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IT6x11 Research and Theory in IT: Review on Smart-phones

Topic: Usages of Smart phones

The purpose of this assessment is to introduce you to the research process including conducting literature review, creating a research design, executing the research design (collection, measurement and analysis of data) and presenting the results in a report.



Smart-phones are considered as one of the most important and the trend-setter in the lives of each and individual students. Starting from the high-school goers, to the University goers, a smart phone is considered to be one of the sole important items in the daily life style of them. Smart-phones are considered as a part and the parcel of their lifestyle. It has several positive impacts as well as the negatives, but, in the present scenario, the negative impacts are taking over the positive ones.

Smart-phones play an important role in keeping in touch with the connections of the people. It could be used as a medium for the learning, understanding the topic on the go, taking notes during the class in the high school or in the university. This electronic gadget assists in global navigation. It also helps in increasing the vocabulary that may require during the exams of the students belonging from any educational medium (Cocchia, 2014).

The disadvantages of smart phones are overtaking the advantages can be considered as a depletion of time in the constant messaging services during any important task or during the study-time of the students in school or even in the University. It can even hamper the relationships between the people nearby by the instant messaging services or taking pictures unnecessarily. It also contributes the increment of the rate of the accidents caused due to the overhearing by the headphones, or the earphones attached to the smart phones (Cocchia, 2014). The trends, the usages and the impacts of the smart-phones among the students are described in the report.

Literature Review on the Usages of Smart phones

Smart phones have become one of the sole important gadgets in the hands of the students not only for the serving their purposes related only to the education or for gaining the knowledge but also for exploring different types of the applications that provides new and enhancing functions. Among these, functions, there are few functions that help the learners to communicate with the educators through face to face virtually. It also helps the learners for communicating to the educators by the means of voice messengers, in case of the shy or the weak students, for ignoring or overcoming the situations that can be

considered to be the uncomfortable ones. Smart phones can help the students for breaking down the boredom by engaging themselves with certain activities or by engaging in certain games that can be for the mode of recreation or by learning some important notes in the form of gamification (Kim, Briley & Ocepek, 2015). The increasing rate of the usages of smart phones is due to the students belonging from the high schools or from the universities. These groups are considered to be the target groups by the companies of the smart phones. Several innovative inventions took place in the revolutionary world of the technology, out of which the manufacture and the development of the smart phones are considered to be one of the biggest milestones in the history of the World (Campbell, 2015).

The usage of smart phones can lead to the addiction to the age groups who are totally dependent on the smart phones. These addictions can be of the different types of the symptoms for the addictions caused due to the overuse of the smart gadgets. The wide variety for the functions of the smart phones that are considered to be the newly developed ones can also be the reason for the damage of the ability of the  thoughts in an individual. The problematic situations that are being considered to be the part of the addiction of the smart phones develop negative impact on the lives of the students. Unlike any other addictions, a smart phone does not make people addict in respect to the cravings but it mainly hampers the brain and destroys the thinking abilities of the cerebrum.

According to Griffits and Shaffer, the addiction towards the technology creates the involvement in the interaction of the machine and the humans that develops when any individual starts depending on the smart phones for the reduction of the negative state of mind or for increases the consequences in the positive ways. This particular literature also deals and reveals that there is lack of consensus among the studies based on the effects of the addiction of the smart phones on the platform of the achievement in the field of academic on the student’s life. Javid et al. emphasized on the negative effects and the drawbacks of the technology of the achievement of the student (Cassidy et al., 2014). These learners get busy in writing in the applications those are being used as the instant messaging, listen to music’s, sends miss call alerts to their friends. The one of the important symptom that can be observed in the case of any individual, that they are getting busy in the instant messaging services and using social media applications during their class hours. Moreover, the diverse thought of Smartphone dependence is reflected, paying very little mind for the various things, by the levels at which it has been considered and the methodology by which it has been analyzed. Most examinations on Smartphone preferring appear to concentrate either on the measure of time depended for use by numbering calls sent, calls got, messages sent, and messages got, or by tallying the rehash of more diminutive fixation signs, however both are required (Al-Barashdi, Bouazza & Jabur, 2015). Additionally, an expansive some portion of these examinations utilizes the subjective information, which has every one of the stores of being stunning, given the likelihood of the theme which , in every one of its whimsies, is united bound up with centrality and values and that requires an extraordinary measure of elucidation and judgment (Habib et al., 2014). In this way, a blended approach examination including both quantitative and subjective methodology is gotten a handle on to give a wide view of Smartphone dependence and its effect on learners’ accomplishment sharply.

Markett et al. observed the valuable consequences of utilization of the smart gadgets among the learners' and proposed the usages of SMS in classrooms. They found that information can be exchanged through refreshed nature in understudies all through the address by utilizing SMS which opened up this understanding. Strangely, Javid et al. assessed the impacts of cell phone on the execution of school understudies. In this examination, a huge portion of the surveyed students surrendered that they utilizes PDAs to contact their educators and accomplices to talk about matters identified with their examination. They other than used the smart phones to show strong data to their cohorts and to compose a word reference and thesaurus for edifying purposes. Adventitiously, they concurred that the PDA abuses their gainful time and expenses. Then again, unique surveyed related using the Smartphone with the decreasing in scholarly accomplishment.

Literature Review on the Trends of using Smart phones

The developments that took place in the recent times focus or believe in the communication mainly in the technologies of wireless and the resultant was related to the mobile devices which are considered to be less expensive with more convenience and are available widely. Each successive device are being added up with the latest generation with the addition of the new features and the applications, for example, emails, Wi-Fi, music or the video player, productivity software along with the video or the audio recording options (Bort-Roig et al., 2014). All the developments have increases the acceptance of the learners and the educators at the same point of time. This body of literature has dealings with the broad inquiry areas, for instance, the usage and the effectiveness of learning via mobile.

Hwang and Tsai (2011) reviewed, six major learning journals that is considered to be the enhancement of the technology in terms of the quantity of the journals were being published, selection of the sample-group in research, important countries in the part of the contributors and lastly, the research learning domains (Mobasheri et al., 2015). Hung and Zhang (in press) used techniques for text mining for conducting a similar examination. One of the important trends in the current scenario is of the education application of new technologies is known as Mobile learning. O’Malley et al. (2003) have defined the mobile learning as a place when the student or the learner is not at a fixed location or the location that is considered to be the predetermined or whenever the student takes the advantages of the opportunities of learning that is being offered by the technologies. Kukulska-Hulme (2005) defined mobile learning as one of the concerned with the mobility of the learner in the sense that the students or the learners must be able for engaging in educational activities without being in to a physical location that is tightly-delimited. Thus mobile learning features encourages the learners in engaging in the educational activities, using a technology as a mediating tool for learning via smart phones by accessing the communicating data with the others through the wireless technology (Harrison, Flood & Duce, 2013).

The utilization of mobile technologies in education is not being restricted for exploiting the learners for learning activities. Education is considered as a process that relies on great dealings of coordination of resources and learners. Smart phone technologies can help in supporting the learning and teaching without being explicitly parts of the learning activity as per to themselves. There is always scope for supporting both learners and the educators, and also for supporting the administration in more generous methods.

Billieux et al. have examines the differences in both the terms of problematic and impulsion of smart phones use among the adolescents or the young adults. The results displayed that males utilizes their smart phones frequently in dangerous situations whereas females are more reliant on them. The results on impulsion viewed that males are exhibiting more significantly the levels of sensation higher and looking forward with levels lower than the normal of perseverance, while women reveal significantly higher levels of urgency. On sorting out the Internet pathologically and the smart phones users, among 337 college students in Spain, Jenaro et al. found that excessive usage of smart-phone is totally linked with the females, and hence have insomnia and high anxiety (Bender et al., 2013) .

Howell et al. analyzed the gender differences that are related to the perception and attitude towards their usage of smart phones in private and public places. They even concluded that whilst the females perceived the service very much positively, there was a trend that is persistent for males for disliking the service, in spite of the particular locations (Bastawrous & Armstrong, 2013). The factor analysis of high school students, who are in the females group confirmed a heavy dependence on cellular phones compared to male students, male high school students. Chóliz found that females generally focused and used their smart phones more than the boys as more likely for engaging in phone abuse and experiencing the problems with their parents due to excessive usage. Chung tried for understanding the reasons of females as the excessive usage of mobile phones. He expected that there would be a satisfying relationship among them and the upkeep of social solidarity among their young accomplices. He found that the comprehensive group who had a more basic slant to bend up conspicuously subordinate sent distinctive works from spots, for example, schools, where silly utilization of PDAs can be an issue. Regardless, cell phones utilize indicated varying outcomes in the examination by Devís-Devís et al. They looked at the females and enthusiastic partners' usage and found that youthful accomplices put more noticeable criticalness in this. They moreover found that school understudies utilized these specific gadgets more on terminations of the week than on week days. This appeared there were specific sections responsible for telephone use (Bastawrous & Armstrong, 2013). Standing firm concerning this, Villella et al. found that behavioral penchant, was more average among fiery partners than young ladies. Obviously, there were additionally sexual presentation separates in client inspiration. Paw?owska and Potembska found that females utilized their telephones more on occasion than men to fulfill their fundamental for demand and closeness, to set up and keep up social affiliations, and to express their assessments (Tran et al., 2014). Besides, women were delineated by a higher reality of dependence on voice calls and messages than men, who got a kick out of the chance to utilize their telephones to tune into music, take photos, make recordings, play fervors, and associate with the Internet more a magnificent piece of the time than females.

Literature Review on the Impacts of Smart phones

Smart phones while used for the medium for learning enables the teachers and the learners in any possible venues or in any possible times. Students may have the access for utilizing any kind of the information that can lead to its distractions from the environments those are considered to be the learning environment (Howells, Ivtzan & Eiroa-Orosa, 2016). Technology is considered to be the blessing in the world as it generally facilitates the fresh and new varieties for the entertainment and the utility which were beyond the thinking’s of the people at least 10 years back. The process of communicating between the humans has developed in a wide aspect with the help of instant messaging, video calling, or even simple old-fashioned texting. The smart phones are being considered to be the device or a tool that consists of the power for making its user as a master in their own and respective sectors in world of digital.

Educational and Social Impact on College Students", found that there is a connection between's the understudies GPAs and their usage of nice get -together. An intriguing finding was that a basic bit of our respondents don't use social territories to look for school related information; regardless, a liberal bit of them bolster hosting on the web consider gatherings. Another finding showed that the understudies have a tendency to use social relationship for social purposes more than the canny ones (Habib et al., 2014). As demonstrated by the authorities, understudies who use their PDAs in the midst of class addresses tend to record less information, survey less information, and perform more deplorable on another choice test than those understudies who avoid using their PDAs in the midst of class. The audit encouraged by derived at some reliance on respondent's mobile phones. Partitions in PDA use by sex were found, with female understudies showing enlarged remote use for security and blending, fervor for brand and diagrams, and in addition signs of abuse.

Summary and Research Questions

Smart phones are considered to be the trend setter in the present scenario of the globe. It has lots of advantages and the disadvantages in the life of every variety of people. Mainly, the students and the adolescents are mainly prone to the trend of the craziness while using the smart phones. The disadvantages of the smart-phones mainly hamper the lives of the teenagers and the student groups.

This report deals with the literature review on the smart-phones, its trends, usages and the impacts in the life of the students.

The research questions based on this literature review can be listed as:

  • What can be the impact of the usage of the smart phones on the health of the students and the youths?
  • What can be the factors that contribute for the increased uses of smart phones within the students?
  • What can be the responsiveness of the students or the youths towards the issue?


Students having smart phones in the University campuses remain busy for replying the messages to their friend circles than to reply in any other important messages that may be related to their studies. Another important part from the theories is that the girl students gets busy mainly on the activities of taking their own images, even few male students are also being found doing the same at that particular time.

A few researchers agrees that, PDA as a mechanical party can help understudies to fulfill or perform well in his/her examinations however astounding scientists battle that, PDAs is a gadget which baffles understudies in getting protected score in their examinations (GPA) for example one professional concentrated on that understudies use PDAs for deceiving in examinations by taking Snapchats and offer them in a social affair of let say WhatsApp groups.

Thus, it can be stated, every student can utilizes their smart phones but the usage of the smart phones need to be maintained in a proper timings, with the educations as well.

Reference lists

Al-Barashdi, H. S., Bouazza, A., & Jabur, N. H. (2015). Smartphone addiction among university undergraduates: a literature review. Journal of Scientific Research & Reports, 4(3), 210-225.

Badia-Melis, R., Mishra, P., & Ruiz-García, L. (2015). Food traceability: New trends and recent advances. A review. food control, 57, 393-401.

Bastawrous, A., & Armstrong, M. J. (2013). Mobile health use in low-and high-income countries: an overview of the peer-reviewed literature. Journal of the royal society of medicine, 106(4), 130-142.

Bender, J. L., Yue, R. Y. K., To, M. J., Deacken, L., & Jadad, A. R. (2013). A lot of action, but not in the right direction: systematic review and content analysis of smartphone applications for the prevention, detection, and management of cancer. Journal of medical Internet research, 15(12).

Bort-Roig, J., Gilson, N. D., Puig-Ribera, A., Contreras, R. S., & Trost, S. G. (2014). Measuring and influencing physical activity with smartphone technology: a systematic review. Sports Medicine, 44(5), 671.

Campbell, S. W. (2015). Mobile communication and network privatism: A literature review of the implications for diverse, weak, and new ties. Review of Communication Research, 3, 1-21.

Cassidy, E. D., Colmenares, A., Jones, G., Manolovitz, T., Shen, L., & Vieira, S. (2014). Higher education and emerging technologies: Shifting trends in student usage. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 40(2), 124-133.

Cocchia, A. (2014). Smart and digital city: A systematic literature review. In Smart city (pp. 13-43). Springer International Publishing.

Habib, M. A., Mohktar, M. S., Kamaruzzaman, S. B., Lim, K. S., Pin, T. M., & Ibrahim, F. (2014). Smartphone-based solutions for fall detection and prevention: challenges and open issues. Sensors, 14(4), 7181-7208.

Harrison, R., Flood, D., & Duce, D. (2013). Usability of mobile applications: literature review and rationale for a new usability model. Journal of Interaction Science, 1(1), 1.

Howells, A., Ivtzan, I., & Eiroa-Orosa, F. J. (2016). Putting the'app'in happiness: a randomised controlled trial of a smartphone-based mindfulness intervention to enhance wellbeing. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(1), 163.

Kim, Y., Briley, D. A., & Ocepek, M. G. (2015). Differential innovation of smartphone and application use by sociodemographics and personality. Computers in Human Behavior, 44, 141-147.

Mobasheri, M. H., Johnston, M., Syed, U. M., King, D., & Darzi, A. (2015). The uses of smartphones and tablet devices in surgery: A systematic review of the literature. Surgery, 158(5), 1352-1371.

Mobasheri, M. H., Johnston, M., Syed, U. M., King, D., & Darzi, A. (2015). The uses of smartphones and tablet devices in surgery: A systematic review of the literature. Surgery, 158(5), 1352-1371.

Tran, K., Morra, D., Lo, V., Quan, S. D., Abrams, H., & Wu, R. C. (2014). Medical students and personal smartphones in the clinical environment: the impact on confidentiality of personal health information and professionalism. Journal of medical Internet research, 16(5).

Harrison, R., Flood, D., & Duce, D. (2013). Usability of mobile applications: literature review and rationale for a new usability model. Journal of Interaction Science, 1(1), 1.

Howells, A., Ivtzan, I., & Eiroa-Orosa, F. J. (2016). Putting the'app'in happiness: a randomised controlled trial of a smartphone-based mindfulness intervention to enhance wellbeing. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(1), 163.

Kim, Y., Briley, D. A., & Ocepek, M. G. (2015). Differential innovation of smartphone and application use by sociodemographics and personality. Computers in Human Behavior, 44, 141-147.

Mobasheri, M. H., Johnston, M., Syed, U. M., King, D., & Darzi, A. (2015). The uses of smartphones and tablet devices in surgery: A systematic review of the literature. Surgery, 158(5), 1352-1371.

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