. Self-actualization is the need that a person needs to pursue their talent, to fulfil their inner desires.

Self-actualization

Self-esteem

Belonging-love

Safety

Physiological needs

Figure 2.3: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

(Source: Cao et al. 2013, p.177)

Job performance

Concept of job performance

Job performance is the result of the hard work one is putting in their everyday job. The employee if is not giving their best, it affects their job performance negatively. It does not let them improve their work, which as a result does not let the organisation grow. Similarly, as per the view of Dane and Brummel (2014, p.107), if the employee is working very hard, giving their best to their allocated jobs, it is creating a good impact on the job performance of the employee. The overall job performance does not only imply the growth and position of the employee in the organisation, but it also helps the business to grow.

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Significance of job performance

Job performance signifies how well an employee works in an organisation. The good performance leads to the growth of the organisation and bad performance leads to the poor development of the organisation. However, performance is not same as the outcome. The performance of the employee is how they have understood their job, and are fulfilling them. They might not be well trained or knowledgeable, but how they have learnt the skill of their job is what matters here. As per Judge et al. (2013, p.456), the performance also depends on the internal factors, like their enthusiasm, their willingness to do the job, their attitudes and behaviour. However, other external forces, also work here, like the work culture, the co-workers, and the supervision of the seniors. The work environment, if is filled with dirty politics, it diverts the attention of the employee. These affect the hard working employee, which makes them lose their efficiency, degrading their job performance. The employees when do not get the due credit for their hard work, they get discouraged, and it makes them lose interest in their work. As per the view of Korschun et al. (2014, p.32), this thus affects their working process, which does not bring out the best from them. The manager when finds out that the productivity of the employees are decreasing, they therefore introduce various training programmes, motivational strategies to encourage the employees, and help them do their job efficiently.

Factors affecting job performance

The people in the higher position in the hotel industry when finding out that the employees are putting their best efforts to their allocated jobs, or are lacking some required skills; they then introduce various training skills and motivational programmes. As per Judge et al. (2013, p.56), this then encourages the employees to work harder and more efficiently, meeting the needs of the organisational goals. However, before implementing these programmes, the reasons behind their poor job performance have to be identified. There are many factors that affect the job performance and they are as follows-

Skills and knowledge: Sometimes it might happen that the employees do not possess the required skill or knowledge that is required for the said job. They, therefore, find it difficult to do their job properly, and it takes a lot of time to understand the actual job. Their inefficiency does not let them excel in the workplace, and this, as a result, affects the entire organisation. Clarification of the job role: Many employees are not quite aware of their job roles; they are not able to understand their roles and responsibilities towards their job, either due to their lack of

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skills and knowledge or due to their disinterest in the job. They then do not get the motivation to work further.

Work ambience: The work culture is very important for the employees because when a positive and friendly environment is made in the office, it eases the employee providing them confidence and willingness to work harder. Whereas, as commented by Amann and Borrmann (2016, p.2365), a negative ambience, where the employees are engaged in politics, criticising and manipulating others, there the attention and interest to work get oozes out. Attitudes of the employee: The performance of the job depends on the willingness of the employee to work. The employees, if they are not interested in learning and growing, their performance will never improve.

Tools and resources: Incentives, rewards, recognitions have an effect on the performance of the employees, as the various tools and resources motivate them to work harder. This acts as energy boosters that motivate them, to work harder.

Contingency theory of action and job performance

In the 1950’s, Contingency theory was propagated, to understand the needs or the interests that the make the employees perform their job roles efficiently. These interests can be grouped under the following.

Individual needs: It is the desires of the employees that need to be satisfied for their effective working in the workplace. These needs include the vision for one's life, values, viewpoints, abilities to excel in the workplace, talents, career life, and so on; if these are not properly fulfilled in an employee's' life, it discourages them to work in life.

Job demands: In a job, every employee with their ability and honest work wants to hold a position of respect and authority. That is why they are to meet the needs of the organisation; their job demands them to complete the allocated tasks efficiently on time.

Organisational environment: As per Mom et al. (2015, p.150), their job roles enable them to create a name in the organisation, which can be best achieved in a positive and relaxed work environment. These three interest areas when overlap with each other, the ‘best fit area' is attained where the employee's performance improve.

Contingency theory of action and job performance

Figure 2.4: Contingency theory of action and job performance

(Source: Mom et al. 2015, p.135)

Campbell’s theory of job performance

Campbell along with some other researchers propagated a theory to measure the performance of the employees. The behaviour and the action of the employees that are measured helps to meet the organisational goals. These performances are multidimensional and these dimensions include the following actions.

Declarative knowledge: As per Bal et al. (2015, p.127), it is the knowledge that employees ought to have regarding their jobs and the job roles. For instance the facts, principles, goals of the allocated job, of the organisation and so on.

Procedural knowledge: One applies the inborn skills while doing their jobs, like the psychomotor skill, physical skills, and the skills to manage their jobs. Their skills to interact with the co-workers are also included here. These two kinds of knowledge depend on the ability, personality, experience, education of the employees, and that is why these vary from person to person.

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Motivation: These are the actions followed by the self-interest to work, and giving efforts accordingly. The employees if does not choose to perform well, it will affect their performance.

Declarative knowledge

  • facts, principles, goals of the allocated job, of the organisation

Procedural knowledge

  • psychomotor skill, physical skills, the skills to manage their jobs

Motivation

Figure 2.5: Campbell’s theory of job performance

(Source: Bal et al. 2015, p.130)

Impact of motivation on job performance

As per Wang et al. (2014, p.7), motivation is therefore directly proportional to the job performance of the employees; when the motivation increases the performance improves. Similarly, when the motivation diminishes, the job performance also gets poorer. Motivation is the force that drives the employees to work with care, perfection and efficiency. It is the psychological and physiological needs that one requires working in order to achieve the organisational goals. These elements of motivation are dependent on each other. For instance, physiological and psychological needs include basic food, water, respect among the dear ones, and desire for progress. The needs let the employees work in an efficient manner. The goals like incentives, recognition and so on are achieved after the efficient work is done. These elements have been discussed by the hierarchy of needs theory propagated by Maslow.

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However, as per Fu and Deshpande (2014, p.342), it has been seen that in a work environment not everyone gets the same amount of motivation. The employees, who give their best, are rewarded with bonus, incentives, which on the other hand demotivate the employees who have not yet shown their potentials. They have not get the needed encouragement from the managers, either due to any office politics or due to their inability to show their true talents in the work ambience. This, as a result, discourages them, and the enthusiasm to work better gets diminished in the process. As per the Herzberg's theory, it has been seen that the hygiene factors like salaries, work culture, the balance between work and family life and so on, motivates the employees and as result, they enhance their performance.

However, it has been criticised by Cohen and Olsen (2015, p.1178) that these factors do not necessarily motivate the employees every time. It is because no two employees are of same nature, and therefore their requirement needs also vary. One might get happy with the bonus they are getting for their jobs, however, it might not satisfy the needs of the others. Others may desire for leaves to spend quality time with their family and friends. Therefore, the factors that motivate the employees, vary from person to person. Since the motivational factors vary, the performance also varies as a result. For instance, the employee who will be happy getting a leave, might not be motivated by just mere bonus. Then whether the employee will be able to work efficiently or not is a matter of concern. Perhaps, a holiday or a relaxing time with the family members can only help them to work with more effort.

The managers, therefore try to find out the needs and desires of the employees, in order to motivate them individually. The jobs are designed as per the skills and education of the employee. As commented by Christina et al. (2014, p.165), The employees are not given those roles and responsibilities that they are not being able to fulfil, reducing their stress at the job place. The stress or extra pressure if are reduced by the managers, it will enable the employees to work with ease and ability. They, thus get time to improve their skills and knowledge, causing lesser mistakes at the workplace. This, gradually makes them excel in their work, enhancing their overall job performance. However, it is not possible for the managers to look after the individual needs and desires. The old employees are replaced by the new ones in the organisation, which makes it very laborious to keep a track of everyone's demands. That is why to implement the motivational factors, keeping in mind the individual desires become difficult.

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As per Dalal et al. (2014, p.1397), the motivation given to the employees, puts an impact on the job performance of the employees, both positively and negatively. The positive impacts being the enthusiasm to work more efficiently, so as to bring success to the organisation. However, when motivation is given to only one section of employees, it impacts the other employees negatively. This even sometimes makes them question their own potentials, and makes them think that they are not eligible enough to gain this motivation. This creates an impact on their level of confidence.

Sometimes, as commented by Amann and Borrmann (2016, p.2365), the employees get demotivated due to the negative, unfriendly environment. The colleagues are often found to be the source of strength and energy, but if the co-workers are not friendly and supportive enough, it makes the employee lose interest in work. They do not get a proper companion with whom they can share their problems of work. The seniors or the people in authority are found to be dominating, or not helpful enough to ease the tension at the workplace. Sharing personal and professional problems help the employees to do their job effectively.

Challenges of motivation on the performance of the employees

The people in authority in the workplace implements different strategies and methods to encourage the employees, however, they find it difficult to understand every desires and need of them individually. At that time, motivation becomes challenging for the authority to exercise on the employees. Some other factors that work as a challenge of motivation are as follows-Change of the workforce: In a workplace, old employees leave the job, while new employees are recruited. However, as argued by Mostafa et al. (2015, p.750), it is quite impossible for the managers to track and record the different needs of the different employees. Every individual possesses different behavioural attitude, viewpoints, interest towards work; therefore this causes a hindrance to the motivational strategies.

The varied desire of motivation: In a team, there can be two employees with same skills and abilities, still their choices of motivation can differ. One, on the other hand, bonus, incentives are what attract the other, can desire recognition. As per Barrick et al. (2015, p.112), an employee who will be happy getting extra money, might not bother or get excited with recognition, appreciation.

Performance-based motivations: In many organisations, employees are motivated as per their level of performance. There, the motivation is dependent on the performance of the employee.

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For instance, an employee who have shown great performance due to their hard work and skills, are eligible to get incentives, bonus, other rewards. As per the view of Kultalahti and Liisa (2014, p.570), this further encourages them. On the other hand, an employee who is weak at performing due to lack of knowledge or guidance, are not allowed to get any rewards. They are then disheartened, and the willingness to work are decreased in them.

In this case, it can be seen that the employee who has shown remarkable progress may have taken the help of illicit acts or help, or are manipulating the seniors. Sometimes, due to these performance-based motivations, the weak ones are often seen to be fired by the managers, which make them lose their confidence, questioning their potentials.

Change of needs: As argued by Perry and Vandenabeele (2015, p.693), it has been seen that the needs of the employees keep changing with time. Their need to work in the workplace keeps evolving, with the passage of time. For instance, an employee who used to work extra hours, to complete extra jobs in order to achieve extra benefits and bonus, they have been found that their needs have now changed to extra leaves in order to spend time with their family. This, therefore, becomes difficult for the managers to keep up with the ever-changing needs of the employees, in order to provide them motivation. It has also been seen, that when these changing needs are not fulfilled, they do not get motivated, which further decrease the quality of their job.

Fear of failure: There are some employees, who in spite of having all the necessary skills, are always scared to fail. The loss of success is also perceived as failures by them which does not let them improve or work with efficiency. That is why none of the motivations helps them to excel in their performance.

Gap of literature

The present research finds out the various factors that motivate an employee to work efficiently in an organisation. The motivation provided to them improves their productivity, resulting in the success of the organisation. This research has been done to determine the internal and external forces that imply the performance of the employees. However due to insufficient data and some manipulated information, made the researcher unable to link the motivation with employee performance appropriately, and it thus created a gap of literature, that needs to be fulfilled.

Conclusion

This chapter explained the terms employee motivation and job performance, and the relationship between them. The factors that affect both the motivation and work performance have been

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discussed along with the theories that best describe their relationship. The motivational factors when are understood by the managers, they can then use various motivational strategies to enhance employee productivity.

Chapter 3: Research methodology

Introduction

In this chapter, different methods and techniques have been used to successfully conduct this research. The various tools and techniques have been adopted to understand the impact of employee motivation on their job performance. In order to successfully understand the factors that motivate the employees of the Hilton hotels, the researcher used these methods.

Research Onion

One method that the researcher used to successfully complete this research is the research onion, which has six layers like the philosophies, strategies, techniques and so on. As per Saunders etal. (2009, p.52), every layer of the research onion further describes the inner stages with more details. This research onion and its stages helped to move towards the outcome of the research finding how the employee motivations help to improve the job performance.

Research Onion

Figure 3.1: Research Onion

(Source: Saunders et al. 2009, p.53)

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Research philosophy

In every research work, the researcher to identify the accurate outcomes of the research uses philosophies. As per Zou and Sunindijo (2015, p.210), these are the set of beliefs, assumptions or knowledge that help the researcher to complete the research work in a significant manner. However, the results can vary as per the goals of the research. There are different kinds of research philosophies, which are as follows.

Interpretivism: It opposes the positive approach of any research work, where the viewpoint of reality ‘interpreted’ and constructed by the idea of the people.

Positivism: The research is based on data and statistics, which gives validity and objectivity to the research.

Realism: As per the view of Morris (2015, p.60), the realism philosophy is the idea that is independent of the reality from the mind of the humans. The realism is again subdivided into direct and critical.

The researcher for this research, have used the positivism philosophy in order to understand how the employees of Hilton hotels are being motivated, which further helps them to enhance their job performance. The interpretivism and positivism both are time-consuming, and in a way, it will not help to gain the actual outcome of the research. On the other hand, positivism is based on the data and the statistics that are found out by the survey, preparing questionnaires. These questions are filled up, to finally understand the impact of motivation on the job performance of the employees.

Research Approach

The two approaches that are mostly used for all the research works include the following. Deductive: This approach is implemented to test or make a hypothesis on the theory that has already been existing. The researcher studies the previous existing theories, and then tests the hypotheses that take place from those theories.

Inductive: It is the emergence of new theories, from all the available data. The data are also sometimes based on the understanding and experience of the researcher.

In this research work, the deductive approach is most suitable, as it helps to gather all the relevant information in the given short span of time. The data that have been acquired through the existing theories helped the researcher to make the final outcome regarding the impact of

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employee motivation on their job performance. According to the researcher, the deductive approach helped to carry out the research effectively, that too on time. This thus created a positive impact on the research work.

Research Design

There are different kinds of research designs that are used for an effective research work. These research designs are used to explain the topic of the research that has been chosen for analysis.

The different research designs are as follows – Explanatory: It attempts to connect the variables in a research work by the researcher that helps to find out the cause and effect of the observed phenomenon. As per Marshall and Rossman (2014, p.455), the findings that are found in the research work, helps to explain why the issue happened, and the way it can be solved.

Descriptive: The descriptive design helps to find out the answers to the problems relating to what, when, where, who and how of the research. However, as per Weigold et al. (2013, p.51), this design does not answer to the why the problem took place. It answers the status of the phenomenon.

Exploratory: This design is used at that time when no other or very research has taken place before. According to Chen and Zhang (2014, p.319), the exploratory research, therefore, helps to explore for the future investigation or research work.

The researcher has used the descriptive design here, which has gone through a detailed analysis. The analysis of the employee motivation was required to find out the overall performance of the employees. The explanatory design was discarded as it was time-consuming, whereas the exploratory design would not have helped much the researcher. That is why, in the given limited time, descriptive design helped to understand the phenomenon in a systematic manner.

Research Strategy

Research strategies are the systematic strategies or actions that are planned to be undertaken, in order to find the best and accurate results of the research. As per Lewis (2015, p.456), these strategies are made as per the thought process and efforts the researcher have put to carry out the research work. The different research strategies include interviews, surveys using the questionnaires. The researcher for this research has used the survey using questionnaires

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strategy, where the respondents have been given a set of questions that helped the researcher in the short time span, to find out the impact of motivation on their job performance.

Data collection methods

In a research work, the data collection method holds the pivotal role, as it helps the researcher to gather information regarding the research work. According to Kratochwill et al. (2013, p.30), there are primary and secondary data collection methods; where secondary data collection is based on the findings or research that have been done previously; for instance other journals, or research paper and so on. In this research, the primary data collection method has been used, where normally the quantitative and qualitative data are used. However, the help of quantitative data collection has been taken, where the researcher directly from the respondents will record the quantity or the number of information.

As asserted by Peters et al. (2013, p.6752), the qualitative data are based on the percentages that are outcomes of the human observation, focus groups and case studies; it becomes very time consuming for the researcher. The quantitative data are the outcome of the surveys using questionnaires that can be printed on paper and distributed personally or can be uploaded on the social media websites and so on. In this case, the set of questions have been uploaded on the website of the Hilton hotels that will be easy for the respondents to answer at their own ease.

3.6.1 Data collection techniques and tools

There are different techniques and tools for the collection of data. For instance the quantitative and the qualitative techniques are applied in the research depending on its nature. As criticised by Marshall et al. (2013, p.16), the qualitative data collection involves an individual interview in depth, observing the human behaviour, it becomes both time and money consuming. That is why the quantitative data collection process have been chosen, that involves a personal interview, either through telephone, mail, web or through surveys using questionnaires. The survey using questionnaires have been used in this case, that helps to find out different kinds of data, that even increases the quality of data.

The set of 15 questions has been uploaded on the website of the Hilton hotels since this technique is cost effective. It has also saved time, putting no pressure on the respondents to answer the questions. However, there are certain disadvantages too, like some left midway in answering the questions, and some are dishonest in answering them.

Sample size and sampling method

27

As per Vittinghoff and Neilands (2015, p.1130), the determination of the sample size is done based on choosing of few respondents, from a large number of population. Their responses helped to make the statistical sample or inferences for a large number of populations.

Many respondents have answered the set of questions that was uploaded on the official website of the Hilton hotels. However, some of them did not complete the survey, and some gave dishonest answers; among them, 150 employees have been selected as the population, who completed the questionnaire survey. Thus, from those 150 participants, 61 employees have been chosen as the core sample size, through probability sampling method. Their responses have helped the researcher to find out the impact of motivation on the performances of the employees. The responses of these 61 employee samples have been taken to make the final outcome about the entire staff members of the Hilton hotels. The kind of motivational strategies implemented by the manager of the hotel, their impact on the job performances, and ability to provide customer satisfaction, have been inferred through this sampling method.

Data analysis

As per Wright et al. (2016, p.2234), the data collected through the survey using questionnaires, are then analysed to find out solutions to the problems and provide a conclusion. This analysis is done through statistical analysis and inferential analysis. As per Gelman et al. (2014, p.36), statistical analysis involves the collection and scrutinising the data to represent them in tables or charts, bar diagrams, to find out the statistics. The inferential analysis is based on the inferences made studying the sample sizes. Here the statistical analysis has been used, converting the data to percentages, to give error free results.

Ethical consideration

The data regarding the impact of employee motivation on the job performances are not used for any commercial purpose. The set of questions that have been answered by the 61 employee samples have been used in a proper and ethical manner. The information has not been manipulated, or no other illegal ways have been used to gather the information. The personal information or the identity of the employees has not been disclosed in this process, as per the Data Protection Act 1998 (legislation.gov.uk, 2017). Besides, no respondents have been forced to answer the questions; as there was voluntary participation.

Timeline

28

Gantt chart has been used to determine the time used for the completion of the research work in an effective manner.

(Refer to Appendix 1)

Summary

The researcher has used the deductive approach, positivism philosophy, descriptive design to carry out this research work. The primary method has been used for the data collection by doing a survey using questionnaires that helped to find out the impact of motivation on the performances of the employees. Finally, statistical analysis, based on the 61 employee samples helped to represent the outcome in bar diagrams.

29

Chapter 4: Data analysis and findings

4.0 Introduction

In this part of the research work, the researcher has set certain questions related to the topic of research. These answers by the sample size was taken have helped to gather the varied information regarding the job performance influenced by motivation. Accordingly, the conclusions have been made regarding the topic.

4.1 Quantitative analysis

Conducting survey using questionnaires for the employee's’ response

Q 1) What is your gender?

Options

Response percentage

Number

of

Total respondents

respondents

Male

50.81%

31

61

Female

49.18%

30

61

Table 4.1: Gender

Findings and analysis:

From this finding of the research, it is seen that the percentage of male respondents is 50.81% that is greater than the female respondents. The percentage of female respondents in this survey is 49.18%

Q 2) In which age category do you belong?

Options

Response

Number

of

Total respondents

percentage

respondents

16-20 years

18%

11

61

21-25 years

19.67%

12

61

26-35 years

24.59%

15

61

36-45 years

21.31%

13

61

Above 45 years

16.39%

10

61

Table 4.2: Age group

31

Response percentage

30%

25%

20%

15%

10%

Response percentage

5%

0%

16-20 years

21-25 years 26-35 years 36-45 years

Above 45

years

Figure 4.2: Age Group

Findings and analysis:

It has been seen that 24.59% of the total respondents belong to the age groups varying between 26-35 years. Similarly, the lowest percentage; that is 16.39% of the total respondents belongs to the age group of 45 years and above.

Q 3) For how long have you been associated with the Hilton hotels?

Options

Response percentage

Number

of

Total respondents

respondents

Less than 6 months

14.75%

9

61

Between 6 months

16.39%

10

61

and 1 year

1 - 2 years

26.22%

16

61

2 - 5 years

22.95%

14

61

More than 5 years

19.67%

12

61

Table 4.3: Time period of association

Response percentage

30.00%

25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

10.00%

Response percentage

5.00%

0.00%

Less than 6 Between 6 1 - 2 years 2 - 5 years More than 5

months months and years

1 year

Figure 4.3: Time period of association

Findings and analysis:

From the above table, it is observed that 26.22% of the total respondents are associated with the Hilton hotels for a time period between 1 to 2 years. On the other hand, 14.75% of the 61 employee samples are working for Hilton hotels for less than 6 months.

Q 4) How far do you agree that motivation improves the job performance?

Options

Response percentage

Number

of

Total respondents

respondents

Strongly agree

37.70%

23

61

Agree

32.78%

20

61

Neutral

4.91%

3

61

Disagree

14.75%

9

61

Strongly disagree

9.83%

6

61

Table 4.4: Perception of motivation on job performance

Response percentage

40.00%

35.00%

30.00%

25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

Response percentage

10.00%

5.00%

0.00%

Strongly

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly

agree

disagree

Figure 4.4: Perception of motivation on job performance

Findings and analysis:

From the above findings, it has been seen that 37.70% of the total respondents strongly agree that motivation improves the job performance of the employees at the Hilton hotels. However, 9.83% of the 61 employee samples strongly disagree, and 4.91% of the total respondents are neutral about this issue.

From the literature review, it has been observed that motivation is what drives the employees towards effective working. The employees, if are not appreciated for their hard work, it will discourage them, and as a result, they will lose the will to work more.

34

Q 5) How far are you satisfied with the motivational strategies implemented in the Hilton hotels?

Options

Response percentage

Number

of

Total respondents

respondents

Strongly satisfied

13.11%

8

61

Satisfied

14.75%

9

61

Moderately satisfied

14.75%

9

61

Dissatisfied

22.95%

14

61

Strongly dissatisfied

34.42%

21

61

Table 4.5: Level of satisfaction with the motivational strategies

Response percentage

40.00%

35.00%

30.00%

25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

Response percentage

10.00%

5.00%

0.00%

Strongly

Satisfied

Moderately

Dissatisfied

Strongly

satisfied

satisfied

dissatisfied

Figure 4.5: Level of satisfaction with the motivational strategies

Findings and analysis:

35

From the above table, it can be seen that 34.42% of the total number of respondents are strongly dissatisfied with the motivational strategies implemented at the Hilton hotels. However, 13.11% employees of the total respondents are strongly satisfied with the various motivational strategies. From the literature review section, the researcher finds out that motivation is needed in every organisation. The employees are always in a stress to complete their allocated job, in the most efficient manner, in order to achieve the maximum customer satisfaction. However, not every hotel industries maintain this, which as a result demotivate the employees. The enthusiasm to work harder fades away in this process. In the Hilton hotel too, more than half of the employees are dissatisfied with the motivational strategies implemented. Since, the level and kind of motivations vary from person to person, here also around 13.11% of the total respondents are strongly satisfied with the motivational strategies.

Q 6) What are the factors that motivate you towards effective work performance?

Options

Response percentage

Number

of

Total respondents

respondents

Incentives, bonus

32.78%

20

61

Empowerment

14.75%

9

61

Leaves

13.11%

8

61

Recognition

19.67%

12

61

Teamwork

19.67%

12

61

Table 4.6: Factors that motivate towards effective work performance

Response percentage

35.00%

30.00%

25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

10.00%

Response percentage

5.00%

0.00%

Figure 4.6: Factors that motivate towards effective work performance

Findings and analysis:

Therefore, through the survey, it is known that incentives, bonus motivates around 32.78% employees of the total respondents, followed by recognition and teamwork. Whereas, leaves motivate just 13.11% of the total respondents.

The different kinds of motivations include incentives, bonus, leaves, recognitions, training programmes and so on. Since the desire and needs of the employees vary from one another, these motivational strategies also work differently to them For some, incentives are desirable and for some leaves are necessary. In the Hilton hotel, most people get motivated due to the incentives and bonus that are provided to them for their hard work.

Q 7) What are the factors that hinder effective work performance?

Options

Response percentage

Number

of

Total respondents

respondents

Poor

skills

and

16.39%

10

61

knowledge

Job role not clear to

14.75%

9

61

the employees

Work ambience

18.03%

11

61

Attitude

of

the

32.78%

20

61

supervisors

Lack of motivation

18.03%

11

61

Table 4.7: Factors that hinder effective work performance

Response percentage

35.00%

30.00%

25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

Response percentage

10.00%

5.00%

0.00%

Poor skills

Job role not

Work

Attitude of

Lack of

and

clear to the

ambience

the

motivation

knowledge

employees

supervisors

Figure 4.7: Factors that hinder effective work performance

Findings and analysis:

38

The attitude of the supervisors, as per 32.78% of the total respondents plays a role in affecting the job performance. Their attitude, if is found non-friendly or dominating, can hinder the job performance of the employees of the Hilton hotels. On the other hand, 14.75% of the total respondents feel that when the job role is not clear to the employees, it affects their job performance.

In the workplace there are various factors that demotivate the employees, resulting from their poor job performance. These include the negative work culture, the attitude of the seniors and co-workers, lack of proper training skills and so on. The job performance is mainly affected by the lack of proper skills and the required knowledge. However, in spite of having the necessary skills, some are unable to show effective performance. Probably, they are demotivated in the work environment or are not liking the attitude of the co-workers. In the Hilton hotel, it can be said, that the employees are not being able to give 100% to their job due to the attitudes of the supervisors.

Q 8) How far do you agree that training helps in improving the job performance?

Options

Response percentage

Number

of

Total respondents

respondents

Strongly agree

32.78%

20

61

Agree

31.14%

19

61

Neutral

3.27%

2

61

Disagree

21.31%

13

61

Strongly disagree

11:47%

7

61

Table 4.8: Perception on the improvement of the job performance through training

Response percentage

35.00%

30.00%

25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

Response percentage

10.00%

5.00%

0.00%

Strongly

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly

agree

disagree

Figure 4.8: Perception on the improvement of the job performance through training

Findings and analysis:

From the table it is observed that about 32.78% of the total respondents strongly agree that training improve the job performance in the Hilton hotels. However, 3.2% are neutral regarding this matter and 11.47% strongly disagree that training is important for the improvement.

Proper training helps to improve the employability skills; therefore lack of knowledge and required skills can affect the job performance. In the Hilton hotels, most people strongly agree that training is required for the effective job performance.

Q 9) How far are you satisfied with the work environment of Hilton Hotels?

Options

Response percentage

Number

of

Total respondents

respondents

Strongly satisfied

18.03%

11

61

Satisfied

16.39%

10

61

Neutral

4.91%

3

61

Dissatisfied

26.22%

16

61

Strongly dissatisfied

34.42%

21

61

Table 4.9: Level of satisfaction with the work environment at the Hilton hotels

35.00%

30.00%

25.00%

20.00%

34.42%

15.00%

26.22%

10.00%

18.03%

16.39%

5.00%

4.91%

0.00%

Strongly

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Strongly

satisfied

dissatisfied

Figure 4.9: Level of satisfaction with the work environment at the Hilton hotels

Findings and analysis:

The work environment at the Hilton hotels is not that suitable for the employees, where they can enhance their work performance. The table shows that 34.42% of the total respondents are strongly satisfied with the work ambience at Hilton hotels. On the other hand, 3% of the employees are neutral and 18.03% of the employee samples are strongly satisfied with the work environment.

Work environment if is negative, no employee will feel the urge to work. Their effective work will decrease with the graduation of time. Safety and security in the work environment, friendly peers, motivating seniors, constitute a positive work environment. The employees in the Hilton hotels are, however, strongly dissatisfied with the work ambience.

41

Q 10) What are the recommendations for Hilton hotels in the context of improving motivation?

Options

Response percentage

Number

of

Total respondents

respondents

Free refreshments

26.22%

16

61

Training

18.03%

11

61

programmes

Weekly rewards and

14.75%

9

61

bonus

Number of leaves

26.22%

16

61

Choice of working

14.75%

9

61

hours

Table 4.10: Recommendations for Hilton hotels in context of improving motivation

42

14.75%

26.22%

Free refreshments

Training programmes

Weekly rewards and bonus

26.22%

Number of leaves

18.03%

14.75%

Choice of working hours

Figure 4.10 Recommendations for Hilton hotels in context of improving motivation Findings and Analysis: Through the survey, it has been known that the employees want free refreshments, training programmes to improve their skills, more leaves and so on, in order to improve their job performance. 26.22% of the total respondents demand free refreshments, and another 26.22% employees of the 61 employee samples demand number of leaves. These will motivate and encourage them to work more efficiently. Moreover, they find very less time to spend with their families that is why more leaves are desirable by them. Choice of working hours and weekly rewards and bonus are desired by the other respondents.

The managers in many hotel industries take care of the needs of the employees. They try to implement motivational strategies as per their desires. From this survey, it is known that most numbers of employees of the Hilton hotels want free refreshments and increased number of leaves as part of their motivational strategies. This is then followed by training programmes, weekly bonus and flexible working hours.

Q 11) Are you satisfied with the overall job security at Hilton hotel?

Options

Response

Number

of

Total respondents

percentage

respondents

Strongly satisfied

18%

11

61

Satisfied

16.39%

10

61

Neutral

14.75%

9

61

Dissatisfied

24.59%

15

61

Strongly dissatisfied

26.22%

16

61

Table 4.11: Level of satisfaction with the job security at the Hilton hotels

30%

25%

20%

15%

24.59%

26.22%

10%

18%

16.39%

14.75%

5%

0%

Strongly

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Strongly

satisfied

dissatisfied

Figure 4.11: Level of satisfaction with the job security at the Hilton hotels

Findings and analysis:

It is seen from the above table that 26.22% of the total respondents, who participated in this survey are strongly dissatisfied with the overall job security at the Hilton hotels. On the other hand, 18% of the total respondents are strongly satisfied with the job security, while 14.75% are neutral about this issue of job security.

In the literature review part, it was observed that job security is one factor in a job that attracts the employees. Everyone works to secure their position, both financially and socially. However,

44

if there is less job security at a place, it is natural that employees would be scared to work there. They will be in constant fear of either getting replaced or terminated. Therefore, when the employees feel there is a strong job security, they start working with more ease and sincerity; enhancing their job performance.

Q 12) How far are you satisfied with the number of paid leave offered by the Hilton hotels?

Options

Response

Number

of

Total respondents

percentage

respondents

Strongly satisfied

14.75%

9

61

Satisfied

16.39%

10

61

Neutral

4.91%

3

61

Dissatisfied

32.78%

20

61

Strongly dissatisfied

31.14%

19

61

Table 4.12: Level of satisfaction with the paid leave at the Hilton hotels

45

Sales

14.75%

31.14%

16.39%

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

4.91%

Neutral

32.78%

Dissatisfied

Strongly dissatisfied

Figure 4.12: Level of satisfaction with the paid leave at the Hilton hotels

Findings and analysis:

From the above findings, it is seen that around 32.78% of the total respondents are dissatisfied with the paid leaves that are provided to the employees at the Hilton hotels. It can be also seen that 31.14% are strongly dissatisfied while 14.75% of the total respondents are strongly satisfied with the number of paid leaves given to them.

From the literature review, it has been found out that motivations vary from person to person. Some are satisfied with the leaves they are being offered, and some become happy when they get the bonus or incentives for their hard work. This is the reason, 14.75% of the total respondents are strongly satisfied with the number of leaves given to them. It can be because they become happier with the recognitions or incentives that are offered to them. Similarly, the 31.14% of the respondents, who are strongly dissatisfied with the number of leaves given to them, do need more leaves to spend and relax with their friends and family.

Q 13) How far you satisfied with the healthcare benefits offered by the Hilton hotels?

Options

Response

Number

of

Total respondents

percentage

respondents

Strongly satisfied

24.59%

15

61

Satisfied

26.22%

16

61

Neutral

6.55%

4

61

Dissatisfied

22.95%

14

61

Strongly dissatisfied

19.67%

12

61

Table 4.13: Level of satisfaction with the health care benefits at the Hilton hotels

30.00%

25.00%

20.00%

15.00%

26.22%

24.59%

22.95%

19.67%

10.00%

5.00%

6.55%

0.00%

Strongly

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Strongly

satisfied

dissatisfied

Figure 4.13: Level of satisfaction with the health care benefits at the Hilton hotels

Findings and analysis:

From the above table it has been found that the 26.22% of the total respondents are satisfied with the health care benefits provided to them at the Hilton hotels. However, 19.67% of the total respondents are strongly dissatisfied and 6.55% are neutral about the health care benefits.

The health care benefits are very vital for any organisation. This attracts the employees, as this gives the employees the satisfaction that even if any accident or risk takes place, the organisation will provide benefits. Any employee if suddenly is being diagnosed with a disease; the

47

medicines, or the cost of the hospitals will be undertaken by the organisation. However, some employees are not that bothered with this issue, and that is why 6.55% of the total respondents are neutral regarding this. Similarly, the 19.67% of the respondents are strongly dissatisfied with the healthcare benefits, as these are not meeting their needs. However, 24.59% of the total respondents are strongly satisfied with the benefits given at the Hilton hotels.

Q 14) Are you satisfied with working relationship with your co-workers and seniors?

Options

Response

Number

of

Total respondents

percentage

respondents

Strongly satisfied

18%

11

61

Satisfied

19.67%

12

61

Neutral

6.55%

4

61

Dissatisfied

29.50%

18

61

Strongly dissatisfied

26.22%

16

61

Table 4.14: Level of satisfaction with the working relationship with the others

30%

25%

20%

29.50%

15%

26.22%

10%

18%

19.67%

5%

6.55%

0%

Strongly

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Strongly

satisfied

dissatisfied

Figure 4.14: Level of satisfaction with the working relationship with the others

Findings and analysis:

From the above table, it can be seen that the 29.50% of the 61 employee samples are dissatisfied with the relationships they have with their co-workers and seniors. On the other hand, 18% of the total respondents are strongly satisfied with the kind of relationship they share with their colleagues and seniors. However, for the 6.55% of the 61 employee samples, it does not matter whether they have a good relationship with their co-workers or not.

In the literature review part, it was seen that the co-workers and the attitude of the supervisors play a major role in motivating the employees. The colleagues, if are not friendly or co-operating enough, chances are the job performance of the employees will decrease. The weakness, problems one face at the workplace needs to be shared with the colleagues so that they can be solved together. However, if the co-workers are mean, and are engaged in politics and manipulation, this will then discourage the employees. The seniors too, if are unfriendly and dominating, this then makes the employee demotivated and their willingness to work harder diminishes.

Q 15) Are you satisfied with the training programmes that Hilton hotels offer?

49

Options

Response

Number

of

Total respondents

percentage

respondents

Strongly satisfied

16.39%

10

61

Satisfied

22.95%

14

61

Neutral

8.19%

5

61

Dissatisfied

24.59%

15

61

Strongly dissatisfied

27.86%

17

61

Table 4.15: Level of satisfaction with the training programmes at Hilton hotels

16.39%

27.86%

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

22.95%

Dissatisfied

Strongly dissatisfied

24.59%

8.19%

Figure 4.15: Level of satisfaction with the training programmes at Hilton hotels

Findings and analysis:

From the above table, it is seen that 27.86% of the total respondents are strongly dissatisfied with the kind of training programmes that are given to the employees at the Hilton hotels. However,

50

16.39% of the 61 employee samples, are strongly satisfied and 8.19% are neutral about the training programmes.

In the literature review section, it was seen that training programmes that are given to the employees are vital for their job performance. The employees, who are weak at learning things, or are not knowledgeable enough to do their jobs efficiently; for them, training programmes play an important role. Continuous training is also needed that improves the work quality of the employees. However, these motivational programmes are also needed for their encouragement. The weak ones, if are judged or mistreated based on their low skills and knowledge, it will make disinterested in their work. Motivation and continuous encouragement through words and cooperative behaviour are desirable in every organisation. It can be therefore said, that most of the employees of the Hilton hotels are not at all satisfied with the training programmes given to them.

4.2 Summary

The researcher has found out through this survey that more men than women have responded to this set of questions. The respondents mostly belong to the age group of 26-45. The work ambience creates a major impact on the job performance of the employees, besides poor skills and attitude of the supervisors. However, if regular training programmes are implemented, besides, free refreshments and incentives, this will encourage them to work harder

51

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation

Conclusion

The literature review helped to acquire the knowledge regarding the impact of motivation on the job performance. It has been observed that employee motivation is required for the overall effective performance. The factors that motivate the employees include empowerment that enables them to take decisions as a part of the hotel industry. This way they feel their decisions are being given importance. Teamwork, coordination with the colleagues helps them to express their viewpoints that ease the tension of the employees at the workplace. Continuous training programmes are implemented for improving the skills of the employees. They can be further motivated by incentives, recognitions, and so on. Besides, to enhance the job performance, the employees also need to be clear about their job roles. The employees, if are not clear of their work, it will lead them nowhere. As a result, their performance will not improve, decreasing the overall productivity of the organisation.

The data analysis chapter helped to find out that the employees of the Hilton hotel feel motivation is important for encouragement and motivation. However, the motivational strategies implemented in the hotel are not up to the mark. Therefore, most of the employees are not satisfied with these. Most of them think that incentives and bonus are the factors that motivate them towards effective working. On the other hand, the behaviour of the seniors, the work culture is what affects the job performance most. The supervisors of the Hilton hotels are probably not friendly or cooperating enough to ease out the tension in the workplace. Most employees are not satisfied with the work ambience at the Hilton hotels. Some employees are quite weak in their performance, they thus prefer training programmes to learn and improve their skills. After doing this survey, it has been learnt that the employees desire for free refreshments, number of leaves, weekly rewards, which as a result will motivate them towards effective work. Job security is the priority for the majority of the employees; besides health care benefits. The training programmes, already in use at the Hilton hotels, are not quite satisfactory; therefore it is recommended to be improved.

Objective linking

52

Objective 1: This object has been linked with the literature review section, where the factors influencing employee motivation have been discussed. This objective has also been linked with the questions 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 of the data analysis chapter. Most employees of the Hilton hotels think that motivation is required for effective working. However, the employees of the hotel are not that pleased with the motivational strategies implemented in the hotel. Therefore they want incentives, weekly bonus, leaves, and recognition and so on in order to provide effective performance.

Objective 2: This objective has been linked with the section of the literature review, where challenges of motivation that affects the job performance have been discussed. However, the process Hilton hotel motivates its employees are linked with the data analysis questions 5, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. The strategies that are implemented by the Hilton hotel to motivate its employees include paid leaves, healthcare benefits, and training programmes and so on. However, the strategies are not quite satisfactory to motivate the employees, enhancing their performance.

Objective 3: This objective has been fulfilled in the factors that affect job performance part of the literature review section. The data analysis questions that fulfil this objective include questions 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15. The various motivations like health care benefits, paid leaves, incentives, work environment impacts the job performance of the employees of the Hilton hotels; both positively and negatively. For instance, the employees are happy with the health care benefits but are not satisfied with the work environment at the hotel. Objective 4: The object 4 has been linked with the significance and factors of both employee motivation and job satisfaction, in the literature review part. Similarly, it also fulfils the data analysis question 10 that provides recommendations like free refreshments, weekly incentives and so on to enhance the job performance by implementing these strategies.

Recommendations

The issues that have been identified from the data analysis chapter, it is recommended that Hilton hotels put emphasis on their motivational strategies. The teamwork and the equation among the employees need to be improved. Since there is a lack of coordination, and the seniors have been found to be dominating and unfriendly, it constantly creates a conflict among the employees.

53

The work environment in the Hilton hotels is not satisfactory, which needs to be evolved, by creating a free and relaxing environment. The people indulged in politics must be identified and warned. The job security is important for the employees; therefore they need to be assured that their position and promotion solely depends on their performance. Manipulation and politics should be avoided. However, there are employees who are either untrained or are a slow learner. It is recommended that they are not to be criticised or made fun of. Instead, better training programmes can improve their skills. Encouragement for their small contributions can motivate them to work harder.

Research limitation

The research could have been done in a better manner; however, with the restricted time, the research was not being able to do in an elaborated manner. Besides, due to constricted budget, the researcher could not buy journals and books for further research work that was necessary for gaining knowledge for the literature review. The limited time span also restricted to take a large number of samples that would have otherwise given better results.

Future scope of study

This research has been done with care and perfection, with the limited time and money available. The data are not manipulated by the researchers, and the best possible ways have been used to complete this research effectively on time. Therefore, this research work can be used in the future by other researchers, which they can use as the secondary source to collect data and information. A comparative study can also be made with other organisations, using this research work.

54

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58

Appendices

Appendix 1

Main

Week 1

Week 2

Week 9

Week 15

Week

Week 23

Week 26

activities

and

to 9

to 15

to 20

20 23

to 25

stages

Selection

of

Ø

the topic

Collection

of

Ø

data

Planning

the

Ø

Ø

proper layout

Reviewing

Ø

literature

Development

Ø

of research

plan

Selecting

Ø

Ø

Ø

research

technique

Gathering

Ø

Ø

primary data

Data analysis

Ø

Ø

Interpretation

Ø

of findings

Conclusion

Ø

preparation

Project rough

Ø

overdraft

Final

Ø

submission

Appendix 2

Quantitative data analysis

Name:

Location:

Contact No.: Email ID:

Dear participant,

You are sincerely required to complete the questionnaire to the best of your knowledge and belief. Your responses are extremely important for this survey and of great help. I assure you that your personal details and response will be confidential.

Your participation is solemnly solicited.

Q 1) What is your gender?

Options

Male

Female

Q 2) In which age category do you belong?

Options

16-20 years

21-25 years

26-35 years

36-45 years

Q 3) For how long have you been associated with the Hilton hotels?

60

Options

Less than 6 months

Between 6 months and 1 year

1 - 2 years

2 - 5 years

More than 5 years

Q 4) How far do you agree that motivation improves the job performance? Options

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Q 5) How far are you satisfied with the motivational strategies implemented in the Hilton hotels?

Options

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Moderately satisfied

61

Dissatisfied

Strongly dissatisfied

Q 6) What are the factors that motivate you towards effective work performance? Options

Incentives, bonus

Empowerment

Leaves

Recognition

Teamwork

Q 7) What are the factors that hinder effective work performance?

Options

Poor skills and knowledge

Job role not clear to the employees

Work ambience

Attitude of the supervisors

Lack of motivation

Q 8) How far do you agree that training helps in improving the job performance? Options

Strongly agree

62

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Q 9) How far are you satisfied with the work environment of Hilton Hotels? Options

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Strongly dissatisfied

Q 10) What are the recommendations for Hilton hotels in the context of improving motivation?

Options

Free refreshments

Training programmes

Weekly rewards and

bonus

Number of leaves

Choice of working hours

63

Q 11) Are you satisfied with the overall job security at Hilton hotel?

Options

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Strongly dissatisfied

Q 12) How far are you satisfied with the number of paid leave offered by the Hilton hotels? Options

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Strongly dissatisfied

Q 13) How far you satisfied with the healthcare benefits offered by the Hilton hotels?

64

Options

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Strongly dissatisfied

Q 14) Are you satisfied with working relationship with your co-workers and seniors? Options

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Strongly dissatisfied

Q 15) Are you satisfied with the training programmes that Hilton hotels offer?

65

Options

Strongly satisfied

Satisfied

Neutral

Dissatisfied

Strongly dissatisfied

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