1. Employ a systems thinking approach to identify and understand the critical roles and phases in IT projects;
2. Explain the basic components of project management and its importance in improving the success of IT projects
3. Adopt a project management framework to write a project management plan, for a simulated real world contemporary information technology project;
4. Apply the process groups model to manage information technology projects of various complexities and scales;
5. Demonstrate decision-making processes to solve a range of information technology project issues;
6. Classify and discuss current issues in IT project management
7. Appreciate the importance of project management practice within an information technology business environment; and
8. Value the significance of software quality in IT projects
Project Management Plan or in short, PMP, is a document that lists different aspects of the project that are decided during the planning phase. It includes project scope, objectives, stakeholder roles, estimated time, budget, risk management plan and others. Any project management plan is incomplete without any of these points and aspects (Kerzner, 2013). However, simply including these aspects without proper clarification or presentation may lead to misunderstanding of the stakeholders and they will not be able to execute the project in the right direction.
In this report, a critical analysis has been conducted on the provided PMP case study and the analysis results have been documented.
Analysis of PMP
As per the provided PMP case study, the project "Sovereign Hill App Development Project 20xx" aims to produce a mobile application for both iPhone and Android devices. This application can enhance the experience of visitors by allowing them to plan visits in advance, provide information about exhibits, provide directions as well as provide walking tours. In this PMP, the authors have discussed different aspects of the project that need to be managed and maintained in order to ensure the success of the project. All these factors mentioned in the PMP by the authors have been critically analyzed.
In the given PMP case study, the authors have provided an organization chart where the roles of each stakeholder and their positions in the project hierarchy have been defined clearly. However, there are no sufficient details about the nature or size of the organization and hence, this project management plan may confuse the reader (sponsors, external stakeholders). As the nature of the organization is not defined, it is not possible to define whether the project will be financially feasible for the organization or not
. Moreover, the organizational chart also does not define the financial, time or other constraints that may be obstruct the duties of the stakeholders and negatively affecting the project in the process.
Management and Technical Approach
Management and technical approach are two most important aspects of a PMP that must be addressed in the right way in order to convince the stakeholders or the readers that the project is feasible and ready to be executed within the limitations of the organization. Despite its advantages, project management is not a silver bullet that guarantees success on all projects. Some projects, such as those involving new technologies, have a higher degree of uncertainty, so it is more difficult to meet their scope, time, and cost goals. Project management is a very broad, often complex discipline (Marchewka, 2014). What works on one project may not work on another, so it is essential for project managers to continue to develop their knowledge and skills in managing projects. It is also important to learn from the mistakes and successes of others. The PMP builds up the structure fundamental for the execution of the plan, acquirement and development of the project referenced in the PMP. The purpose of the PMP is to plot the project degree, spending plan, and parts and obligations of the interfacing organizations. The chosen PMP case study provides execution estimation criteria including real points of reference. A project plan is incorporated portraying errands/exercises, developments, and lengths. The PMP additionally diagrams the specialized execution necessities for the management and control of the project from start of the investigation through definite item conveyance (Turner, 2016). This PMP likewise recognizes the duties of all the project members. Giving a quality report on plan and inside spending plan is the essential target of all project members. The working system depicted in this plan supplements existing controls with the end goal of building up more itemized and particular connections among organizations taking an interest in this project. It is expected that this PMP be a living archive subject to change as conditions warrant or as project encounter directs. A project has an unequivocal start and a clear end. For a home development project, proprietors for the most part have a date as a top priority when they would get expelled of the chance to move into their new home. A project is created utilizing dynamic elaboration or in an iterative form. Each project ought to have a very much characterized objective. For instance, many individuals enlist firms to outline and construct another house, yet each house, similar to every individual, is exceptional (Leach, 2014). Projects are frequently characterized comprehensively when they start, and over the long haul, the particular points of interest of the project move toward becoming clearer. For instance, there are numerous choices that must be made in planning and building another house. It works best to draft preparatory plans for proprietors to affirm before more efficient plans are produced. The project support as a rule gives the bearing and subsidizing to the project. A project includes vulnerability. Since each project is one of a kind, it is now and again hard to characterize the project's goals obviously, appraise precisely to what extent it will take to finish, or decide the amount it will cost. Outside elements likewise cause vulnerability, for example, a provider leaving business or a project colleague requiring unplanned time off. Vulnerability is one of the fundamental reasons project management is so testing, since vulnerability summons chance. A project requires assets, frequently from different regions. Assets incorporate individuals, equipment, programming, or different resources. A wide range of sorts of individuals, ranges of abilities, and assets are expected to construct a home. A project ought to have an essential client or support. Most projects host many intrigued gatherings or partners, yet somebody must play the essential part of sponsorship. Each project is compelled in various ways. Some project managers concentrate on degree, time, and cost imperatives. These restrictions are some of the time alluded to in project management as the triple limitation. To make an effective project, project managers must consider degree, time, and cost and adjust these three frequently contending goals. On the off chance that there are define obtainment goals or requirements, that learning may be vital to the project (Glendon, Clarke & McKenna, 2016). Regardless, supports must give some kind of target goals for a project's degree, time, and cost and characterize other key limitations for a project. The project manager ought to be speaking with the support all through the project to ensure the project lives up to his or her desires. Experienced project managers realize that the project manager should choose which imperatives are most vital on every specific project. On the off chance that time is most imperative, the project manager should frequently change the underlying extension and additionally cost goals to meet the timetable. The project manager may need to acknowledge more hazard and lower quality desires. On the off chance that degree goals are most essential, the project manager may need to alter time and additionally cost goals, diminish hazard, and increment quality desires (Burke, 2013). In the event that communications is most essential, the project manager should concentrate on that. In the chosen PMP, different management aspects including risk management, technical process management and staff management have been discussed. This has made this project plan a very useful one as from this plan, the reader can easily identify what the organization has planned in order to control the management processes and ensure success of the project.
Work to Perform
The adequacy of project management is basic in guaranteeing the accomplishment of any significant endeavor. Ranges of duty regarding the project manager incorporate planning, control and usage. A project ought to be started with a possibility contemplate, where a reasonable meaning of the goals and extreme advantages should be built up. The phases of execution must be clarified at the project planning stage. Disaggregating the phases at its initial point aids the effective advancement of the project by giving various developments that should be expert for culmination. Notwithstanding planning, the control of the developing project is additionally essential to progress. Control requires sufficient observing and input components by which senior and project managers can think about advance against starting projections at each phase of the project (Schwalbe, 2015). Senior managers' help for projects is vital to guarantee specialist and heading all through the project's advance and, likewise to guarantee that the goals of the organization are adequately accomplished inside this procedure. The specific type of help given can impact the level of resistance the project experiences. Learning, abilities, goals and identities are on the whole factors that should be considered inside project management plan (PMP). The project manager and his/her group ought to by and large have the important and essential relational and specialized aptitudes to encourage control over the different exercises inside the project. Checking and criticism additionally empowers the project manager to suspect issues and in this way take pre-emptive restorative measures for the advantage of the project general.
The meaning of a project expressed that it was a movement which had a characterized starting and completion point. Most projects will be close-finished as far as there being a necessity for consummation by a specific point in time. This point might be the after-effect of an outer factor, for example, new enactment, or might be gotten from organizational necessities. Work assets specifically might be a restricting component on the fulfilment of the project. In the short run it is likely that work will be settled in supply. While the general asset accessible may in principle be adequate to finish the project, there might be troubles emerging off the beaten path in which the project has been scheduled (Walker, 2015). That is, there might be various exercises scheduled to occur in the meantime and this may not be conceivable given the measure of assets accessible. This stage is basically worried about connecting a timescale and succession to the exercises to be directed inside the project. Materials and individuals required at each phase of the project are resolved and the time each is to take will be set. It might likewise be incompletely dictated by different requirements. There is probably going to be some connection between the time taken for a project and its cost. An exchange off between the two obliging variables may then be important. There is probably going to be a financial plan for the project and this will unmistakably be a noteworthy limitation. Cost requirements might be set in various courses, for instance as a general budget limitation or as an itemized spending plan separated over various consumption headings. Projects ordinarily include the presentation of another arrangement or something to that affect and, in all cases, new techniques and methods for getting things done. This effect upon crafted by others: the "clients" (Turner, 2016). Client meeting is an essential factor in the achievement of projects and, undoubtedly, the level of client association can impact the degree of help for the project or its usage plan. A fundamental nature of the project manager is that of being a decent communicator, not simply inside the project group itself, but rather with whatever is left of the organization and outside bodies also (the clients might be inner or outer).
There ought to be input on movement times accomplished and their impact in general project. On the off chance that system investigation is utilized, at that point it is fundamental that the system is revised and refreshed to consider the genuine execution accomplished. The project spending plan; budgetary control methods can be utilized as in regard of some other type of spending plan. Step by step instructions must be provided to get the best out of the group when they are as one. On the off chance that the project manager are holding gatherings then they ought to be deliberate and viable. They ought to not just be business as usual. There might be an imperative component in restricting the group together and in building up a group way to deal with planning and checking of execution (Boersma, Schofield & Swinnen, 2013). Quality and execution measures; these should be observed against the first project detail subject to changes concurred with partners over the span of project advancement. It is impossible that the project group will get to know each other in closeness and under the immediate supervision of the project manager. It is substantially more likely that they will work separated more often than not, just getting together at times and just meeting with the project manager every once in a while. Guaranteeing individuals work when the group is separated. The project manager has to set individuals practical due dates and guarantee that they see the significance of their commitment and that their commitment is completely esteemed. Communications are critical as far as spreading data and keeping everybody educated (Lam, 2014). There are sees that colleagues ought to be given data on a need to know premise however this approach can cause issues. Proceeding with responsibility by the group and adherence to the qualities and convictions being sought after by the group must be guaranteed. Change, specifically, should be conveyed to colleagues rapidly and viably.
In this chosen PMP, the project schedule has been provided in a Gantt Chart. As information technology continues to develop, it is significantly more imperative for individuals to create and utilize devices, particularly to manage project schedule. Project management devices and procedures help project managers and their groups in completing work in every one of the ten learning territories. For instance, some prominent time-management instruments and procedures incorporate Gantt charts, project arrange diagrams, and basic way examination. A well known and simple technique to utilize strategy for scheduling is the utilization of Gantt charts. Gantt charts reflect time appraises and can be effortlessly caught on. Flat bars are drawn against a period scale for each project action, the length of which speaks to the time taken to finish. Letters or images can likewise be added to one side of each bar to demonstrate which different exercises should be finished before that one can start (Kerzner, 2013). It is very simple to frame the view that project management and system procedures, for example, CPM and PERT are one and a similar thing. Since systems are significant instruments for graphically indicating connections between project exercises, pinpointing basic exercises and for evaluating the likelihood of project consummation by a specific date, a few managers trust that they constitute the main critical management device in the planning, booking and controlling periods of a project. No project is overseen successfully without a decent Gantt/CPM/PERT approach yet similarly there are other management devices and practices required for viable management of projects.
In the chosen PMP, the authors have prepared a budget plan in an excel file. After analysis, it can be said that they have used the most convenient technique to prepare the project budget estimation and hence, all the necessary expenses have been listed under different categories in the same file. Moreover, this file will also be helpful to calculate the overall cost benefit and possible gaining after the project is completed.
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