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HSH705 | Health Program Planning for Sexual Violence in Women

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Examine the scope in the NHS forth valley board area for providing specific HIV prevention interventions either embedded within existing services or through new initiatives programmes.

Answer:

Introduction:

This paper developed by the women health services in Australia which explore the involvement of aboriginal male for reduction of the sexual violence and gender equality against women and indigenous women in caring about their human rights. Aboriginal women face massive challenges in living their human rights. Moreover, aboriginal women experienced different forms of gender discrimination, lack of proper education and access to education, sexual abuses at home and workplaces (Wilson et al., 2017). Despite of having such issues, a majority of women in the population are reluctant to highlight such problems publically and voice against it. Consequently, women are suffering from health problems such as sexually transmitted disease, emotional distress, self-harm, teenage pregnancy, sleep disorder and suicide (Funston and Herring 2017).  Therefore, indigenous women play a massive role in preventing such violence by involving them in the process of gaining appropriate education about these essential issues and social, economic factors that influence such problems (Berns 2017).

Need assessments aim and methodology:

Aim of the study:

To address the health issues of aboriginal women experiencing due to sexual violence and gender equity and strategies a plan to reduce health issues along with the prevention of abuse.

Objective:

  •    To determine the method of appropriate care to the victims by addressing their weakness and mental health issues they are facing
  •    Legal steps to proceed with the implementation plan to reduce such effects.

Outcome:

  •    Prevention of the health issues such as sexually transmitted disease and depression
  •    Improved capacity to the local services to the cure such health issues.

Approached methodology:

The direction of this need assessment has been determined by project group who will conduct the study in a different geographical location. The approached methods of doing the research are the following:


  • Consult with professionals and medical practitioner to understand the core of the health issues faced by indigenous women due to the high rate of gender discrimination and sexual abuse (Braithwaite and daly 2017). Based on this data the accurate models of the preventing the sexually transmitted disease such as AIDS is possible, and this will appropriate for women who are suffering from physical, mental issues.
  • Conduct the discussion with client group about the reason of sexual abuse at the home and highlight the prevalence of sexually transmitted disease as a consequence of sexually transmitted disease.
  • Based on this information, a questioner will be provided to the individuals and a platform will be arranged that the individuals will talk about their personal experience if trauma.
  • Volunteers will discuss the cause of sexual violence and consequences of sexual abuse.
  • The medical practitioner from different sectors will be participated in the programme to address the health issues that may threaten life due to health consequences and provide the implementation plan to reduce such problems (Tarzia 2017)
  •  The legal practitioner will brief about the women rights to prevent such violence and provide ethical framework to receive accurate treatment for healing.

Background of the issue (Secondary data)

Sexual violence in aboriginal women of Australia:

From the ancient era, women are the victim of the sexual abuse in the domestic area and public area worldwide. However, the frequency of experiencing domestic and public sexual violence is lesser as compared to indigenous people who frequently faced the sexual abuse. In Australia, approximately 15% of the incidence of sexual abuse reported every year (Dowling et al. 2016). Majority of the women do not voice about their experiences due to brutal sexual violence and consequences of it. Especially, Aboriginal women are facing significant challenges in fulfilling their rights indifferent. The age group of meeting such violence mostly belongs to the age in between 15 to 40 and due to lack of the knowledge, lack of enough courage they do not think of voice about these experiences publically. Consequently, the frequency of reoccurrences of such trauma increases exponentially along with the sexually transmitted disease.

Why focus on aboriginal women?

In the difficult part of the city, women are more educated and independent as compared to the population that lived outskirts or island where technology and education are less advanced (Prentice ,Blair and O’Mullan 2017) . Therefore, in developed or core of the city women voice out their experiences if they suffer from such violence and take action legally. Moreover, they are also aware of the health consequences of such violence and take precaution against it. On the other hand, aboriginal women lack the access to knowledge in fundamental areas, and they are unaware of the consequences of violence, women rights to prevent it. As a result, the majority of the women are experiencing health issues such as HIV infection followed by AIDS (Mooney and Sariago 2015). Adolescent girls and married women are particularly susceptible to this infection because they suffer forced rape in their house premises. Due to a lack of sound knowledge, they failed to address such problems and incidence of AIDS, unwanted pregnancy, sleep deprivation and suicide (Marchetti and Daly 2017).

Issues that encourages the sexual violence:

Since not every layer of the community is aware of the sexual abuse and negative consequences of it, sexual violence becomes a neglected part of the women’s life. In most of the community sexual violence portrayed as a horrific situation that people are ignorant about (Trescak et al. 2015).  Moreover, the majority of the male are ignorant about the knowledge of sexual abuse due to gender inequity in the community (Varney, Rumbold and Sampson 2014). In the domestic atmosphere most of the priority gained by men in every city because the men portrayed as the earning members of the house in the community. On the other hand, aboriginal women lack the access of educated so became a victim of such practices (Burnette and Figley 2016).  Language, culture and beliefs also influence the episodes of sexual violence and consequently, the unreported incidence of sexual abuse increases exponentially (Lake 2017). Australian Bureau of Statistics reported that one in five women experiences sexual violence and it increase by 1.2 % every year. Consequently, the prevalence of AIDS observed in 29% of women out of 87% of the victims (Azzopardi et al. 2018). Political and economic factors significantly influenced the sexual violence in the domestic and public area that increases the incidence of the sexually transmitted disease (Devries et al. 2011).

impact of sexual abuse on women:

Violence against women and HIV considered as two major public health problems that affect the sexual and reproductive health in Torres Strait Island. Evidence shows that HIV one of the most significant risk factors for sexual violence in aboriginal women since they faced sexual abuse by their partners, family members and community members (Shannon et al. 2015). Majority of the women are also suffering from secondary infection due to AIDS. The prime reason behind this secondary infection is vulnerable to immune surveillance.  Also, many women experienced sudden anxiety, fear of violence, depression, and sleep deprivation. The severity of sexual abuse can cause suicide. Cultural clash, male ego, dominance, community influence and other political factors lead to such violence (Abrahams et al. 2015). Approximately 76% of the women commit suicide due to sexual abuse at the home. In urban areas, the rate of death due to sexual violence is less than other suburban and islands (Flynn et al. 2018). However, in all areas of the due to male-dominated community, sexual violence treated as the neglected crime (Pearce et al. 2015). A significant number of women died because of HIV infection and reluctance towards the disease. Moreover, many intimate partners do not use the condom for having sex and women have to face the consequences of it mentally and physically (Dowling et al. 2016). Therefore, the awareness related to health issues and use of protection during sex is required for leading quality life. Psychoanalysis of these women with empathy is also an effective way to reduce the violence and spread health issues ( Vos et al. 2016). Due to dominance and insecurities, males are more prone to commit such crime. Therefore, the involvement of man in this journey is essential to prevent such practices (Abebe et al. 2018).

Primary data collection in needs assessment technique:

Gathering information

Techniques: focus group

Level of engagement: communication and consultation

Health agency: women health services with the help of the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners

Considering the focus group in a study is the efficient way to conduct a study where information is not available in the literature. The groups will generally consist of 10 to 12 people, and volunteers ask the questions to the questions to each person about their personal experiences and the health issues they are facing due to damages to the mental and physical health.

Description:

Women of Torres Strait Island who experienced the gender discrimination and sexual violence will be contacted via emails. A member of women health services will add all the gathered information to the system, and other volunteers will contact the healthy aboriginal workers who can access the emails. Total focus groups of 7 will be set up around Australia around the different geographical location such as inner and outer region and major city. A polite approach will be adopted to ask a direct question in more traditional storytelling type (Prehn 2018). Moreover, participants will be encouraged to share their stories which will be appreciated by empathy. The national health and medical research council published a guideline for the population of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island women will be followed throughout the assessment plan by respecting their integrity and ethical values, culture and personal opinions (Cescon et al. 2015).

Rational/purpose:

The purpose of this focus group is to address the core reason for sexual violence experienced by aboriginal women and their health issues such as AIDS or HIV infection, depression, anxiety. The project will cover the gathering information according to the priority of the focus group and support the need of the individual for the prevention of sexual violence and health issues.

Possible outcome:

The eventual outcome will be proper education to the people so that women will voice about their sexual violence. Moreover, sound knowledge about the disease and prevention of disease will help women to be aware of their conditions. By sharing their personal experiences, the majority of the individual will get the solution to prevent violence and aware of the health condition. Moreover, effective communication will help the individual to overcome their trauma related to the disease.

Part 2: Preparing strategy

Level of engagement: collaboration

Collaboration with individuals of different field and community will help people to make the recommendation for their health issues and area of concern that others failed to address.

Technique: search conference

Search conference will be arranged where a large group of individuals from different background will involve in the conversation and will talk about their personal experience and build a framework to strategies an implementation plan to overcome the health issues related to violence .

Partner inventory: 

General practices   
  • Modern medical clinic
  • Deweyville medical centre
  • Metceni health center
  • Dynamic doctors group
  • Peel Conolly medical center
Community health services
  • Peel health campus
  • Leslie  street center
  • Older adult mental health center
  • Mimdi park inpatient unit
  • Home and community care programme
Retriment villages
  • Amana living
  • Belswan pinjarra
  • Coolibah retirement village
Community social support
  • Mandurah library
  • Halls head Recreation
  • University of Third age
  • Falcon lions club
  • Rotatry club of  Mandurah city
  • Mandurah  city dance club
  • Mandurah  city probus club
  • Peel harmony chorus

Reference:

Abebe, K.Z., Jones, K.A., Culyba, A.J., Feliz, N.B., Anderson, H., Torres, I., Zelazny, S., Bamwine, P., Boateng, A., Cirba, B. and Detchon, A., 2018. Engendering healthy masculinities to prevent sexual violence: Rationale for and design of the Manhood 2.0 trial. Contemporary clinical trials.

Abrahams, N., Denvries, K., Watts, C., Pallito, C., Petzold, M., Shamu, S. and Garcia-Moreno, C., 2015. Prevalence of non-partner sexual violence: A review of global data. Oxford Textbook of Violence Prevention: Epidemiology, Evidence, and Policy, p.49.

Azzopardi, P.S., Sawyer, S.M., Carlin, J.B., Degenhardt, L., Brown, N., Brown, A.D. and Patton, G.C., 2018. Health and wellbeing of Indigenous adolescents in Australia: a systematic synthesis of population data. The Lancet, 391(10122), pp.766-782.

Berns, N.S., 2017. Framing the victim: Domestic violence, media, and social problems. Routledge.

Braithwaite J, Daly K., 2017. Masculinities, Violence and. Crime control and women: Feminist implications of criminal justice policy 12 (1), p.151.

Burnette, C.E. and Figley, C.R., 2016. Historical oppression, resilience, and transcendence: can a holistic framework help explain violence experienced by indigenous people. Social work, pp.1-8.

Cescon, A., Patterson, S., Davey, C., Ding, E., Raboud, J.M., Chan, K., Loutfy, M.R., Cooper, C., Burchell, A.N., Palmer, A.K. and Tsoukas, C., 2015. Late initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy in Canada: a call for a national public health strategy to improve engagement in HIV care. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 18(1), p.20024.

Devries, K., Watts, C., Yoshihama, M., Kiss, L., Schraiber, L.B., Deyessa, N., Heise, L., Durand, J., Mbwambo, J., Jansen, H. and Berhane, Y., 2011. Violence against women is strongly associated with suicide attempts: evidence from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women. Social science & medicine, 73(1), pp.79-86.

Dowling, N., Suomi, A., Jackson, A., Lavis, T., Patford, J., Cockman, S., Thomas, S., Bellringer, M., Koziol-Mclain, J., Battersby, M. and Harvey, P., 2016. Problem gambling and intimate partner violence: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 17(1), pp.43-61.

Dowling, N., Suomi, A., Jackson, A., Lavis, T., Patford, J., Cockman, S., Thomas, S., Bellringer, M., Koziol-Mclain, J., Battersby, M. and Harvey, P., 2016. Problem gambling and intimate partner violence: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 17(1), pp.43-61.

Flynn, C., Damant, D., Lapierre, S., Lessard, G., Gagnon, C., Couturier, V. and Couturier, P., 2018, June. When structural violences create a context that facilitates sexual assault and intimate partner violence against street-involved young women. In Womens Studies International Forum (Vol. 68, pp. 94-103). Pergamon.

Funston, L. and Herring, S., 2016. When will the stolen generations end?: A qualitative critical exploration of contemporary'child protection'practices in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. Sexual Abuse in Australia and New Zealand, 7(1), p.51.

Lake, M., 2017. Australian frontier feminism and the marauding white man. In Gender and imperialism. Manchester University Press.

Marchetti, E. and Daly, K., 2017. Indigenous partner violence, Indigenous sentencing courts, and pathways to desistance. Violence against women, 23(12), pp.1513-1535.

Mooney, B. and Sariago, P., 2015. 2Spirits: Providing a multi-generational, culturally competent approach to health promotion for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. HIV Australia, 13(3), p.34.

Pearce, M.E., Blair, A.H., Teegee, M., Pan, S.W., Thomas, V., Zhang, H., Schechter, M.T. and Spittal, P.M., 2015. The Cedar Project: historical trauma and vulnerability to sexual assault among young Aboriginal women who use illicit drugs in two Canadian cities. Violence against women, 21(3), pp.313-329.

Prehn, J., 2018. Improving the social and emotional well-being of Aboriginal men with bush adventure therapy. In Indigenous health conference: Walking together (pp. 75-76).

Prentice, K., Blair, B. and O’Mullan, C., 2017. Sexual and family violence: overcoming barriers to service access for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients. Australian social work, 70(2), pp.241-252.

Shannon, K., Strathdee, S.A., Goldenberg, S.M., Duff, P., Mwangi, P., Rusakova, M., Reza-Paul, S., Lau, J., Deering, K., Pickles, M.R. and Boily, M.C., 2015. Global epidemiology of HIV among female sex workers: influence of structural determinants. The Lancet, 385(9962), pp.55-71.

Smith, R.M., Parrott, D.J., Swartout, K.M. and Tharp, A.T., 2015. Deconstructing hegemonic masculinity: The roles of antifemininity, subordination to women, and sexual dominance in men’s perpetration of sexual aggression. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 16(2), p.160.

Tarzia, L., Forsdike, K., Feder, G. and Hegarty, K., 2017. Interventions in health settings for male perpetrators or victims of intimate partner violence. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, p.1524838017744772.

Trescak, T., Williams, M., Sloan, T.R., Bogdanovych, A. and Simoff, S.J., 2015. The aboriginal dreaming meets virtual reality. In DH2015: Annual Digital Humanities Conference: Abstracts, Sydney, Australia, 29 June-3 July 2015.

Varney, H., Rumbold, B. and Sampson, A., 2014. Evidence in a different form: The search conference process. Journal of Applied Arts & Health, 5(2), pp.169-178.

Vos, T., Astbury, J., Piers, L.S., Magnus, A., Heenan, M., Stanley, L., Walker, L. and Webster, K., 2016. Measuring the impact of intimate partner violence on the health of women in Victoria, Australia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 84, pp.739-744.

Ward JS, Hawke K, Guy RJ. Priorities for preventing a concentrated HIV epidemic among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. The Medical Journal of Australia. 2018 Jul 2;209(1):56.

Wilson, M., Jones, J., Butler, T., Simpson, P., Gilles, M., Baldry, E., Levy, M. and Sullivan, E., 2017. Violence in the lives of incarcerated aboriginal mothers in Western Australia. Sage open, 7(1), p.2158244016686814.

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