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ITS532 Computing | Implementation of Australian Smart Plan in Singapo

Assume that an Australian State Government has reviewed the Singapore Government’s Smart Nation Plan and has decided to implement their own Smart State Plan. This will initially consist of a network of smart sensors and cameras at traffic lights, bus stops, rubbish bins, etc. in their CBD to monitor citizens behaviour and address street crime.

1. Discuss what you see as the personal and ethical implications for your privacy of the proposed Government’s Smart Sensor Network by looking at:

a. The types or categories of people affected by this proposal, 
b. What behavioural changes you might expect to see from normal citizens,
c. Would you expect to see changes in individual behaviours, such as choice of activities, changes in time schedules, etc.

Answer:

Introduction 

In the domain of technology, cloud computing is considered to be a vital aspect. IT field has been improving in the market through the development of various computer resources (Scarborough et al., 2015). The development of IT resources has led to security issues of data and information over the internet. In the domain of cloud computing the security of data is considered to be important. The use of cloud computing has led to various kinds of benefits to organizations. Cybersecurity is a vital aspect for any government or organization. Use of cloud computing has resulted in threats and problems in the various organization. With the passage of time, there is an on growing demand for smart cities in parts of the world (Shatkin, 2014). There is a growing demand for smart cities which will help in forecast and managing flow. Various smart cities in Australia make use of ICT (information and communication technology) for bringing a huge number of changes.

The upcoming pages of the report deals with implementation of Australian Smart plan in Singapore. A proper discussion has been provided regarding the current government plan for implementing Wi-Fi. The smart plan will mainly ensure the fact that all the identity has been checked in both the ways that are electronically and physically. An idea has been provided regarding the fact that how digital identity will help in ensuring privacy. The end part of the report mainly deals with security and issues of privacy involved in operating the mobile device. Along with various advantages and disadvantages of each proposed step has been discussed.

Discussion 

Personal and Ethical implication

Hong Kong is considered to be as one developing territory of China. There are many cases of a data breach in this city (Rakovic et al., 2016). Use of te


chnical development in this particular territory is taken to be an important approach. The government of this country smart action plan which will help in the development of this particular country (Pettit et al., 2015). The plan is mainly designed for local cloud users and various organization making use of cloud computing. Cloud computing services mainly deal with protection of data and information from various users and organization which are operating in the market.

With the help of technology, various cities are changing into digital cities or smart cities. A city can be termed as a smart city if and only if various sections are properly addressed like self-repaired and learned. Challenges are involved in various phases like planning, an operation which is used for encouraging a large number of processes (Kumar, 2015). The information system can be well-known tool which can be used for creating a large number of opportunities for storing important information. Quality of water is transported with the help of efficient and intelligent system. At present pipes used in Singapore are not that much smart and intelligent to treat any kind of faults. Smart cities are totally based on sensors based technology.

By the implementation of network plan almost all the section of people of the society will be affected (Ho, 2017). The plan can easily bring a large number of benefit to people of the society. With the help of proper implementation of the sensor, different people can easily manage their activities like tracking of buses on their smartphone.

The growing technology can help the people to easily monitor their faults prior to any kind of major damage (Hexmoor, 2016). For a healthy and peaceful life, the environment of the city should be monitored on a regular interval. With the help of a good quality of life, an individual can easily live a blissful life. In smart cities, sensors should be at a different location like parks and other location for easily monitoring of air quality. By combining data from sensors any kind of upcoming epidemic can be easily calculated. A major kind of problem which is encountered is data analysis and transmission by various nodes. IoT can easily make use of data which can be used for proper analysis and its collection (Feher, 2015). Sensors which are placed at various regions of cities can be easily connected to the cloud by various methods or ways. Processing of data can be easily done on the cloud by the help of certain protocols and rules. Smart cities have created a platform which is easily accessible and reliable. Wi-Fi technology have resulted in the creation of various functions which generally ranges from multimedia entertainment to calling.

The personal and ethical implication of smart Wi-Fi 

The Internet has created a platform which is considered to be important for day to day work (Demetriou et al., 2017). The use of internet has increased a lot in the last few years. Security issues have been raised in a different section of the world. Different experts have created the problem of public of Wi-Fi system at a different location like metro and other places.

In the last few years, the use of internet has been increased to various domains like business and institutes. 802.11 is depended on a certain mechanism which comprises the security in which data is transmitted (Maier & Verikoukis, 2014). The number of wireless technology application has increased a lot. People can easily have an access to the internet from a various location like the airport and hotels. Privacy issues come into picture when an individual makes use of public hotspot for internet. For example, if an individual makes wants to build then he or she require to give some essential data. It leads to compromise with security as many things can be done with the help of those data.

Various people of society are affected by the given Government Wi-Fi network. By this plan, people can easily have an access to internet irrespective of location (Sivaraman et al., 2015). With the help of this plan, people will carry out various activities like receiving notification and checking emails and messages. A large number of steps can be easily taken for securing data while using public Wi-Fi like:

VPN (Virtual Private Network) is considered one of the best ways of providing security to Network traffic. After the establishment of a connection between the device and public Wi-Fi all the required data are transmitted at the given endpoint (Hua, Oliphant & Hu, 2016). Various software’s are available for mobile phone which starts its application when a connection is established with the Wi-Fi hotspot.

Various users should not perform any kind of FTP (File transfer protocol) over free Wi-Fi. It can be avoided by making use of another kind of protocol which is used in the transfer of data in an unsecured way.

For carrying any kind of attack hacker’s just need to set up a public hotspot at their location. Issues are mainly generated by various browsing activity which is routed with the help of attackers that can help in monitoring (Grassi, Garcia & Fenton, 2017). The issues can be overcome with the help of business which is a need for proper monitoring of network traffic.  

Use of digital identity

The term digital identity that is 2.0 has improved a lot in the recent times. It generally uses technology like Microsoft space and Open ID. It is providing a knowledge for a Facebook server with respect to the user from all over the globe. Digital identity management is a well-known term which helps an individual to define himself in the digital world (Hu, Wu & Shih, 2015). Another term that is identity risk analysis helps people in having an idea regarding the probability of a transaction. An idea regarding founding principles can be gathered by proper design and privacy protection. Digital identity helps in maintaining privacy while using any kind of mobile phone or devices like it helps in eliminating various threats related to digital identity and also helps in managing the online presence of it (Uribe-Pérez et al., 2016). As password authentication has become less secure so two-factor authentication that is biometric has come into action. With the help of this tool, one can easily add layers of security to the top that is the password to replace them together. It can easily lead to improvement of security concern for public figures and necessary ground for new kind of approach of digital identity password.

Security and privacy of digital identity

There are a large number of steps which can be taken for the easy protection of digital identity

Monitoring of credit card: Monitoring of credit on a regular interval can be helpful for saving a breach against data. Identity monitoring generally requires analyzing web information. A number of monitoring problem can be considered to be helpful to overcome issues when he or she is exposed to solve issues or problems (Hooper, Giles-Corti & Knuiman, 2014). This particular process is considered as an efficient way which is used for protection of data. On the biggest advantage of credit, card monitoring is that an individual can prevent theft of identity. By analyzing the credit card reports an individual can say that if someone is trying to have access to credit card or not. One of the major disadvantages of this process is that it is costly in nature. Generally, a single credit card report is entitled every year but the individual needs to pay for any extra credit card report.

Password: The most suitable way of overcoming password issues is the use of various password managers like Norton identity and Dash lane. By password manager, an individual can easily master password which can be used for having access to all the content. Password managers help in generation and managing of 16-digital complex password for each kind of requirement which is provided. It is all about storing a secret kind of information which is needed for building full-featured digital wallet. It ultimately helps in copy pasting values with the help of strong encryption technology. At most of the times, two kinds of phenomenon is needed for creating a complex password that are for less secure sites and secondly for secure sites (Denkovski et al., 2015). There are a large number of advantages of a password manager like password manager helps in capturing information and removes the need of remembering those credentials in the future. Another feature of a password manager is that it can create a random password which is a mixture of uppercase and lowercase. As soon as the user creates a new site, the password manager offers a secure way which is used for generating passwords. One of the biggest drawbacks of password manager comprises the security of data which is provided to it. An attacker can easily install the keystroke-logger program on a system and can easily record for providing a master password.

Phishing and social engineering: Forgetting the information, there is always the involvement of fraudster.  A fraudster can easily get the access to required information with the help of mobile phones and attachment provided through email. The most suitable way for protection against this attack is to educate an individual on daily basis(Feher, 2016). Social engineering comes up with a certain number of advantages like providing strength against ethical hacking, provides an idea regarding the security policies of the organization and lastly, it helps in managing the security risk in the much better way.

Back up of important data on the regular interval: At the time of ransomware attack victims can easily have an idea regarding the fact that how they can easily have a back of important data (Chiu, 2018). Now if an attack takes place then the required files can be extracted by the backup. Vital data should be back up at regular interval by IT experts so all the required information are secured in the data centers. Back up of data comes up with an advantage like flexible policies for backup of various data on the given volume, backup of a small subset of folders, chain of incremental achieves. Apart from advantages, there is a certain number of disadvantage like slow speed while working on a large volume of data, back up of the operating system is not suitable and lastly, it works within a limited set of the file system.

Conclusion 

The above discussion relates us to the fact that this report is all about reviewing the Singapore state government plan and to implement their own smart state plan. The plan mainly comprises of the idea of implementation of smart sensors at traffic lights and rubbish bins. The plan will help in monitoring any kind of wrongdoing on the roadsides. The above pages of the report mainly deal with four important parameters that are savvy sensors, Wi-Fi hotspot, advanced character and controls for security and protocol. The government plan for implementing free Wi-Fi throughout the city can be considered as a progression of the system which is spread throughout the city. After that various kind of the ramification of security for provided government structure has been discussed in details. The given smart citizen plan will help in citizen in providing services which can be used in dual ways that is a physical way and electronic way. The last section mainly deals with a series of steps which is used for providing security and privacy to digital identity when devices in such an environment. Along with this, a list of advantages and disadvantages has been discussed in details.

References 

Chiu, S. W. K. (2018). City states in the global economy: Industrial restructuring in Hong Kong and Singapore. Routledge.

Demetriou, S., Zhang, N., Lee, Y., Wang, X., Gunter, C. A., Zhou, X., & Grace, M. (2017, July). HanGuard: SDN-driven protection of smart home WiFi devices from malicious mobile apps. In Proceedings of the 10th ACM Conference on Security and Privacy in Wireless and Mobile Networks (pp. 122-133). ACM.

Denkovski, D., Rakovic, V., Ichkov, A., Atanasovski, V., & Gavrilovska, L. (2015, September). REM-facilitated Smart-WiFi. In Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks (DySPAN), 2015 IEEE International Symposium on (pp. 277-278). IEEE.

Feher, K. (2015). Corporate Digital Identity: Key Factors of Policy and Business.

Feher, K. (2016). Digital identity: The transparency of the self. In Applied Psychology: Proceedings of the 2015 Asian Congress of Applied Psychology (ACAP 2015) (pp. 132-143).

Grassi, P. A., Garcia, M. E., & Fenton, J. L. (2017). Digital identity guidelines. NIST Special Publication, 800, 63-3.

Hexmoor, H. (2016, January). Compelling use cases for the internet of things. In Proceedings on the International Conference on Internet Computing (ICOMP) (p. 20). The Steering Committee of The World Congress in Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Applied Computing (WorldComp).

Ho, E. (2017). Smart subjects for a Smart Nation? Governing (smart) mentalities in Singapore. Urban Studies, 54(13), 3101-3118.

Hooper, P., Giles-Corti, B., & Knuiman, M. (2014). Evaluating the implementation and active living impacts of a state government planning policy designed to create walkable neighborhoods in Perth, Western Australia. American Journal of Health Promotion, 28(3_suppl), S5-S18.

Hu, M. C., Wu, C. Y., & Shih, T. (2015). Creating a new socio-technical regime in China: Evidence from the Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-City. Futures, 70, 1-12.

Hua, Y., Oliphant, M., & Hu, E. J. (2016). Development of renewable energy in Australia and China: A comparison of policies and status. Renewable Energy, 85, 1044-1051.

Kumar, T. V. (2015). E-governance for smart cities. In E-governance for smart cities (pp. 1-43). Springer, Singapore.

Maier, M., & Verikoukis, C. (2014, July). Inside smart FiWi-HetNets and the explosion of mobile data traffic. In Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2014 16th International Conference on (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Pettit, C. J., Klosterman, R. E., Delaney, P., Whitehead, A. L., Kujala, H., Bromage, A., & Nino-Ruiz, M. (2015). The online what if? Planning support system: A land suitability application in Western Australia. Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy, 8(2), 93-112.

Rakovic, V., Denkovski, D., Atanasovski, V., & Gavrilovska, L. (2016, May). Radio resource management based on radio environmental maps: Case of Smart-WiFi. In Telecommunications (ICT), 2016 23rd International Conference on (pp. 1-5). IEEE.

Scarborough, H., Sahin, O., Porter, M., & Stewart, R. (2015). Long-term water supply planning in an Australian coastal city: Dams or desalination?. Desalination, 358, 61-68.

Shatkin, G. (2014). Reinterpreting the Meaning of the ‘S ingapore Model’: State Capitalism and Urban Planning. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 38(1), 116-137.

Sivaraman, V., Gharakheili, H. H., Vishwanath, A., Boreli, R., & Mehani, O. (2015, October). Network-level security and privacy control for smart-home IoT devices. In Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), 2015 IEEE 11th International Conference on (pp. 163-167). IEEE.

Uribe-Pérez, N., Hernández, L., de la Vega, D., & Angulo, I. (2016). State of the art and trends review of smart metering in electricity grids. Applied Sciences, 6(3), 68

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