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ISSC341 Introduction to Networking : Systems for Managing and Monitori

Discuss in scholarly detail why PSDN transport cores are drawn as a cloud?
Discuss in scholarly detail VoIP and its current uses along with any potential research on the future use of VoIP.
Discuss in scholarly detail why you think the explosion of applications and small mobile devices is a particular concern?
Discuss in scholarly detail whether or not you think that pure P2P architectures will be popular in the future?
Discuss in scholarly detail and come up with a list of roles that facilitating servers can play in P2P applications.


1. Why PSDN transport cores are draw as a cloud

PSDN or public switched data networks is a technology introduced to act as alternative to the popular wide area networks (WAN). The technology works by providing a bridge or tunnel through which nodes or computers can communicate. The bridge is mainly owned by a vendor and can be leased to parties wishing to exchange information between two locations or two nodes. The nodes are relatively special computers that have a large number of serial input-output units where on every unit there is a communication line that leads to the second other node or special computer. This other node has a large number of serial input-output units thus can have a communication line that will lead to the 3rd node which is the same as the latter two (Jeren and Pale, 2001). The ability for the nodes to support serializable input and output from man

y users makes the transport cores to be drawn as a cloud.

2. Current uses of VOIP and research on future uses.

VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol) is a way of communication where phone calls are made over a network instead of the typical analog telephone lines. This approach of communication involves transforming voice into packets which are transmitted over the internet or any network using IP. VOIP is becoming very popular because of high availability of internet connection for most users. There are many VOIP configurations through which VOIP can be set up. These configurations include, dedicated routers, adapters(USB), software-controlled VOIP applications which are commonly referred as softphones and dedicated VOIP phones (Kumar, 2006).

VOIP technology has found many uses but the most commonly and widely used is the original use of making phone calls where voice is digitized and transformed to IP packets. These has many made voice calls easy to make especially for corporations with a huge pool of employees where there is need for constant communication between employees internally. The cost of leasing a PSTN from a vendor is high as compared to setting up infrastructure necessary to use VOIP. Implementing the VOIP infrastructure is cheaper than setting up PSTN from scratch if the company doesn’t want to lease from a vendor. VOIP has also found many uses among personal users where applications like WhatsApp, Viber, Skype and Google Duo allow users to make personal calls. Most of these applications are free to download and to use which is cheaper for users as compared to users using the typical PSTN lines to make phone calls. Due to the wide range of uses in VOIP, threats have arisen especially security problems.

According to the recent trends of growth in VOIP the most obvious thing to predict for the future of VOIP is that VOIP is going to replace PSTN completely. This may take some time in 3rd countries especially in Africa and Asia. This can be attributed to the growth in the number of people that have access to internet connection which is growing steadily. VOIP is most likely to shift to smartphone where users will use VOIP enabled applications which are innovated and improved day by day by companies like Facebook and Google. Instead of using PSTN plans users will make calls using only their internet connection.

With the introduction of WebRTC by Google in 2011, its possible this is going to revolutionize VOIP although it’s not clear whether it will support or compete with VOIP. WebRTC enables developers to create web applications with voice and video capabilities without the user having to do installations. VOIP is likely to replace PSTN and there is a likelihood it will become even popular when used with technologies like WebRTC.

3. explosion of applications and small devices

Use of mobile devices is growing steadily with an estimated 4.43 billion mobile devices according to Statista. The number of mobile phone users is expected to grow to 4.61 billion and 4.77 billion in 2016 and 2017 respectively. These numbers are a proof that mobile devices are becoming a part of everyday lives of most users with very many users spending a lot of time on their phones. The time spent on mobile phones by most users can be attributed to the growth in the number of mobile applications as developers are becoming more creative and innovative to make applications that leave users glued to their mobile phone screens. Most applications can be said to have a positive effect generally as they make life easier for the users by automating most tasks. Explosion of mobile phones and mobile applications has its negative effects. Due to growth in the number of users using mobile applications security has become a major issue where by malicious users can hack or distribute harmful application and obtain user data which is private to the users. In some cases, mobile devices have been used to conduct dedicated denial of service (DDOS) attacks because most mobile phones do not have security policies as compared to PC.

According to a research done by World Health Organization use of mobile devices is causing a phenomenon problem of driver distraction which is a growing serious threat to safety in roads. This can be attributed to the frequent use of mobile phones to the extent that users tend to use it while driving or get distracted by the device. This is likely to escalate as even cars have been integrated with mobile technologies like Android Auto.

4. P2P architectures

P2P is a commonly used network architecture. In this architecture, all nodes have the same responsibilities as compared to the client server architecture where the server does all the works. The most accurate term to associate with P2P is decentralization where resources are decentralized. P2P was future was thought to be bright by companies like Intel (Gelsinger) but technologies like public and private clouds affected this prediction as many users and corporations ended up adapting these technologies over P2P. Existence of data centers has made the client server architecture to be very effective thus affecting the growth of P2P as projected. The future of P2P is not very shallow as P2P will still continue many uses in the fields of content distribution for example streaming sites like YouTube and Netflix. Decentralization will come in handy as pCs are likely to maintain their popular status of being the device used for primary computing. Growth in use of mobile phones has shown a great rise in computing but mobile devices do not have the desirable hardware to perform heavy computations thus the big shift to client server architecture. However, as the processing power in mobile devices especially devices are growing steadily P2P will be able to come in handy in future as mobile devices will be able to do heavy computations as the number of mobile phones is increasing steadily. To conclude, the future of P2P is not shallow because of growth in the number of mobile phones (Pankaj, Hyde and Rodger, 2012).

5. Role of servers in P2P architecture

In P2P are not considered to be necessary as connection is peer to peer. A good example of P2P is bit torrent. However, servers can be introduced in P2P architecture to act as a central node between two nodes communicating together. The main purpose of the server would to maintain a session where by the two nodes can only communicate if a session exists in the server. Theoretically, this would work in the following way; node A requests to connect to node B. The server authenticates the connection and the connection is established between node A and node B. The server maintains the session but communication is directly through the two nodes.


Jeren, P., & Pale, P. (2001). PSDN. Systems for managing and monitoring processes, 1. Retrieved April 21, 2017, from

Kumar, A. (2006). AN OVERVIEW OF VOICE OVER INTERNET PROTOCOL (VOIP). Retrieved April 21, 2017, from

Pankaj, P., Hyde, M., & Rodger, J. A. (2012). P2P Business Applications: Future and Directions . Communications and Network. Retrieved April 21, 2017, from

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