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HLTWHS002 Follow safe work practices for direct client care

Assessment Type: Underpinning Knowledge/Questions and case study

Assessment 1 Underpinning knowledge questions

Instruction to Students:

Answer the questions below in the spaces text box provided.

Ensure all references are documented under each individual question.

Answers are to be typed or for written submissions, use black or blue ink and ensure your name is attached to the responses.

Question 1:

Following workplace policies and procedures for safe work practices (PC 1.1)

1. What are the responsibilities of the following people with regards to ensuring that the appropriate health and safety needs of the work group are maintained?

The director of a community service organisation

- Gain an understanding of the operations of the business and the hazards and risks involved

- Should acquire and keep the knowledge of the work health and safety matter up to date

- Should be ensure about the resources and processes are provided to enable hazards to be identified and risks to be eliminated

- Should ensure the information regarding incidents, hazards and risks is received and the information is responded appropriately in a time.

- Should ensure the PCBU has implemented the processes for complying with any legal duty or obligation

- Should ensure whether the processes are verified, monitored and reviewed or not.

The manager

- Should take all reasonable care to prevent injuries or illness occurring at workplace.

- Should help injured worker to get appropriate medical treatment to get back him to work.

- Should be able to resolve any health and safety related issues as soon as possible.

The worker

- He/she must take reasonable care for their own health and safety.

- He/she should also take care of health and safety of other employees in the workplace.

- He/she should comply with any reasonable instructions, policies and procedure given by their employer or other PCBU of the workplace.

WHS framework components

  1. Describe the following in a brief summary:
  1. WHS regulations.

Answer: WHS stands for Work, Health and Safety. Work, health and safety laws aim to protect the health, safety and welfare of people, workers, visitors and others. WHS laws provides the roles and responsibilities of the organizations and the workers working in the organizations. WHs act of 2011 provides a nationally consistent framework to protect the health, safety and welfare of all workers at work and of all other people who might be affected by the work. WHS regulation provides detailed administrative requirements to support the duties in the WHS Act. Example: it provides requiring licenses for specific activities and keeping records.

b. Codes of practice.

Answer: Codes of practice provides practical guidance for people who have work health and safety duties. A model code of practice must be approved as a code of practice to have legal effect in a jurisdiction. Code of practice applies to anyone who have responsibilities of care and safety in the circumstances mentioned in the code. Codes of practice deal with particular issues but do not cover all the hazards and risks which may arise at any time and place. So, other than people who are holding regulations and codes of practice, all the duty holders who have health and safety duties should consider all the risks that are associated with the work. The codes provide the guidance on:

a) How to achieve the standards required under the Act.

b) Effective ways to identify and manage risks.

c. Australian standards.

Answer: safe work Australia publishes nationally agreed standards and code of practices. This standard sets out the principles for the effective management of hazardous manual tasks to avert musculoskeletal disorders arising from manual tasks in the workplace. The objectives of this national standard to prevent the occurrence of injury or reduce the severity of injuries from manual handling tasks in workplaces. According to the Act of WHC 2011, the main objective was to provide for a balanced and nationally consistent framework to secure the health and safety of workers and work place.

d. Guidelines.

Answer: The guidelines support the legislation where it is appropriate and refers to it. This guidance can be specific to the health and safety problems of an industry or of a particular process used in a number of industries. The guidelines can be constantly changed according to the situations. The guidelines provide case studies that illustrates the solutions that have proven to be successful elsewhere and also include tools according to the needs of organization. The ultimate aim of the guidelines is to prevent injury or illness to people working in the community. It helps worker to understand responsibilities of health and safety and also provide practical support to improve the work in the work place.

Question 2:

Identify existing and potential hazards in the workplace, report them to designated persons, and record them according to workplace procedures(PC1.2)

  1. Write down the definitions of ‘hazard’ and ‘risk’

a. Risk:

Answer: Risk is the likelihood of a hazard causing injury, illness or damage. Risk can be in any places of work. So, risk management should be done in order to minimize the injuries or illness. Risk can be accidents caused due to careless driving, fall due to wet floor or no lights on stairs, burn and allergies due to chemical exposure and many others. Risk management is a systematic process of identifying hazards in the workplace. Moreover, the process includes identifying any hazard, assessing the risk from the hazard, eliminating the hazard and evaluating, monitoring and reviewing the risks measure. A risk management is important because it protect the workers and business as well as complying with law. The risk policies provide information about:

- Legislative requirements

- Responsibilities

- Steps in the risk management

- Implementing risk management

a. Hazard:

Answer: Hazard is a situation in the workplace that has the potential to harm a person. There are mainly two types of hazards. They are:

a) Health hazards: it includes – workplace violence

- increased workload

- repetitive tasks

- manual handling

- behavior management

Health hazards cause measurable changes in the body like decreased pulmonary functions. Employees who are exposed to the hazards like shortness of breath, subjective feeling must be explained of both change in the function of body and signs and symptoms that may arise to signal that change.

b) Safety hazards: it includes- slippery floor

- chemicals

- faulty electrical plugs

- heat/cold

- poorly maintained equipment

Safety hazards are objects or situations that place in harm’s way. To avoid hazards from the workplace, identifying and addressing the hazards are the main components. These hazards are the most common in the workplace which are presents at one time or other that cause unsafe conditions.

Read the following case study and answer to the questions.

Case study

Dr Briggs who has gone home has told his assistants they can leave early providing they complete all their duties. Emma who feels intimidated by Tatiana rushes through her tasks so that they can both leave together. She quickly washes the dirty instruments without using heavy duty gloves because Tatiana is telling her to hurry up. She removes a needle from the syringe and places it on the sink because the sharps container is in the surgery, bags the instruments straight from being washed, goes to turn the autoclave on and notices that the electric socket where the autoclave plugs in seems a bit loose. Unsure whether to turn it on or not, she decides she should ring Dr Briggs and let him know. She can hear Tatiana saying she’ll lock the door on her if she doesn’t come now.

The incident

As Emma rushed to get her bag she slipped on water spilt from washing the instruments and broke her wrist. Tatiana tells her she’s sure that it is only a sprain and she should have someone bandage it for her when she gets home. Because she is in so much pain, Emma forgets about ringing Dr Briggs. Tatiana, who sees that Emma has not turned on the autoclave, efficiently flicks the switch. That night fire breaks out in the practice and it was ascertained by investigators that the fire originated from a faulty switch where the autoclave was plugged in.

2. What are the main hazards you can identify from the above case study?

Answer: The main hazards are:

a) Slippery floor due to split of water while washing the instruments.

b) Loose autoclave plugs

c) Open placing of needle on the sink

d) No use of gloves

3. What information could you use to identify the risks?

Answer: As Emma was in a rush, she washed the instrument without using gloves and kept the washed instruments without drying it so the water was all over the floor. She also placed the needle on the sink instead disposing it in a disposal bag and left the loose autoclave unmaintained. These hazards caused Emma with broken wrist and fire in the workplace.

Question 3:

Identifying behaviours of concern, report them to designated persons (PC1.3)

Case study 1

You are working with a four-year-old boy who is autistic. You are doing some exercises with him that his teacher has asked you to practise with him. You are in the room on your own with the child. He is having fun – you both are. Then he sees your pen. He grabs it. He becomes fixated on it – you have forgotten the speech pathologist’s warning that he is particularly obsessive about certain objects. You try to take it away so that you can get on with what you are supposed to be doing. He begins to scream. He throws his body around. He lunges repeatedly at you.

Describe the process of planning your response to each situation. Include the following in your answers:

Who is involved?

Safety issues.

What you might do in the immediate situation to prevent further escalation.

Where you might seek support.

What you might do to maximise your own safety.

Your responsibility.

Answer: A four-year-old boy who is an autistic child is involved.

Safety issues related with the case are

- throwing of body which cause both the care taker and the boy with injury

- Grabbing of pen, tip of pen can cause injury to the eye, skin

Prevention needed to the immediate situation of further escalation are:

- Keeping the boy in safe place away from any injuries causing furniture and objects in the room.

- Reassuring him polite words

- Giving him some time to relax and to cool down.

- Listening him what he says.

- Making him comfortable in the room.

To seek support, I will consult with:

- his family member.

- His speech pathologist.

- The person with whom he is comfortable and is friendly.

For own safety:

- I won’t touch the body or disturb him any activity.

- I will keep the sharp objects away from him.

- I will get support with the supervisor or the associate person in the work place.

My responsibility:

- Report to the senior.

- Inform to his parents.

Question 4:

Follow workplace policies and procedures to minimise risk (PC1.4)

Read the case study and write down your answer to the question.

1. In your workplace, or while you are on work experience, ask to see the organisation’s policy on Workplace Health and Safety. List below (do not copy out) three procedures explained in the policy, e.g.: fire safety procedures. If you cannot access such a policy, ask your lecturer/facilitator to provide you with one.

Answer: the list of three procedures explained in the policy are:

a) Medical emergency procedures: Clients in the work place may get injuries, may severe fall and can get stroke. So, the work place should ensure of having first-aid kit and the training to all the client in the work place.

b) Fire safety procedures. Fire can occur in any time due to unknown hazards. We should the safety precautions to minimize risk. If the work place is caught by fire, we should be aware of fire alarm, the sign showing the emergency exit and make sure of being danger free.

c) Bomb threat: It is not so common but should be aware of it. An unknown person of group may put bomb in the work place and cause serious injuries and damage to the work place. In that case we should report to the supervisor and get help with the emergency support.

Safety signs

2. For each of the following safety signs, identify the hazard you are being warned about.

It is the safety sigh of showing First aid.

Chemical exposure which can cause burn and other injuries.

It is a sign showing for the toxic hazards.

Material safety data sheets

3. Make a list of the safety signs that are in your workplace and note the hazard they are identifying.

Answer: the safety signs are:

a) No smoking sigh: gives waring of no smoke in a specific zone

b) Watch your steps sign: wet floor

c) Danger chemical storage signs: chemical exposure

d) Beware of vehicles sign: accident and injuries

Question 5:

Identifying and reporting incidents and injuries to designated persons according to workplace procedures(PC1.5)

Case Study:

You have commenced your shift in the aged care facility that you work in. You are about to enter the bedroom of Mr. Smith to collect his tea cup and plate as he has recently had afternoon tea in his bedroom. Mr. Smith spends most of his day in his bed. Unfortunately, Mr. Smith was unable to get a strong grip on his tea cup and as a result he knocked his cup against the water jug which spilled from the bed-table, down onto the side of the bed and onto the floor. The floor is very slippery and you have identified a potential hazard. You took the required steps to take action to contain the damage and have cleaned up the affected area. Now you must report the hazard. Using the attached hazard report form and following workplace procedures you must report the hazard to the designated personnel. For assessment purposes the designated personnel is your assessor. You are to complete an incident reporting form that is used in your organization when reporting an incident.

Complete the incident report on the following page.

Worksite: Bedroom

Date of incident: 10th October 2017

Time of incident: 2 PM

AM PM

Family Name of injured person: Smith

o Supplier

o Administrative staff

o Student

o Client

o Visitor

o Contractor

o Other (please

specify:

Given Name/s: Mr. Smith

Telephone contact number:

Home:

Business:


Mobile:

Staff ID number (where applicable):

Date of Birth:

Home address:

State/Territory: Postcode:

Sex:

MALE: Yes FEMALE

Nature of severest injury (enter a number in the box):

01. Fracture 05. Burn/Scald 09. Dental injury 13. Shock

02. Dislocation 06. Crushing 10. Overuse/RSI 14. Concussion

03. Strain/Sprain 07. Amputation 11. Bite/Sting 15. Eye injury

04. Laceration/Cut 08. Bruising 12. Physiological 16. Head injury

OTHER (please specify):

Part of body most severely injured (enter a number in the box):

01. Head 08. Back 15. Genitals

02. Throat 09. Collarbone/shoulder 16. Buttocks

03. Teeth 10. Trunk (chest) 17. Leg (hip, thigh, knee, ankle)

04. Nose 11. Abdomen 18. Foot (toes)

05. Ears 12. Arm (wrist/elbow/forearm) 19. Psychological system

06. Eyes 13. Hand (fingers/thumb) 20. Voice

07. Neck 14. Pelvis 21. Multiple locations

OTHER (please specify):

Cause of incident (enter a number in the box)

NOTE: for deliberate acts of assault, use number 19 not number 1.

01. Hit/injured by another person 09. Power tool 17. Thermal exposure

02. Hit/injured by object 10. Insect/animal 18. Overuse/RSI

03. Hit object 11. Explosion exposure 19. Physical harassment

04. Lifting/moving object 12. Electric shock 20. Physical abuse

05. Lifting/moving (person) 13. Fire 21. Verbal harassment

06. Reaching/Stretching/Bending 14. Collapse of structure 22. Verbal abuse

07. Slip/fall 15. Exposure to noise 23. Work pressure/s

08. Hand tool 16. Exposure to chemical/substance 24. Psychological

OTHER (please specify): slippery floor

Place that incident occurred (enter a number in the box)

01. Ward 06. Bathroom 11. Path/walkway

02. Kitchen 07. Laundry 12. Grassed area

03. Stores 08. Pharmacy 13. Steps/stairs

04. Cafeteria 09. Maintenance 14. Laboratory

05. Toilet 10. Hallway 15. Radiology

OTHER (please specify if location is not on the list above): Bedroom

Treatment of injury (enter a number in the box)

01. First Aid (returned to work) 05. Sent to emergency department

02. First Aid (sent home) 06. Fatal injury

03. Medical treatment (sent to doctor)

04. Dental treatment (sent to dentist)

OTHER (please specify):

Person/s witnessing the incident: (please complete FULL details for each witness, attach additional sheet if required)

Witness 1:

Name:

Address:

Telephone contact number/s:

Details of the incident: when Mr. smith was handing a tea cup and in a while he left the grip of a cup and knocked down to the water jug which lead to the water to spill over the floor. Wet floor can cause into fall of Mr. Smith and other staff in the care taker.

If insufficient space here, please attach additional sheet/s. Please be as detailed and specific as possible, and state the facts exactly as you saw them.

What was the activity at the time the incident occurred?

What happened?

What factors, if any, contributed to the incident?

Action/s taken for injured person:

If insufficient space here, please attach additional sheet/s. Please be as detailed and specific as possible.

Attention given/action taken:

By whom was it given?

Action/s taken to prevent recurrence of incident:

To be completed by Manager.

Attention given/action taken:

This incident report was completed by:

(Your signature) (Name Printed)

(Date)

Question 6:

Identifying manual handling hazards and report in line with workplace procedures (PC2.2)

Scenario 1:

Mrs Shelly is a frail elderly woman who suffers severe joint pain when she moves. Because it is so painful getting in and out of bed, she has a bed bath and stays in bed all of the time. Mrs Shelly requires two carers to change her position in bed every two hours.

Describe the hazard/s in the above scenarios.

Answer: Mrs. Shelly is frail elderly woman who has sever joint pain and needs two caretakers to change her position of sleeping in the bed. So, the each and every activity in handling must be done with proper care and should be according to the training. The hazards associated with it is mobility of the body like bending, transferring. They are hazards because they may cause back strain to the caretaker and with a simple mistake on changing the position of client can also cause severe pain.

Question 7:

Applying control measures for minimising manual handling risk (PC2.3)

Read the case study and then complete the tasks that follow.

Case study

Michael is a support worker. He is folding a client’s washing. The washing to be folded is on a table in front of Michael. As he folds each piece of clothing, he has to twist to place it on the ironing board.

1. Describe the risks associated with this task.

Answer: Due his work he may get his muscles to be tired and twisted. Injuries may occur from the repetitive actions. Risk associated with it are twisting of wrist, muscles crumb, tearing of muscles and other injuries related to the muscles.

2. List two control measures that could be used to prevent the risk of injury.

Answer: two control measures are:

a) Risk identification, risk assessment and risk control

b) Training of manual handling of the task in the work place.

Question 8:

Following standard precautions as part of own work routine to prevent the spread of infection (PC3.1)

1. Define standard precautions.

Answer: Standard precautions are the minimum precaution to prevent or control the transmission of diseases that must be with all the patients to use in all situations. The precautions are used to prevent the diseases that can be transmitted by the contact with infected blood, body fluids, mucous membrane and non-intact skin. The standard precautions that are used in daily basis are:

d) Hand hygiene: It is a major component of standard precautions. It is performed by hand rubbing or hand washing with soap and water.

e) Use of PPE: the use of personal protective equipment(PPE) should be guided by risk assessment and the extent of contact anticipated with blood and body fluids or pathogens. PPE includes gloves, mask, apron and other. They help to prevent direct or indirect contact with the infected person.

f) Appropriate handling of laundry

g) Appropriate handling of devices

h) Incorporation of respiratory hygiene

the use of personal protective equipment(PPE) should be guided by risk assessment and the extent of contact anticipated with blood and body fluids or pathogens. PPE includes gloves, mask, apron and other. They help to prevent direct or indirect contact with the infected person which controls the transmission of diseases.

2. What is the difference between direct and indirect contact transmission?

Answer: The differences between direct and indirect contact transmissions are

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Direct contact transmission

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Indirect contact transmissions

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It occurs when there is physical contact with the infected person.

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It occurs when there is direct no physical contact but with the contact of used contaminated materials by the infected person.

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It is spread by passing of diseases causing pathogens from the infected person to the normal and healthy person by direct physical contact with blood of body fluids.

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It is spread when the infected person sneezes, cough or talks in which droplets with infectious agents remain in the air and the air is inhaled by the other person.

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Contact can be sexual intercourse, contact with oral secretions, touching, kissing, contact with body lesions.

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Droplets with infectious agents can be anywhere like in telephones, ATM key pad, doorknobs, tables, buses which remains for long time and if the person touches these areas and touch their eyes, nose or mouth then the infection can easily occur in another person.

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Examples of diseases cause by direct contact are: HIV, Hepatitis A and B, gonorrhea.

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Examples of diseases caused by indirect contact are chickenpox, flu, common cold, etc.

3. What standard precautions does an aged care worker need to use when transporting a client?

Answer: Standard precautions used by an aged care worker when transporting a client are:

i) Following hand hygiene before and after contact with patient.

j) Proper use of personal protective equipment which includes gloves, plastic aprons, mask, face shields, eye protection, gowns.

k) The safe use and disposable of sharp things.

Question 9:

Identifying risks of infection and report them according to workplace procedures (PC3.4)

1. List the six (6) elements required for infection to occur.

Answer: six elements required for infection to occur are:

a) Infectious agent

b) Reservoir

c) Portal of exit

d) Transmission

e) Portal of entry

f) Susceptible host

2. Name three (3) types of organisms which can cause infection.

Answer: Three types of organisms which can cause infection are:

a) Viruses example: rhinovirus, coronavirus, adenovirus, etc.

b) Bacteria example: cocci, bacilli, spirilla or spirochetes.

c) Fungus

3. Describe the conditions that encourage the growth of pathogens.

Answer: The conditions that encourages the growth of pathogens are:

a) Food: The microorganism needs nutrients for the growth. So, they rely on foods rich in proteins and carbohydrates like meats, dairy and eggs.

b) Acidity: The acid/ acidified food should require pH level of 4.5 or below. pH level is the measurement of how acidic or alkaline something is.

c) Time: time and favorable environmental conditions are the main things for the growth of pathogens. They can double their number within 20 minutes. The food should be removed either by cooling or heating from the danger zone within two to four hours. If the time range goes high i.e. more than four hours, the pathogens can be high enough to take life of a person.

d) Temperature: Under favorable temperature and time, pathogens multiplies its number and can certain death of a person. These pathogens grow in temperature at between 40 F to 141 F. So, increasing the temperature at 70 to 104 F does not totally kill the pathogens but slows the growth number of pathogens.

e) Oxygen: There are millions number of pathogens causing infection. Some of them need oxygen to grow but some of them do not need. Botulism is one of them who does not need oxygen to multiply its number.

f) Moisture: Moisture in the form of water is essential for the pathogens to grow. Like before, some of them need moisture and some they do not. Foodborne pathogens grow in the foods that have aw between 0.95 and 1.0. FDA regulations.

4. What does mode of transmission mean and how can it take place?

Answer: The method of transmission is the movement of a pathogens from a reservoir to a susceptible host. When the pathogens exist the reservoir, it needs mode of transmission to enter the portal of entry. Mode of transmission is the way how the pathogens moves from one place to another. There are two types of transmissions:

a) Contact transmission

- Direct transmission: It occurs when a pathogen is transmitted from an infected person to the normal person. Example: one who is HIV infected has open wound and when other person comes in contact with infected blood then other person can have HIV. Mites from a scabies-infested patient are transferred to the skin of a caregiver while s/he is having direct ungloved contact with the skin od the patient.

- Indirect transmission: It occurs when a pathogen is transmitted from the infected person to another through a contaminated intermediate object or person. Examples: hands of healthcare personnel may transmit pathogens after touching an infected body site or a contaminated inanimate object if they do not perform hand hygiene before touching other patients. If devices like electronic thermometers, glucose monitoring devices which are contaminated with the blood or body fluids from the infected person are shared between patients without cleaning and disinfecting may transmit pathogens.

b) Droplet transmission: respiratory droplets containing infectious pathogens can cause in fection to the normal person if the infectious pathogen comes in contact with the susceptible mucosal surfaces of the recipient over a short distance. Through sneezing, coughing or normal talks, the presented pathogens in the droplets transfer infection from one to other.

c) Airborne transmission: It occurs when the airborne droplets nuclei carrying infectious pathogens that remain a lot in the air over time and distance and encounters the person. Example: spores of Aspergillus spp, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

5. Identify three (3) ways that the chain of infection can be broken.

Answer: Three ways that to break the chain of infections are:

a) Proper use of hand washing and sanitizing techniques

b) Conducting champion on the adoption and use of effective hand hygiene guidelines

c) Carefully choosing of hand hygiene products

Question 10:

Applying additional precautions when standard precautions alone may not be sufficient to prevent transmission of infection (PC3.3)

6. When would you instigate the use of additional precautions?

Answer: I would instigate the use of additional precautions when the situation has extra risks. I would deal with the patient who has highly transmissional infection, who is suspected of carrying highly transmissible infection, who is infected with infectious agents that may not be contained by standard precautions alone and who has lowered immunity to infection.

7. List two airborne conditions that would require additional precautions.

Answer: Airborne conditions that would require additional precautions are:

a) Pulmonary tuberculosis

b) Chickenpox

8. List two conditions that may produce a droplet that would require Additional Precautions.

Answer: Two conditions that may produce a droplet that would require Additional Precautions are:

a) Influenza

b) Pertussis (whooping cough)

9. Name two ways that an aged care worker could transmit an infection through either direct, or non- direct transmission.

Answer: Two ways that an aged care worker could transmit an infection either direct, or non- direct transmissions are:

a) If the age care worker does not apply proper hand hygiene after touching the patient’s body fluids or cloths.

b) If the age care worker does not wear an apron or a mask and eye protection while doing procedures and patient care activities which are likely to generate splashes of blood, body fluids, secretions and excretions.

10. Make a list of 5 common infectious diseases that you can think of. What way are they spread?

Answer: List of 5 common infectious diseases and the ways they spread are:

Common infectious diseases

Way they spread

Flu

By droplets of the infected person which comes when infected person sneezes, coughs or talks. The droplets containing infectious agents remains in the air over a time and when other breathed the air cause the infection in that person. This is occurred in a short distance from the infected person.

Chickenpox

This disease spread when an infected person talks, cough and sneezes. Small particles called aerosols travel long distance on air and remain for longer time. When someone breathed the air containing infectious agents can get this disease. It can also spread with the mucous membrane contact with the infected person.

Tuberculosis

This is also an airborne disease which transmit from the small particles present in the air containing infectious agents. Another way of transmission is through the hereditary factor. If one in infected with TB in a family can lead to generate TB in next generation.

Scabies

This is spread directly contact of skin or mucous membrane with the infected person.

Typhoid

This disease is caused due to ingestion of contaminated water or foods with disease causing germs. It is spread by the faecal-oral route.

Question 11:

Raise WHS issues with designated persons according to organisational procedures (PC4.1)

1. Outline the obligation placed on the employer to resolve a WHS matter.

Answer: Employer have obligations under work health and safety (WHS) laws and have responsibilities to implement these obligations. A worker has a responsibility to take reasonable care of their own health and safety. Obligation placed on the employer are:

- Employer must ensure the work environment, systems of work, machinery and equipment are properly maintained and safe to use.

- They must be careful and make sure on using and handling chemicals.

- They must ensure about enough trainings, instructions are provided or not.

- They should keep their eyes on to keep the worker’s health and workplace conditions monitored.

- They must make sure of the accommodation that is provided to the worker by you are safe.

- They must look after the facilities that are provided to the workers are adequate.

2. Functions of Health and Safety Representatives(HSR)

Answer: Health and safety Representatives (HSR) are elected to represent workers in a work group on health and safety matters. They have specific power and functions under the act.

Their functions and powers are:

l) They facilitate the information about health and safety between the business and the workers.

m) HSR can direct unsafe work to stop when they have a reasonable concern about the work which would lead a worker to a serious risk.

n) They monitor the health and safety actions taken by the business, investigate workers complaints and look for the possible risk that might arouse.

o) They can also issue a Provisional Improvement Notice when they reasonably believe if there is a contravention of the WHs act.

3. Functions of Health and Safety Committees(HSC)

Answer: Health and Safety Committee is a forum where health and safety problems are identified and resolved.

Functions of HSC are:

a) It facilities co-operation between the PCBU and workers to start, develop and carry out measures to ensure the health and safety of workers.

b) Health and safety policies and procedures for the work place are assist by HSC.

c) Other functions are carried out by HSC under the regulation and agree between PCBU and HSC.

Question 12:

Participate in workplace safety meetings, inspections and consultative activities(PC4.2)

Ask your supervisor if you can attend a safety meeting or a staff meeting where a health and safety issue is to be raised. If attending a meeting is inappropriate, discuss with your supervisor a past health and safety issue that was raised and how it was resolved. Take notes on the issue and the outcome of the discussion.

Answer: In the meeting, there raised the issue of health and safety in the work place. It was the meeting for the new workers and the employers. The issue raised was about the careless of the handling the equipment in the work place. The topic also discussed about the proper disposal of the medical instruments like syringe, needles, used gloves and other waste materials. Due to the hesitation of the new worker could lead to the injuries and damage of devices were also the issues. So, according to these problems we created some of the rules and we decide to follow those rules. The rules were about giving proper training to the new workers of handing the devices and knowledge about the proper disposable of the waste materials. The waste should be disposed thrice a week instead of once a week. Each of the worker should be watched by the senior worker. Hope we get the positive response from the worker and the clients in the work place.

Question 13:

Contribute to the development and implementation of safe workplace policies and procedures in own work area (PC4.3)

Case study

Sue is a new employee in an aged care facility. On her first shift she is required to move a resident using lifting equipment which she is not familiar with. The workload is heavy with manual handling tasks and Sue is concerned about injury to herself or the resident. John is her “buddy” and is able to explain step by step the correct use of equipment during the task. Sue feels confident to ask questions and demonstrates to John what she has learnt from his instructions.

Read through the above case study, and

Identify the issues in the case study.

How could a buddy system encourage the development of the staff members WHS competency?

Answer: Sue is a new employee in the age who has no knowledge of the manual handing equipment. She struggles to lift a patient with the lifting equipment which she is not familiar with and is worried about the injuries that can happen to both resident and to herself. To solve her problem, John is giving her needed training.

A buddy system is a cooperative arrangement where individuals are teamed up and assume responsibility for each other’s welfare or safety. The buddy is a person who guides new project manager through the first weeks on the job. A buddy system encourages the new employee to share new tips, tool and knowledge he knows for the project management. A buddy in a work place also provides an opportunity to for confidential feedback about the onboarding process which is going. Generally new employees don’t have any knowledge about the using of specific equipment in the work place. They are not trained enough to handle the equipment. So, a buddy system makes sure of new employees is getting enough training to handle the materials and provides adequate time to learn with experienced one. Therefore, a buddy system plays an important role in the work place for the development of the staff members WHS competency.

Question 14:

Identify ways to maintain currency of safe work practices in regards to workplace systems, equipment and processes in own work role (PC5.1)

1. How would you describe your work environment? What are the physical elements that make it up? How might these impact health and safety?

Answer: Work environment consists of the premises, place or a location where employees perform work-related activities. It can be anywhere like nursing home, sterilizer room, hospitals, office building, construction site and others. Work environment does not only consist physical areas, but also the influenced equipment used during realization process. Nursing homes and other work place related to medicines have physical elements like chemicals, equipment to lifting up, beds, electronic devices used during minor or major surgery and many more.

Due to economic and human costs to individuals, business like increases worker turnover, decreases job satisfaction and associated decreases in worker’s heath which cause stress in a person. If there is careless use of modern equipment in the hospitals can cause health injuries which impact on health and safety of an individuals.

2. Is there any equipment, machinery or tools used in your workplace that requires training to operate? Think about some of the health risks associated with supposedly ‘safe’ technologies such as computers.

Answer: There are many equipment or machinery tools in different workplaces. And in my work place there are machinery tools like electronic beds for the patients, sensor walking sticks, device to lift up a patient, wheelchairs and other. These machinery tools need special training to operate which makes easy for the healthcare worker to use and understand. Without the knowledge if the equipment can cause injuries to both the worker and the patients.

Computers are the electronic machines present in every work places. They are useful to keep the details and records of the worker and the patients in the hospitals, nursing homes. Over use of computer and other related electronic machines can affect the eye sight and headache. Loose plugs, turning off/on with naked and wet hands can give shock to the person and cause fire in the work place.

3. How do you ensure that jobs are safe? What training needs to be undertaken to make sure that all work corresponds to protocols or legislative requirements?

Answer: We, ourselves are responsible for the safety of our life. We should have the proper knowledge of the use of equipment used in the work place. We should be able to identify the hazards in the working areas and know the way to control it.

General safety orientation for new employees, specific training on the hazards of the jobs and how to do a job safely and retraining to the employees returning from long absence or starting new jobs. These training needs to be undertaken to make sure that all the work corresponds to protocol or legislative requirements.

Question 15:

Reflect on own levels of stress and fatigue, and report to designated persons according to workplace procedures(PC5.2)

Read the following case study and answer the questions below in point form

Case study

Camilla has been working at the community services centre for seven years. She has young children, and a partner who also works long hours. Because there is a shortage of staff she has been unable to take leave owed to her for some time. Camilla always feels tired, and feels she is increasingly forgetful. She stays calm at work, but often gets irritable as soon as she walks into the house in the evenings.

In the last two months she has been sleeping poorly. For the last four years her mother-in-law has been unwell and has needed more support such as transport and shopping. This seems to take up more and more of the weekends and evenings. Although she has always got on well with her mother-in-law, Camilla is feeling heightened irritation and resentment towards her. All this has put considerable strain on Camilla's relationship with her partner.

1. If you were in a position to support and advise Camilla, what suggestions would you give her? How do you think Camilla coped?

Answer: If I were in a position to support and advice Camilla, I would suggest her to take a break and reduce her working hours. As she was doing a lot work for late hours, she is not able to gain proper rest and sleep. So, I would advise her to take some meditations hours. She should give herself break and make some holiday plans with her life-partner and spend some quality time. It might help her to get out from stress and irritation, for sure. If these advices do not work out then I would prefer her to consult with a psychiatrist. Camilla took my advice and reacted positively. These advices made her life easy and made free of stress.

Sustainability

Find five websites that offer advice and ideas about how to be environmentally sustainable in your office. List the website addresses you use.

Answer: The five websites that offer advice and ideas about how to be environmentally sustainable in office are:

1) https//www.sustanablebusinesstoolkit.com/going-green-tips-for-the-office

2) https://www.thebalance.com

3) https://nrichmedia.com/environmental/10-simple-steps-to-green-your-office

4) https://axiomworkerplaces.com.au

5) www.greenstreet.nwt.au

Assessor Checklist - Assessment 1 – Underpinning knowledge questions

The assessor needs to indicate whether they have conducted the questioning as written questions or as verbal questions by ticking the box below.

o Written Questioning

o Verbal Questioning

The assessor must provide evidence with the assessment tool. For written questions, the assessor must provide the student’s original written responses. For verbal questioning, the assessor must provide dot points as a minimum on the student’s responses.

For details on how to conduct and contextualise this form of assessment, please refer to the questioning checklist explanation in the assessor guide.

Student’s name:

Ashok Chapagain

Assessor’s name:

If questions are answered verbally, the assessor must write detailed answers in the sections provided below. The space below does not indicate the size of the answer anticipated. Keep typing and the space will expand. If answers are recorded separate to this document, they must be attached to the assessment documents.

Satisfactory response

Yes

No

1

Following workplace policies and procedures for safe work practices

2

Identify existing and potential hazards in the workplace, report them to designated persons, and record them according to workplace procedures

3

Identifying behaviours of concern, report them to designated persons

4

Follow workplace policies and procedures to minimise risk

5

Identifying and reporting incidents and injuries to designated persons according to workplace procedures

6

Identifying manual handling hazards and report in line with workplace procedures

7

Applying control measures for minimising manual handling risk

8

Following standard precautions as part of own work routine to prevent the spread of infection

9

Identifying risks of infection and report them according to workplace procedures

10

Applying additional precautions when standard precautions alone may not be sufficient to prevent transmission of infection

11

Raise WHS issues with designated persons according to organisational procedures

12

Participate in workplace safety meetings, inspections and consultative activities

13

Contribute to the development and implementation of safe workplace policies and procedures in own work area

14

Identify ways to maintain currency of safe work practices in regards to workplace systems, equipment and processes in own work role

15

Reflect on own levels of stress and fatigue, and report to designated persons according to workplace procedures

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