Human behaviour is not easy to analyse, it is often unpredictable (Eagle, Dahl, Hill, Bird, Spotswood, Tapp, 2013). A person´s behaviour has negative and positive consequences that impact the individual, the community and the environment (Eagle et al., 2013).
The purpose of the essay is to analyse if the campaign Game On: Know Alcohol (short
GO:KA) in the article “Moderating teen drinking: combining social marketing and education” uses the NSMC benchmark criteria’s.
Firstly, the social change initiative is presented, followed by a critical analysis using the NSMC benchmark criteria. At the end of the report is a discussion on how the campaign could be improved.
1. Social change initiative overview
Today´s teenagers are growing up in a world where alcohol consumption is part of the youth culture, especially in industrialized countries (Dietrich, Rundle-Thiele, Leo & Connor, 2015). Alcohol consumption is considered as essential to social interactions (Dietrich et al., 2015). Teenagers often engage in drinking with the aim of becoming intoxicated to lose control over themselves (Dietrich et al., 2015).
On average, young adults start consuming alcohol at the age of 15. (GO:KA, 2014). The problem is that early alcohol misuse is a serious contributor to alcohol-related harm (GO:KA, 2014).
The article “Moderating teen drinking: combining social marketing and education” presents a pilot study that was undertaken in Australia in 2011 (Rundle-Thiele, Russel-Bennett, Leo, Dietrich, 2013). The pilot study was delivered in one all boy´s and one all girl´s school (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). The program combined social marketing with education, targeting 14-16 year olds. (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). The aim was to test and influence the teenager’s behavioural intentions and attitudes towards alcohol (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013).
Furthermore, the intervention wants to increase the students’ knowledge relating to alcohol by illustrating the effects of alcohol (Dietrich et al., 2015).
Game On:Know Alcohol, short GO:KA, is the name of the program that let students participate in a range of online games and practical activities (GO:KA, 2014). Wearing beer goggles, doing a drink driving quiz, writing about emotional experiences, laying in the gutter to simulate being passed out were some activities students experienced (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013).
A total of 223 students in year 10 contributed to the GO:KA pilot study in 2011 (RundleThiele et al., 2013). The majority completed the whole intervention, including surveys (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). GO:KA was able to change attitudes towards moderate drinking for girls and boys, whereas behavioural intention only changed for girls (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013).
The article “One Size (Never) Fits All: Segment Differences Observed Following a SchoolBased Alcohol Social Marketing Program” is also part of the GO:KA pilot study which will be considered in the analysis of the GO:KA intervention.
2. NSMC Benchmark Criteria Analysis
Game On: Know alcohol (GO:KA) is a school-based intervention which follows the UK National Social Marketing Centre (NSMC) benchmark criteria (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013).
2.1 Clear behavioural goals
Behaviour changes under different circumstances and at different times (NSMC, 2010). People usually tend not to think consciously about what they do as it might be a habit (NSMC, 2010).
Social Marketing aims to influence specific behaviours rather than just knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (NSMC, 2010). Game On:Know alcohol has the aim to change attitudes as well as behavioural intentions towards moderate drinking. (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). Furthermore,
GO:KA wants to increase young adult’s knowledge relating to alcohol. (Dietrich et al., 2013).
However, the article does not give evidence about behaviour change.
It is important to have specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound behavioural goals (NSMC, 2010). A pre and post survey was conducted at each school and with help of Ttests and descriptive analysis attitudinal and behavioural intention change were measured (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). Attitudinal change happened in both schools, behavioural intention change happened for the girls but not for the boys (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013).
However, the GO:KA pilot study did not measure behaviour change.
2.2 Customer orientation
Understanding the students’ lives, attitudes and current behaviour using a mix of data sources and research methods is necessary (NSMC, 2010).
Customer orientation means to use interviews and focus groups as well as using ethnographic techniques and secondary data sources to understand the customer’s attitudes and current behaviour (NSMC, 2010). As mentioned in the article, the GO:KA intervention is using focus groups, ethnographic research and secondary data to understand student´s learning preferences and possible methods of delivery (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013).
Ethnographic research helps to understand the consumer in terms of cultural trends and lifestyle factors as well as how the social context influences them (Shear, n.d.). There is evidence of ethnographic research in the article. The article mentioned that Australia and many other countries have a culture of drinking to excess (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). Intoxication is considered as a normal behaviour among young adults (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). The social pressure to drink alcohol is high, many young people gain entry into peer social groups through their choices to drink alcohol, rejecting alcohol can cause social exclusion (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013).
It is stated that the GO:KA program uses focus groups (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). Focus groups are a small group of people (6-10) that share mutual characteristics and participate in discussions led by a moderator (MRA, n.d.). The article does not mention the focus groups. Further research showed that the intervention used focus groups in 2014 to discuss with students if they liked or disliked the activities with the aim to develop a completely new intervention. However, that does not belong to the pilot study.
Furthermore, it is important to use data from different sources (NSMC, 2010). In fact, social marketers collected quantitative data through a pre survey which was conducted prior the GO:KA intervention and a post-survey which was carried out after the students completed the six GO:KA modules.
Customer orientation also means, involving the target audience and local community (NSMC, 2010). Students were involved in different activities; the schools were approached to determine the timetable for delivery; a person from the school assisted with logistics and planning prior the intervention delivery and communication with parents was established (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013).
As human behaviour is very complex, a theory can offer social marketers a better understanding of the factors that influence the audience and their actions (NSMC, 2010).
As stated in the article, the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the do-learn-feel learning hierarchy and experiential learning were used to develop the GO:KA intervention (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013).
The Theory of Planned Behaviour has three aspects to determine the intention (S. RundleThiele 7215 MKT lecture material, April 1, 2015):
Game On: Know Alcohol” it stated that PBC was measured during the pilot study (Dietrich, 2011).
Table IV “All boys’ school and all girls’ school (pre and post)”
To summarise, social marketers did not follow all steps of the planned behaviour theory in the pilot study.
Experiential learning is when educators engage with students in direct experiences, students have to reflect on them in order to increase knowledge and to develop skills (Northern Illinois University, n.d.). Students in the GO:KA intervention had hands-on experiences which included a role-play (laying in the gutter) and playing other interactive games. However, it is not written if the students in the pilot study had to reflect on the experiences, which is important as it increases knowledge and develops skills.
The do-learn-feel learning hierarchy consist of low involvement and less thinking (Scribd, n.d.). The customer’s behaviour is habitual and marketers need to use various promotion techniques to get the customers attention (Scribd, n.d.). The article did not mentioned if binge drinking is a habit or if students are aware of what they do. There is a lack of evidence in the article which supports this theory.
Insight means to have a deep understanding of what moves and motivates the target (NSMC, 2010) An analysis was undertaken to understand why students would not adopt moderate drinking attitudes or behavioural intentions in current alcohol education programs (RundleThiele et al., 2013). Interactivity, relevance and creativity are three important elements that engage students and maintain their interest in alcohol education (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). Experimental learning through hands-on activities and digital content motivates students more than anything else (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013).
It is not mentioned in the article if social marketers got any insights from analysing the pilot study which helped to develop the program further. To summarise, no other insights were found in the article.
Social Marketing is the exchange of resources or values between two or more parties (NSMC, 2010). In the GO:KA intervention are two parties, the students and the social marketers.
Before people decide to change, they usually go through a cost-benefit analysis (NSMC, 2010). As mentioned in the article the GO:KA intervention had an understanding of the cost and the benefits for students (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). When students would stop drinking, social exclusion and shyness are the social costs they have to pay (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013).
GO:KA tried to reduce social costs by demonstrating benefits of moderate drinking which are social inclusion, more control over the body and less hangovers (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). Furthermore, social marketers need to identify and replace the current benefits students receive from binge drinking (NSMC, 2010). The current benefits for the students are that drinking alcohol to excess gives them a sense of confidence and being a part of a social group. The GO:KA campaign tried to replace these benefits by promoting moderate drinking benefits.
To summarise, students will need to give up their confidence which they have when they are drunk in order to gain the benefits of moderate drinking. However, the author cannot see any other evidence of significant exchange as students do not need to give up social inclusion when they start drinking moderately. Also, there was not any financial exchange between the two parties.
Social Marketers need to understand what competes for the audience’s time and attention to behave in a particular way, it is important to address direct and external factors (NSMC, 2010).
Marketers have to develop strategies to minimise the impact of competition, clearly linking the exchange offered (NSMC, 2010). Furthermore, they need to work with or learn from the competitors (NSMC, 2010).
The GO:KA intervention analysed the direct competition and external competition (RundleThiele et al., 2013).
Direct competition for the GO:KA program are other alcohol education programmes, especially programmes which offer hands-on and online activities (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). The social marketers analysed 43 different programs (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013) which could be potential competitors.
Indirect competition for the GO:KA program are marketing messages for alcohol products, containing positive messages, relating alcohol to relaxation and fun (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). Alcohol advertisements are everywhere, on TV, on banners on the street or on the internet and social media. Other competitors are licensed venues. (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013).
To summarise, the GO:KA program as to compete against the entire alcohol industry.
It is important that social marketers identify audience segments (NSMC, 2010). Segmentation is not just demographic or geographic, people can also be segmented by their behaviour or by the readiness to change.
The GO:KA pilot study uses 2 segmentation bases, psychographic and demographic (Dietrich et al., 2015). Demographically the students got segmented in age and sex groups. The students were between 14 and 16 years old. Besides the demographic segmentation, psychographic segmentation measured knowledge about alcohol, attitudes toward binge drinking, and intentions toward moderate drinking (Dietrich et al., 2015). The psychographic segmentation was not mentioned in the article “Moderating teen drinking: combining social marketing and education”. However, the psychographic segmentation was part of the pilot study in 2011 as it was stated in the article “One Size (Never) Fits All: Segment Differences Observed Following a School-Based Alcohol Social Marketing Program.” (Dietrich et al., 2015).
Also the article “One Size (Never) Fits All: Segment Differences Observed Following a School-Based Alcohol Social Marketing Program.” mentioned three segments in a student population based on factors of the students alcohol consumption behaviour. “Good Females” showed the most positive attitude change and they were most satisfied with the GO:KA program (Dietrich et al., 2015). GO:KA received the lowest satisfaction scores from the “Skeptics” (mix of males and females). However this segment featured the lowest-risk drinking attitudes and intentions to drink alcohol (Dietrich et al., 2015). “Risky Males” had high-risk attitudes and high-risk intentions prior to taking part in the GO:KA program (Dietrich et al., 2013). This segment also had the lowest overall alcohol knowledge (Dietrich et al., 2015).
To summarise, there is clear evidence of segmentation in the GO:KA pilot study.
2.8 Methods mix
Social Marketers should use all elements of the marketing mix (NSMC, 2010). Just to communicate a message is not enough, promotion should be used to ‘sell’ the product, price, place and people to the target audience (NSMC, 2010). Have a brand which is target to the audience (NSMC, 2010). However, social marketers need keep their methods and approaches financially and practically sustainable (NSMC, 2010).
The Game On: Know Alcohol used a variety of marketing methods (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013):
GO:KA program contained a mixture of online games and real activities in a 6lesson program (Dietrich et al., 2015). A total of 9 activities, 4 online activities and 5 experiential activities supported the pilot study (Dietrich et al., 2015). The online game “Game On! Risky Ride” was designed specifically for GO:KA (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013).
The consequences and effects of binge drinking were a consistent message of GO:KA, delivering it through online and offline activities (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). They also communicated with parents.
GO:KA was delivered to the students by an expert team (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013).
The program was delivered at the school in an auditorium and break out class rooms and outdoor settings (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013).
There were no financial costs for the students or for the school
3. Social change initiative improvements
The pilot study which was presented in the article “Moderating teen drinking: combining social marketing and education” is limited to a convenience sample. The GO:KA pilot study was undertaken in two metropolitan single sex education schools in Queensland, Australia with a catholic background (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). Generalisations are not possible with this sample (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). There is a need to extend testing beyond single sex education catholic schools to guarantee that GO:KA can achieve attitudinal change in a wide variety of settings (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). The GO:KA program should be extent to public schools as there are different values and different co-educational contexts (RundleThiele et al., 2013). The GO:KA pilot study targeted 14-16 years old students, extending the testing to different ages will ascertain if education is equally effective in earlier school year levels (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). Furthermore, additional research needs to be done, going beyond examining gender effect (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). Previous research showed that the culture background plays a role in program effectiveness, suggesting that additional demographic variables should be used in future to improve interventions (Rundle-Thiele et al., 2013). Furthermore, smoking status, previous drinking history, behavioural problems, and family history, would strengthen the segmentation analysis (Dietrich et al., 2015). Moreover, it is possible that students that are at greater risk were those who did not engage in the survey’s potentially increasing the positive outcomes observed in the pilot study (Dietrich et al., 2015). It would be important that students who are at greater risk get the most attention.
Dietrich, T. (2011). Can change be achieved in co-educational schools? An empirical test of Game On: Know Alcohol. Main Beach, Queensland: Griffith University.
Dietrich, T., Rundle-Thiele, S., Leo, C. & Connor, J. (2015). One Size (Never) Fits All: Segment Differences Observed Following a School-Based Alcohol Social Marketing Program. Journal of School Health, 85(4), 251-259.
Eagle, L., Dahl, S., Hill, S., Bird, S., Spotswood, F. & Tapp, A. (2013). Social Marketing. Edinburgh, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited.
GO:KA. (2010). Changing alcohol attitudes: Sponsorship opportunities. Brisbane, Australia: Griffith University.
Northern Illinois University. (n.d.). Experiential Learning. Retrieved from www.niu.edu/facdev/resources/guide/strategies/experiential_learning.pdf
Rundle-Thiele, S., Russel-Bennett, R., Leo, C. & Dietrich, T. (2013). Moderating teen drinking: combining social marketing and education. Health Education, 113(5), 392-406.
Scribd. (n.d.). Customer Behaviour. Retrieved from http://de.scribd.com/doc/7008203/Consumer-Behaviour#scribd.
Earn back money you have spent on downloaded sample
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below.
Urgent Homework (2021) . Retrive from http://www.urgenthomework.com/sample-homework/human-behaviour
"." Urgent Homework ,2021, http://www.urgenthomework.com/sample-homework/human-behaviour
Urgent Homework (2021) . Available from: http://www.urgenthomework.com/sample-homework/human-behaviour
Urgent Homework . ''(Urgent Homework ,2021) http://www.urgenthomework.com/sample-homework/human-behaviour accessed 24/10/2021.