- Developing Self-Awareness (Chapter 1)
You are a sales manager in the Northwestern division of a large clothing manufacturing company. Recently, you and some other managers in your division attended the yearly national sales meeting in Chicago. Just now one of the other managers who attended the conference has come into your office. He says, “While I was at the conference, I took out some friends of mine in Chicago to dinner at an expensive restaurant, and charged it to my expense account. I said they were potential clients. Now my boss is questioning that. He says he wants proof. Would you write him a note saying you were there and that they were really potential clients?” What will you do? How will you do it? Why?
Identification of personal stage of moral development, explanations of how stage is likely to influence behavior, identification of own interpersonal orientation, explanation of how orientation is likely to affect what one is likely to do.
You are working in a lower-level managerial position in a Boise firm. Your boss stops by to visit you one day, and says “I have got this problem with my boss. She is new to the firm, and seems to be taking pleasure in turning everything upside down. She has instituted new reporting procedures, new meeting schedules, new budgeting process, new everything! Now, I have been here far 15 years, and the old system makes sense to me. I have tried to be diplomatic by holding my peace, but I do not see any reason to change. If you ask me, I think she is one of those libbers, out to show her power.” What will you do?
How will you do it? Why? Aspects that should be addressed / included in your answer:
Identification of possible blocks to creativity, identification of a creative analogy, bringing back analogy to provide a creative solution or new viewpoint.
Your office neighbor talks very loudly on the phone. It is very hard for you not to be disturbed in your work. You have talked to her about it in the past but it keeps going on. You are sitting in your office. It is happening once more and you are quite irritated about it. You have decided to confront this person now. What will you do? How will you do it? Why?
Aspects that should be addressed / included in your answer: Use of recognizable conflict resolution approach, explanation of why this approach is appropriate, identification and explanation of reasonable alternative
You are in charge of a large sausage manufacturing company. Up until now, everything has been running smoothly, but you believe it is time for a change. You have been reading about empowerment and teamwork, and you think that if you can reorganize the employees into selfdirected teams, your sausage company has a chance of becoming the most profitable sausage company in the United States. Your management philosophy is that any profits the company makes should be shared with the employees. Employees are concerned however, because they think that any change may be accompanied by downsizing and layoffs. What will you do? How will you do it? Why?
Aspects that should be addressed / included in your answer: Establishing a climate of positivity, creating readiness for change, articulating a positive vision, identifying and explaining actions to be taken.
The sales manager should not write the note because it is unethical and instead report it to report the same to the higher authorities. The case study presents a unique situation of ethical dilemma before the sales manager. An analysis of the case study shows that there are three main salient aspects. The first aspects is that the manager in question took out his friends for dinner and presented the same as professional expenses. This points out to misrepresentation of facts which would also have financial implications on the books of accounts of the company. The second aspect is that he wanted to present his friends as clients which was once again a matter of misrepresentation (Knoll et al. 2016). The third aspect was that he wanted to sales manager to support his unethical actions by writing down a note that he was a participant at the dinner. The third action was involved both misrepresentation and fraudulent practices. As far as the theory of moral development by Kohlberg is concerned, both the sales manager and the unethical manager were in the post conventional stage of moral development (Crain 2015). The post conventional stage of moral development has two stages namely, social contract orientation and universal-ethical-principal orientation. According to the first stage, every person behaves after his personal perceptions of rights and values. The people in this stage of development regard laws as social contracts and are also ready to violate laws which do not profit them. It can be pointed out that in the unethical manager violated the company’s reimbursement norms and wanted to misrepresent his personal expenses as professional expenses (Thau et al. 2015). Thus, it can be analyzed that the unethical violated the employee reimbursement policies because it did not serve his interest.
The sales manager followed the second stage of the post conventional stage where he followed certain principles and infringing them would make him feel guilty. The manager in this stage concerned on aspects like equality and dignity before taking any decisions. The case study does not provide any proof that the sales manager supported the unethical manager by writing a note to certify that he was present at the dinner. It can be hence be assumed from this analysis that he did not support the manager because writing the note tantamount to misrepresentation which was unethical (Khaneja, Bhargava and Gupta 2017).
The sales manager should inform the senior managers about the unethical acts of the manager and the latter’s insistence of involving in the unethical act. He should hold a meeting with the senior managers in person and convey them about the incidence. He should also inform them in writing from his official email id. This would point out his interpersonal orientation to abide by the company policies before the senior management. This morally and ethically aligned interpersonal orientation would enable the sales manager create a stronger image of himself before the management. This would also enforce the trust of the management in this professional ethics. This factors would enable him to gain appraisal and promotions.
The sales manager as pointed out should reveal the unethical intentions of the manager before the senior management because that would show moral orientation of the former towards abiding by the company policies. An analysis of the situation presented in the case study clearly shows that ethical orientation have great influence on one’s actions. The orientation of the manager was not aligned to the company policies and he wanted to misrepresent his personal expenses as professional expenses (Holm and Severinsson 2014). The sales manager was interpersonal orientation of the sales manager was aligned to professional ethics.
The analysis of the case study also shows that the fraudulent activities of the manager would have serious effect on the company. The first effect of the fraudulent activities of the manager of charging his personal expenses as professional expenses to the firm would increase the expenses of the firm. This would result in the company earning lower net profit which would create negative image of the firm before the investors (Bishop, DeZoort and Hermanson 2016). The investors may divest in the firm owing to lower profits which would affect its capital base which would be the second outcome of the unethical activity of the manager.
The second effect of indulging the unethical activities of the manager would be increase in the rate of fraudulent activities within the company. It can be pointed out that the manager would have subordinate who report to him. He would also approve their personal expenses within his power and represent the same as professional expenses (Knechel and Salterio 2016). These expenses would be charged to the profit and loss account of the company which would eat further into the net profits.
The third effect of the indulging in unethical practices of the manager would encourage him to exploit his position and indulge into more illegal activities like unethical sharing of data. These actions would have serious implications on the company and its data security. Moreover, this wide spread lack of ethics would hamper the organizational culture and values of the company. Thus, it can be established from the discussion that the sales manager should not assist the unethical manager by writing the note (Tassadaq and Malik 2015). He should instead report the incident to the higher authority and enable them to take appropriate steps to prevent unethical actions in the firm.
The situation portrayed gives a clear picture of miscommunication and a potential barrier to the development of the organization, which can be defined as a situation of compression, whereby the constraints tend to be very artificial as they are a product of carelessness. The flaw that lies in the situation is from both the ends. It is expected of a superior to issue directives to the subordinates and the subordinates are supposed to abide by them. That is the basic rule governing the process of transfer of communications in an organizational arrangement, up and down the levels of hierarchy. However it does not imply that an office holder at a higher level is supposed to act autocratically, according to the whims and fancies. In an organizational set up, excessive bossiness on part of the authorities can act as a demotivating force. It is a barrier to the process of development. On the other hand the element of misunderstanding coupled with a miscommunication is quite evident as well, which can be defined as non-complacency, as the manager did not ask any question to the Boss. Maybe he wanted not to seem inquisitive. There is every possibility that the lower level manager have misunderstood the new set of directives as a reflection of high-handedness on part of the Boss. The Boss on the other hand could have tried to avoid situations whereby she would not have had to rush with the implementation of her decision. Even if she had to do so, she could have discussed the matter with her subordinate and could have been a bit more persuasive in her approach. This shows that the Boss could have had a vertical thinking mentality, and she disliked alternative views. Any step that coerces an employee to obey and follow the rules strictly shall demotivate them. Another potential barrier to the process of development that could be on part of the manager was his reluctance to change the way the manager functioned for 15 years. This kind of attitude is related to commitment and hints at the tendency on part of an individual to generalize a bit too much on the experiences gathered in the past. Employees of an organization, who are not welcoming of any form of change are one of the major cause behind the organization being deprived of chances of development. Situations around human beings are subject to change, and along with it changes the methods of responding to the changes. Naturally, sticking to old ideas and habits shall not bear any conducive consequences for the organizations. It is also not very surprising that individuals placed at a higher level in the organizational hierarchy could show signs of being superior. Putting up a haughty behaviour, not being flexible enough to take suggestions from subordinates and expecting everyone to be followers of orders are certain outwards signs that are exhibited to make the factor of superiority very manifest (Zuiderwijk and Janssen 2014). This kind of attitude is not beneficial for the proper functioning of an organization. This affects the psyche of the employees negatively since they are made to feel unimportant and their contribution to the organization is insignificant. An efficient organization rests on the vital support base of the feedback mechanism. Exchange of ideas enables testifying the credibility and potentiality of one idea against the other, by adding a touch of vibrancy to the entire process of decision making. Both the theoretical and the practical knowledge is necessary for a wholesome developmental process (Paulin and Suneson 2015). If the feedbacks of the employees are not given due consideration, they get demotivated to devote their enterprise for the betterment of the organization any further (Grudin 2017). These are the possible implications that could be inferred from the situation. Rigidity and superiority complex on part of the Boss on one hand, and on the other hand lack of enthusiasm to change and being a victim of miscommunication on part of the manager are the obstacles to the process of development that could be identified from the given situation. Having said that, the discussion shall now be devoted to finding the necessary solution for overcoming them by providing a constructive analogy. On part of the Boss, she must realize that there is no alternative to a flexible system of functioning. Rules and regulations are necessary, as they aid in disciplining every aspect of the organization for fulfillment of the desired goal of the organization (Aarons et al. 2015). However, it must be kept in mind that rules and regulations should act as facilitators, if they tend to block the smooth functioning of an organization due to harsh imposition then that is not conducive to the larger interests of the organization. Alongside that, a Boss is supposed to be the human agent who shall be motivating individuals by welcoming their viewpoints. Good Leaders are always open for newer ideas and opportunities to explore, they are not rigid. An Ideal Leader does not intimidate any of the subordinates, rather the person encourages and nurtures leadership qualities in others for the producing leaders for the future generations (Gerasimov and Gerasimov 2014). For an organization to prosper a good leader is thus inevitable, who shall effectively balance all functional aspects of an organization. On part of the manager, the issue could be solved if the person occupying the post shows adequate effort to be welcoming to the change. Instead of expressing disgust for the changes, the manager could ask for clarifications and explanations as to why the change is being effected, and what shall be the positive effects of it. Based upon that, the manager must convey the concerns. This form of behaviour is called being sustainable, whereby the individuals is expected to be cohesive (Gagliardi et al. 2015). Blatant refusal to put up with some variations on the grounds of reluctance to move out of the comfort zone is not a very desirable behaviour. Rather, the refusal should be backed by concreteness of logic and reason. Since an initiative is being inhibited, it is expected some alternatives are prescribed against it. Naturally, an individual has to be imaginative and must improve oneself by opening up to the challenges, which is the key to becoming sustainable in an organization (Siedlok and Hibbert 2014). The seriousness of miscommunication has already been exhibited in form of spoiling of the inter-personal relationship between the manager and the Boss. Such instances should be avoided by clear and transparent communication, conveyed consensually and convincingly. It must not seem like dumping of duties and orders on someone to follow (St-Laurent, Hagerman and Hoberg 2017). These are the ways in which barriers to development could be overcome.
Conflicts are a part and parcel of every collectivity since human beings are not equal. In terms of saturation level, intelligence and the wavelength of thought process human beings tend to differ from each other, and that is quite natural (Einarsen et al. 2018). However it is necessary that effective methods of resolving the conflict be devised in a civilized manner. An organization comprises of matured individuals with a sense of self-respect and dignity, hence it is commonsensical to assume that methods of resolving the conflict shall not hurt that vital human faculty (Mihalache et al. 2014). Entering into dialogues and negotiations at a personal level should be the first step. When such dignified ways of meting out the issue fails to bring about any satisfactory result, the matter should only then be escalated to the higher authorities who shall intervene to ensure that a common ground is reached at by both the parties (Schlaerth, Ensari and Christian 2013). Conflict Resolution is an autonomous branch of enquiry within the broader field of management studies, on which several theorists have opined their viewpoints with regard to the issue as per their inferences. Regardless of the differences and discrepancies between their theorizations, there are five similar methods which have been stressed upon by them invariably. Hence it can be deduced that the methods of resolution which shall be discussed now are the basic and the standard ones which can be applied all instances of differences at organizational level. The common methods are- finding out ways of accommodating; choosing to avoid the situation as far as possible; entering into collaborations for jointly finding out a solution; accepting to compromise with the situation acquiescently and finally when all peaceful processes prove them to be unworthy of bringing about any favourable result, steps should be taken to treat that matter with utmost seriousness by informing the higher authorities (DeChurch, Mesmer-Magnus and Doty 2013). As it has already been discussed that invoking the interference of the higher authorities right at the outset is not a sign of maturity and a desired way of resolving conflicts at the organizational level, hence inter-personal communications should be the desired step at the initial level. The first four methods, out of the five ones as mentioned are the ways in which conflicts can be solved personally. Accommodating does not necessarily mean an undue burden of compromise. It entails the sense that an individual acknowledges the fact that the particular issue is a result of some difficulties faced by an employee, hence others must pool in the necessary support to help the distressed person out in all ways possible. It is necessary since an organization functions like a machine composed of many units and sub-units. Failure to perform in the desired manner by any one sub-unit can paralyze the system in totality. Hence a team spirit and empathy is needed to address the issue by accommodating. Very similar to this method is that of collaboration. The only difference being that it calls for logistical support, while accommodating is more emotional and abstract form of support. The element of tangibility and obviousness is very much explicit in collaborative efforts (Bradley et al. 2013). The method of compromise on the other hand calls for the need to find out ways in which both the parties could reach at a solution by means of adjusting themselves. For an act of compromise to be called as justified, it has to be ensure both the parties in a proportionate degree willingly give up on something they prefer. If it is one sided, then it is unjustified (Stipanowich and Lamare 2014). The act of avoiding can have two implications, one positive and one negative. The positive aspect of it would be relenting to the request of the colleague and avoiding any such actions that is likely to cause the disturbance. On the negative side, it entails cutting off communications with the person who had not relented to the request at all (Balliet and Van Lange 2013). The final and the most serious step that could be taken in this regard could be of reporting about the issue to the higher authorities expecting of them to take and action. It has been defined as a competitive step as such a step can incur unfavourable consequences on part of the individual who has repeatedly failed to relent to the requests from fellow employees. All instances need not be as negative, as some times employees acknowledge the fact that the issue cannot be handled by them and they inform the authorities not with the intention of getting the individual causing trouble inadvertently penalized (Klerkx and Aarts 2013). Having explained the popular methods, now the discussion shall be devoted to analyzing a practical conflict situation whereby an individual happens to be a cause of trouble to the fellow employees by speaking loudly over the telephone. The person has despite requests have not payed any heed to the situation. Accomodating is not a solution any more .Avoiding the person by collectively boycotting and ostracization shall not be helpful in the long term. The possible ways of finding the solution areas follows. A collaborative effort to persuade the individual by gathering few other employee could be the last possible peaceful way of dealing with the situation before reporting to the authorities for undertaking disciplinary actions. The best solution in this regard should be that the employee adopts the positive aspect of avoidance as discussed. He/She can talk outside office premises over the phone whenever required, that shall be a wise method to avoiding causing inconvenience to others, keeping the dignity of the self and the good will of colleagues intact. The solution providing mechanism must thus follow this particular cycle of first establishing a positivity in the environment to make people ready for accepting and responding positively to the vision being articulated. That shall be generating a sense of commitment and the net result shall be the effecting of the change.
The most important task of a leader of an organization is to motivate and instill a sense of comfort in the minds of the employees so that they do not panic whenever a change in the functional aspect of the system is necessitated. This leads to another important quality that a leader is supposed to have, that is of a capacity to convey the vision in a clear and unambiguous way to the employees (Hunt 2015). In this particular section, a hypothetical situation about a sausage making factory of the United States of America and role of the leader to deal with the employees so that the planned change in the set-up is received well by the employees shall be taken up for analysis. The management of the firm has undertaken the decision to reorganize the work-force into self-directed units based on specialization in order to increase productivity and fulfill the target of being the most profitable sausage making factory in the country. Such a decision has been arrived at for sharing the profits of the company with employees, however that has raised inhibitions in the minds of the employees about the possible negative repercussions for the ushering of a new system of functioning. The matter of concern herein is thus to create a climate of positivity in the organization and make the employees accept the changes in a positive light. The leader is expected to play the role of projecting the goal of organization effectively in order to drive the employees favourably disposed to the vision. For the sake of affecting any structural adjustment, the first and foremost step that should be undertaken is of conveying the plan to the employees in a detailed matter and then asking for the feedback, or any suggestions that they would like to propose from their end (Light and Dana 2013). Ad hoc imposition of decision is as undesirable as hasty implementation of it. The adjustments should be brought about in a gradual manner so that the unprecedented negative backlashes could identified and the conditions causing it could be effectively removed. The concerns and worries of the employees should be patiently listened to, in form of either a group discussion or a personal conversation session so that employees could express themselves better without holding back anything in their minds (Martin, McNally and Kay 2013). In an organization, the aspect of trust is very vital for smoothening the flow of communication, and rendering a degree of effectiveness. The existence of mutual trust in an organization is displayed when two way communication, both bottom-up and top-down approaches are applied (Brown and Mason 2017). The top-down communication should not just concentrate on just dissemination of information and directives, but also convey adequate amount of appreciation for the work and the viewpoints of the subordinates. Similarly, the bottom-up communication should be transparent and clear enough for the persons at the helm of affairs to comprehend. Through this process of indulging in dialogue a constructive solution shall come about in a fair manner, which shall suit the temperament of all the members of the organization. These steps of indulging in dialogue, building of trust, appreciating each other’s contribution shall help in building a positive climate in the organization which is inevitable for making the employees accept the changes in the organization (Carlsson et al. 2013). A positive climate creates better receptibility of the ideas being conveyed in a positive light. It becomes very clear now that the crisis situation calls for the expression of entrepreneurial skills. The situation given is extremely sensitive and any form of mishandling by taking any wrongs step can prove to be detrimental to the interests of the organization. The employees in the given context are quite perplexed as to what shall be the outcome of the new route that the organization is about to undertake. An entrepreneur is in this given situation expected to imbibe the pessimistic minds of the employees with the light of optimism, only then shall they be mentally equipped to be favourably disposed towards the decision of the administrators (Dorado and Ventresca 2013). The entrepreneur must very skilfully plan out ways and means to make the employees follow up with the actions necessary for the sake of the organization which has decided to take a risk. Thus it becomes very clear that before expecting the employees to be physically capable of some steps contrary to their routinized structure, they must be properly groomed and trained and prepared to accept the challenge. The employees must be taken into confidence, and also assured that the benefits of the company shall add to their benefits as well. The message of the vision being nurtured by the organization must be conveyed to the employees in a very simple language without compromising with the gravity of the content (Estrin, Korosteleva and Mickiewicz 2013). The employees must be convinced of the relevance of the initiative of the organization. In this regard not just the aspect of the stiffness of the competition, but also the realities posed by the market situations must be conveyed to them. This is not possible without proper research and the consumer behaviour and expectations must be taken into account. A comparative analysis of the achievements of the organization in terms of the growth it has achieved on the basis of the initiative of the employees must be conveyed very convincingly (Foley and O'Connor 2013). It shall augment the morale and the industriousness of the employees to perform better and contribute to the organization better. A fine balance of persuasiveness and assertiveness is expected on part of the entrepreneur for executing the task. The entire process of appealing to the employees hints at the fact that the employees are the backbone of an organization, hence the well-being of the employees shall ensure the development of the organization as well. Any changes instituted at the level of the organization shall not bear any fruitful result if the employees and their interests are neglected. Along with that another vital point is the role of the entrepreneur in steering the business to the right direction. Both are inevitable for an organization to flourish and derive benefits out of the opportunities.
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