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HMG7100 Foundation of Public Health - Free Samples to Students

1. FLO discussion: Students are required to participate in on-line discussions through FLO (Flinders Learning Online) on subjects related to this topic. The discussions may be related to each lecture or each issue covered by this topic. Students are encouraged to bring and share with fellow students, examples and experiences from their own backgrounds and countries. FLO discussions will account for 10% of the total topic grade.
2. Major Essay: One major essay will be set during the course. Students will be asked to select one essay topic from the list of topics given in the Topic Guide.The selection of the essay topic must be done and made known to the topic coordinator by 16 August 2018. Before writing the major essay, each student should submit a concise outline of the essay to Associate Professor. Gour Dasvarma. The deadline for submitting the major essay is Tuesday 9 October 2018. The major essay will account for 30% of the topic grade.
3. Seminar presentation: Students are required to make a seminar presentation on one of the topics listed in the Topic Guide (see and submit a summary of the topic presented within one week of the presentation. The seminar topic must be chosen and ach seminar presentation should last no longer than 25 minutes.. write-up on the seminar within one week of the seminar presentation. The seminars will be assessed in terms of information gathering, PowerPoint lay out, presentation and write-up. If a seminar topic is chosen by more than one student, then all the students choosing that topic will have to make a group presentation and the overall mark for that seminar (including the presentation and the write-up) will be given to each student making the group presentation. Therefore, it will be in the interest of each student of the group to contribute equally well to the seminar and the write-up. The seminar presentation will account for 30% of the total topic grade.
4. Examination: A take-home examination will be held during the examination fortnight at the end of the semester. The date, format and content of the examination will be notified later.

Answer:

Introduction

The population of the world is increasing at an alarming rate and as a matter of fact the total population of the world currently is more than 7.6 billion (Unicef.org 2018). The population of the world is expected to increase in a substantial manner in the coming years. The current growth rate of the population of the world is 1.2%, the birth rate is 2.51 per year and the death rate of the world is only 1.09% per year (Unicef.org 2018). This can be attributed as one of the major reasons for the unprecedented rate of growth of the world population. An interesting fact to note is that the infant mortality rate in the majority of the developed nations is 1 in 1000 children whereas for the developing nations is it is more than 6 in every 1000 children (World Health Organization 2018). The high infant mortality rate in the various developing nations can be attributed to the various diseases, inadequate treatment facilities which are available to the children, the low income of the parents and others (Health.gov.il 2018). Furthermore, it can be said that the infant mortality rate has changed drastically in the various developing nations substantially over the years yet it is not on par with the ones of the various developed nations of the world (Global Citizen 2018). Socio-economic, medical, public health and nutritional factors have played important roles in the improvement of infant and child survival in developing countries and this has contributed in a significant manner to reduce the infant mortality rate. This essay will discuss about the fact that “Socio-economic, medical, public health and nutritional factors have played important roles in the improvement of infant and child survival in developing countries”.

Infant Mortality Rate

The population of the world at the current moment is ageing and this has emerged as one of the major causes of worry for the various nations of the world like Chin


a and others where it is seen that the majority of the citizens belong to the wrong side of the age (Cdc.gov 2018). This can have severe repercussions for these nations since the major economic and other kinds of growth of a particular nation is directly related to its population and more specifically to the people who belong to the younger age brackets (Liu et al. 2015). It is precisely here that the concept of infant mortality rate gains special prominence and has become a major cause of worry for the various nations of the world. The concept of infant mortality rate can be defined as the number of infants as well as children who die during the initial phases of their lives and is generally measured in terms of the 1000 number of children who are taking birth and out of them the number of children who dies (Arceo, Hanna and Oliva 2016).

The statistical information regarding the infant death rate presents a gloomy picture when a comparison between the infant mortality rates of the developing and the developed nations is undertaken. It is pertinent to note that every year more than 5 or 6 more children end up dying in the developing nations in comparison to the developed nations (Abel-Smith 2016). However, at the same time, it needs to be said that the condition has much improved in the recent years because of the access to better kind of treatment facilities and other kinds of resources in the developing nations yet there is a much need for improvement (Freedman and Maine 2018). This improvement can be brought about through the improvement of the socio-economic, medical, nutritional factors and public health services (Madhi et al. 2016). Norheim et al. (2015) hold the viewpoint that the drastic improvement in the infant mortality rate in the development nations in the recent times can be attributed to the effective integration of all these factors.

Infant Mortality Rate and Socio-economic factors  

The major difference between the developing and the developed nations of the world lies not only in the economic structure of these nations but also in terms of the social structure, medical and public health care services and others (Bailey, West Jr and Black 2015). Recent studies have shown that these factors not only determine the difference between the various nations of the world but at the same time they determine the quality of life that the citizens of these nations lead and also to a great extent the infant mortality rate (Hockenberry and Wilson 2018). One of the major reasons for the improvement of the infant mortality rate in the developing nations of the world is the improvement of the socio-economic structure of these nations (Pickett and Wilkinson 2015). It is pertinent to note that with the process of globalization and the resultant expansion of the various business enterprises of the developed nations of the world into the business markets of the developing nations the economic conditions of the developing nations of the world has improved in a substantial manner (Pickett and Wilkinson 2015). Furthermore, it is seen that developing nations had no longer to depend on the various kinds of development loans from the World Bank or for that matter from the various developed nations of the world (Data.worldbank.org 2018). This has contributed in a significant manner not only towards the improvement of the GDP of the various developing nations but also towards the amount of individual capital that the citizens of these nations have at their disposal (Samir and Lutz 2017). Moreover, with the improvement of the economic prospects the social condition or the lifestyle of the people of the developing nations has also improved in a significant.

The improvement of socio-economic condition of the people of the developing nations of the world has not only improved the quality of the lives of the individuals of these nations but at the same time has also reduced the infant mortality rate in a significant manner (Stevens et al. 2015). For example, in the earlier times, it was seen that the people of the countries because of inadequate funds and also because of their orthodox mentality used to take the help of traditional means not only for the process of child birth but also for the treatment of various kinds of diseases related to children (Patel et al. 2015). A few years back the women of these nations rarely used to visit the health care professionals or would visit the health care clinics either during the time of pregnancy or during the time of child time (Patel et al. 2015).

It was seen that even after the birth of the child, the child was not provided with the right kind of vaccines or other kind of treatment facilities that the children of developed nations normally have access (Arceo, Hanna and Oliva 2016). Instead, it was seen that the children were treated with various kinds of traditional remedial measures which rather than helping the children would used to cause them much harm (Bailey, West Jr and Black 2015). This used to claim the lives of many children in these nations and this is one of the major reasons for the high infant mortality which was a common aspect of these developing nations a few years back (Bailey, West Jr and Black 2015). However, the socio-economic growth of these nations, along with the influx of people from the various developed nations of the world into their native land drastically changed the situation as well as the lifestyle of these people (Madhi et al. 2016). The net result of this particular aspect is the fact that the women of these developing nations take the help of the diverse health care professionals and visit the health care clinics almost on a regular basis during the time of their pregnancy (Madhi et al. 2016). Furthermore, it is also witnessed that the majority of the child births takes place within the health care clinics and the hospitals rather than the home of the women like it used to happen a while back. Moreover, the infants nowadays in these nations are being provided with the right kind of vaccines and also health care professionals are consulted in case of any diseases (Arceo, Hanna and Oliva 2016). Thus, it can be said that the improvement in the socio-economic condition of these developing nations has contributed in a substantial manner towards the improvement of the infant mortality rate.

Infant Mortality Rate and medical and public health facilities

The improvement in the quality of the medical as well as the public health care services is another major reason for the substantial improvement in the infant mortality rate in the various developing nations of the world (Norheim et al. 2015). One of the best possible evidences of this particular fact is being seen in the increasing number of women who are seeking the help of the health care professionals during the times of their pregnancy and also for the treatment of their infants after their birth in the developing nations (Norheim et al. 2015). In the earlier times it was seen that numerous children and infants used to lose their life to various kinds of diseases like Diphtheria-Tetanus-Whooping cough, Haemophilus influenza, Measles-Mumps-Rubella (German measles), Varicella (chicken pox), influenza and others (World Health Organization 2018). However, in the recent times, it is seen that the infants right after their birth are provided various kinds of vaccines to help them fight against these diseases and also to develop the immunity of their body (Health.gov.il 2018).

In addition to these, in the earlier times because of the ineffective treatment facilities which were available to the women it was not possible to detect whether the would-be-mother had any kind of diseases which would be passed on the child (Health.gov.il 2018). The number of deaths of infants on the basis of this particular factor was more in the developing countries than in the developed nations. As a matter of fact, it was seen that this accounted for more than 46% of the infant deaths in the year 2016 in the various developing nations in comparison to the developed nations (World Health Organization 2018). Thus, it would be safe to say that the improvement of the medical as well as the public health services which are being provided to the women during the time of their pregnancy and also to the infants after their birth has contributed in a substantial manner to reduce the infant mortality rate.

Infant Mortality Rate and nutritional factors

Malnutrition has emerged as a major cause of worry for the various developing nations of the world and at the same time it is seen that this ends up taking the life of numerous adults as well as infants on yearly basis (Global Citizen 2018). For example, research works suggest that infants or the children in the first 6 months of their life need protein, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and other kinds of nutrition (Stevens et al. 2015). However, at the same time, it needs to be said that the food that the infants in the first 6 months of their life intake is the milk which they get from their mother (Patel et al. 2015). Furthermore, it is seen that if the mother of the children is not able to get adequate amount of nutrition then this could affect the growth of the child of the infant (Patel et al. 2015). In addition to this, health care professionals suggest that the women during the time of their pregnancy also require a high amount of nutrition so that they could pass it on to the infants (Stevens et al. 2015). This ensures that the infants are being able to have the right kind of nutrition which is essential for the proper growth of their body as well as mind. As per a statistics, more than 45% of the infants or the children are subjected to the problem of malnutrition in the various developing nations of the world (World Health Organization 2018). This not only stunts the process of their normal growth but at the same time in severe cases leads to death as well (Bailey, West Jr and Black 2015). In the recent times, it is seen that, because of the advancements that the various developing nations have made in the field of nutritional science and other genres of health care services, the infant mortality rate of these developing nations has reduced in a substantial manner (Bailey, West Jr and Black 2015). Thus, it can be said that the advancements that the various developing nations have made in the recent times in field of nutritional science has contributed in a significant manner to reduce the infant mortality rate.

Conclusion

To conclude, infant mortality rate is a major cause of worry for the various nations of the world currently and it is seen that the diverse developing nations of the world have a higher infant mortality rate than the developed nations. This can be attributed to the socio-economic conditions which are prevalent in the developing nations, the lack of medical as well as public health care services and also the problem of malnutrition. However, in the recent times, it is seen that, with the improvement of the socio-economic framework of these developing nations, advancements in the field of medical and public health care services and also nutritional sciences. Furthermore, it can be said that the cumulative effect of all these factors have contributed in a substantial manner to reduce the infant mortality rate which has been a major cause of worry for the various developing nations of the world for a very long time. This is important because of the fact that the majority of the population currently is ageing and thus the future of the planet on these children. Thus, it would be apt to say that the improvement of the socio-economic, medical, public health and nutrition have helped in the reduction of the infant mortality rate in a substantial manner.

References

Abel-Smith, B., 2016. An introduction to health: policy, planning and financing. Routledge.

Arceo, E., Hanna, R. and Oliva, P., 2016. Does the effect of pollution on infant mortality differ between developing and developed countries? Evidence from Mexico City. The Economic Journal, 126(591), pp.257-280.

Bailey, R.L., West Jr, K.P. and Black, R.E., 2015. The epidemiology of global micronutrient deficiencies. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 66(Suppl. 2), pp.22-33.

Boyden, J., 2015. Childhood and the policy makers: A comparative perspective on the globalization of childhood. In Constructing and reconstructing childhood (pp. 185-219). Routledge.

Cdc.gov. 2018. National Vital Statistics Reports. [online] Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr63/nvsr63_05.pdf [Accessed 7 Oct. 2018].

Coale, A.J. and Hoover, E.M., 2015. Population growth and economic development. Princeton University Press.

Data.worldbank.org. 2018. Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) | Data. [online] Available at: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/sp.dyn.imrt.in [Accessed 7 Oct. 2018].

Freedman, L.P. and Maine, D., 2018. Women’s mortality: A legacy of neglect. In The Health Of Women (pp. 147-170). Routledge.

Global Citizen. 2018. The Top 10 Causes of Death for Children Around the World. [online] Available at: https://www.globalcitizen.org/en/content/the-top-10-causes-of-death-for-children-around-the/ [Accessed 7 Oct. 2018].

Health.gov.il. 2018. Vaccines for Babies and Children. [online] Available at: https://www.health.gov.il/English/Topics/Pregnancy/Vaccination_of_infants/Pages/default.aspx [Accessed 7 Oct. 2018].

Hockenberry, M.J. and Wilson, D., 2018. Wong's nursing care of infants and children-E-book. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Liu, L., Oza, S., Hogan, D., Perin, J., Rudan, I., Lawn, J.E., Cousens, S., Mathers, C. and Black, R.E., 2015. Global, regional, and national causes of child mortality in 2000–13, with projections to inform post-2015 priorities: an updated systematic analysis. The Lancet, 385(9966), pp.430-440.

Madhi, S.A., Cunliffe, N.A., Steele, D., Witte, D., Kirsten, M., Louw, C., Ngwira, B., Victor, J.C., Gillard, P.H., Cheuvart, B.B. and Han, H.H., 2016. Research Article (New England Journal of Medicine) Effect of human rotavirus vaccine on severe diarrhea in African infants. Malawi Medical Journal, 28(3), pp.108-114.

Norheim, O.F., Jha, P., Admasu, K., Godal, T., Hum, R.J., Kruk, M.E., Gómez-Dantés, O., Mathers, C.D., Pan, H., Sepúlveda, J. and Suraweera, W., 2015. Avoiding 40% of the premature deaths in each country, 2010–30: review of national mortality trends to help quantify the UN Sustainable Development Goal for health. The Lancet, 385(9964), pp.239-252.

Patel, R.M., Kandefer, S., Walsh, M.C., Bell, E.F., Carlo, W.A., Laptook, A.R., Sánchez, P.J., Shankaran, S., Van Meurs, K.P., Ball, M.B. and Hale, E.C., 2015. Causes and timing of death in extremely premature infants from 2000 through 2011. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(4), pp.331-340.

Pickett, K.E. and Wilkinson, R.G., 2015. Income inequality and health: a causal review. Social science & medicine, 128, pp.316-326.

Samir, K.C. and Lutz, W., 2017. The human core of the shared socioeconomic pathways: Population scenarios by age, sex and level of education for all countries to 2100. Global Environmental Change, 42, pp.181-192.

Stevens, G.A., Bennett, J.E., Hennocq, Q., Lu, Y., De-Regil, L.M., Rogers, L., Danaei, G., Li, G., White, R.A., Flaxman, S.R. and Oehrle, S.P., 2015. Trends and mortality effects of vitamin A deficiency in children in 138 low-income and middle-income countries between 1991 and 2013: a pooled analysis of population-based surveys. The Lancet Global Health, 3(9), pp.e528-e536.

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