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MBA6203 Project Management-International Chain

The Sanctuary resort operators will require a dependable supply of fresh fruit and vegetables,seafood, eggs and other local organic produce. They request access for their guests to the pristine coral reefs in Utopian sovereign waters, which are rated as world-standard, and would be prepared to employ Utopians as tourist operators, dive instructors, ecoeducation providers and fishing adventure specialists.

Resort guests will have access to emergency medical care if needed. Elysium is also a temporary evacuation site for Utopia in the event of a natural disaster or other emergency. The resident population of Utopia is to be capped at
5,000 households (about 18,000 people). Benefits to Utopians will be shared equally so that all citizens are provided with the same living standard, but everyone between the ages of 18 to 55, who are physicallyable, are expected to contribute to national GDP,including education, administration, medical,infrastructure maintenance, food production, export opportunities and other essential services. 

Answer:

Utopia is the youngest nation in the world and it needs development through establishment of new industries so that it can have a sustainable future. For this, UNHCR has planned gathered funds by selling its satellite island, Elysium for $50 million to one International chain of resorts so that sustainable industries can be developed on the island. The project would be executed in two phases that would involve construction of householders in the first phase and construction of tourist resorts on the island in the second phase.

The first phase is already underway and is expected to be completed by 2020 after which the second phase of tourism industry construction would begin. In the stage 1, the project involves construction of 5000 households with other facilities including administrative building, hospital, airstrip, catering, school, power, sewage, water facilities, and deep-water jetty. The phase two would involve construction of a resort that can accommodate 2,500 guests, this plan has been prepared for the second phase of the project that involves construction of eco resorts on the Island and establishment of self-sustainable industries including agriculture, fisheries, tourism, pearl and jewellery harvesting, and hydro-electric supply.

Project management Plan

Projected Integration Management. 

Project integration involves identification, definition, combination, and coordination of project management processes and activities. It involves development of project charter project management plan, direction and management of the project work, monitoring and controlling of project, change control, and project closure.

A project charter can be developed using inputs like agreements, business documents, and organization process assets that are processed using tools and techniques like data collection, meetings, and expert judgements. Output of these processes would come out in the form of a project charter and an assumption log. Various different outputs that result from different project integration activities include project charter, assumptions log, project management plan, deliverables, work performance data, issues log, change requests, lessons learned, and project closure report.

Project Charter

Project Stakeholders: Major stakeholders of the tourism resort construction project are project sponsor, project owner, island communities, project manager, suppliers, contractors, and government. Project owner and sponsor are the high influence stakeholders who would be involved in high level decision making. Project manager, contractor, suppliers, and workers are the high interest stakeholders who would be involved in delivering the project and thus, need to be engaged closely. Residentials, tourists, and communities in local areas would be the end users or customers of the reports after they are built and thus,

their inputs would be taken during requirement gathering to understand their needs such that the same can be reciprocated in the project design and construction plan. Some requirements that are identified for customers of the resorts are eco-friendly construction, assurance of safety at site, use of high quality of construction material, and provision of all desired facilities to support tourism development. Government would be playing the support function as well as a governing body for the construction development and then the promotion of the same for the development of other industry and their integration with the resort facilities.

Project Description: The project involves construction of the resorts on the island with accommodation provided for 2,500 families or tourists visiting the resort. The project construction once completed would also involve development of other industries through support from tourism activities associated with the resort services and these industries would include agriculture, fisheries, tourism, pearl and jewellery harvesting, and hydro-electric supply.

Goals: The goals of the current tourism project are the following –

  • Construction of resort that attracts maximum tourists to the location
  • Provision of all the facilities needed by the tourist by construction and establishment of various industry structures
  • Assurance of the safety of the people residing in the island and visiting it through the appropriate use of safety measures
  • Completion of the project within the give budget so that profits can be obtained from the tourist services

Project Scope:  Activities that are within the scope of the project include –

  • Procurement of materials and equipment’s needed for construction
  • Designing of the resort architecture for the development work
  • Excavation and cleaning of the site upon inspection for building the foundation
  • Construction of the foundation and the resort
  • Construction of windows, interiors, and provision of electrical and plumbing facilities
  • Painting outside each of the resort structure
  • Construction of the road from resort and the public infrastructure on the island
  • Compliance with the quality standards for the construction material and fabricated construction units
  • Establishment of the agriculture industry with support from resort facilities by integrating their services with output from the agriculture on the island.
  • Establishment of the gems and jewellery industry with support from resort facilities by integrating their services with output from the agriculture on the island.
  • Establishment of the fisheries industry with support from resort facilities by integrating their services with output from the agriculture on the island.
  • Establishment of the hydro-electricity industry with support from resort facilities by integrating their services with output from the agriculture on the island.

Project management methodology:

The tourism project would make use of the PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) methodology involving standard phases for the project management including initiation, planning, execution, control and closure. With these phases, the project would follow the ten management areas of the project management as defined in the guidelines. Thus, sub0plans would be developed for the management of all the areas that include cost, schedule, quality, risk, scope, procurement, stakeholder, environment, integration. Each of these management areas would have individual processes that would be utilized for management and control of the project development areas.

Risk Analysis: The risks on the project would be analysed based on the risk analysis process define in the PMBOK guide which involved identification, assessment, and response planning for identified risks. T


he identities risks would be assessed based on their probability of occurrence and the impact on the project and the results of analysis would determine what action must be taken in response to managing those risks from acceptance, avoidance, mitigation and transfer.

Quality Plan: The quality of the project would be maintained by complying to certain quality standards defined for the construction material, construction work and the safety of the workers as well as those passing by the construction site during the project as well as those using the resort after it is being constructed.

The project would go through the quality assurance process and quality control. A number of different tools can be used for quality assurance here including checklist, control charts, fishbone diagrams, histogram, pareto chart, and scatter diagram. In this project, control charts and histograms would be used that would record the progressing quality of the project to enable comparison with the plan and judgement on if the quality specifications are being met. The quality would be defined in two forms on the tourism project and those would be product quality involving considerations of materials and construction units and project quality that would be defined by the capacity of the project team to meet the project goals within its constraints.

WBS

WBS

Task Name

0

Utopia - Tourism development project

1

   Designing

1.1

      Island structure

1.2

      Resort architecture

1.3

      Industrial structures

2

   Sanctuary Resort Construction

2.1

      Requirement gathering

2.2

      Vendor selection

2.3

      Construction contracts

2.4

      Construction

2.4.1

         Foundation

2.4.2

         Electrical

2.4.3

         Plumbing

2.4.4

         Lift installation

2.4.5

         Garden

2.4.6

         Parking lot

2.4.7

         Rooms

2.4.8

         Roads

3

   Industrial development

3.1

      Tourism

3.2

      Develop agriculture

3.3

      Establish fisheries

3.4

      Pearl and jewelry harvesting

3.5

      Hydroelectric Supply

4

   Project administration

4.1

      Scope Management

4.2

      Schedule Management

4.3

      Cost Management

4.4

      Risk Management

4.4.1

         Risk Identification

4.4.2

         Risk Assessment

4.4.3

         Risk Control

4.5

      Quality Management

4.5.1

         Quality Assurance

4.5.2

         Quality Control

4.6

      Communication management

4.7

      Resource Management

4.8

      Procurement Management

4.8.1

         Procurement Documentation

4.8.2

         Bidding

4.8.3

         Contractor selection

4.8.4

         Contract arrangement

4.9

      Environment Management

4.9.1

         Stakeholder Management

4.9.2

         Integration Management

5

   Environment management

5.1

      Internal environment

5.2

      External environment

6

   Project closure

6.1

      Documentation

6.2

      Deliverables approval

6.3

      Sign off

Project scope management involves planning, data collection, scope definition, WBS, scope validation, and scope control. The scope management plan would involve use of requirements management plan for planning of scope, requirements traceability matrix for requirement gathering, scope statement for scope definition, and scope baseline WBS. Change requests and work performance information would later be used for scope validation and control.

Scope Management plan

A scope management plan can be developed for the tourism project to ensure that project scope elements are met on time and are controlled such that resources are optimized to be used on the project only as planned.

Project Scope: Activities that are within the scope of the tourism project include –

  • Procurement of materials and Designing of the resort architecture for the development work
  • Excavation and cleaning of the site upon inspection for building the foundation
  • Construction of the resort and the public infrastructure on the island
  • Establishment of the agriculture industry with support from resort facilities by integrating their services with output from the agriculture on the island.
  • Establishment of the gems and jewellery industry with support from resort facilities by integrating their services with output from the agriculture on the island.
  • Establishment of the fisheries industry with support from resort facilities by integrating their services with output from the agriculture on the island.
  • Establishment of the hydro-electricity industry with support from resort facilities by integrating their services with output from the agriculture on the island.

The activities that are not in the scope of the project include –

  • Marketing of the constructed facilities to the public to gain tourists
  • Generating profits from selling the resort facilities to the tourist visiting the island
  • Requirements traceability Matrix

Requirement traceability matrix is project management tool that can be used to define the high-level requirements of a project. In the case of the resort construction project, the matrix would record description of the project requirements, associated stakeholder who is in support of the requirement, business justification to include that in the project, and identification of the person who would be responsible for the management of the requirement.

This matrix would be prepared based on the inputs received from the stakeholders during the requirement gathering process in the initiation stage of the project. Some of these requirements are listed in the table below but these are only reflecting upon the major requirements for each type of stakeholder while actual requirements can differ and the list would expand based on the inputs that would be received from the stakeholders when gathering the requirements from them through a formal meeting.

Stakeholder group

Requirement

Business justification

Responsibility

Residents

Safety during construction

It would ensure that passers-by are not injured and thus, the reputation of the contractor or the tourism organization would not be at stake

Contractor

Government

Reports and project documents to be submitted for permits

Without permits, government can stop the construction organization in the middle of the project from proceeding its work

Project Manager

Workers

Safety at construction site and sufficient payment to be made against their services

Safety of workers will ensure high productivity and avoidance of risk of absence of a workers which would support the project in its progress and avoid delays that can add to the cost for rework, delays and hiring

Contractor

Suppliers

Sufficient information to be provided through documentation in contracts for material requirements including definition of quality compliances

This would ensure that they meet the specific acceptance criteria so that risks of non-acceptance from customer can be avoided at a later stage. Also, in case the requirements are not met, the risk can be transferred to the supplier if they are found at fault

Project Manager

Contractors

Sufficient information to be provided through documentation in contracts for construction requirements including definition of quality compliances

This would ensure that they meet the specific acceptance criteria so that risks of non-acceptance from customer can be avoided at a later stage. Also, in case the requirements are not met, the risk can be transferred to the contractor if they are found at fault

Project Manager

Tourist

All desired facilities including water sports, comfortable tourist stay, cultural tour, sightseeing, and transportation facilities have to be provided

Facilities and provisions would provide the destination an opportunity to earn from tourist that would get the company a direct revenue

Project Owner

Finance manager

Project schedule, cost justification to be provided

It would ensure that funds are released only when needed so that cost can be kept under control

Project Manager

Quality officer

Quality compliances to be met

It would ensure that the project comes out of desired quality and thus, are approved and accepted

Project Manager

Project owner

Project progress to be communicated at every milestone

It will ensure the buy-in from the owner such that the project would be accepted without problems at the end of it

Project manager

Project sponsor

Submission of the project budget with detailed of business case

It will ensure acceptance of budget requirement and release of the same as required by the project

Finance Manager

Project Schedule Management 

Project schedule management involves planning, defining, sequencing, activity duration estimation, schedule development and control. The schedule management plan would include scheduling plan, activity list and milestones for activity definition, project schedule network diagrams for sequencing, duration estimates, schedule baseline and forecasts. Some of the tools and techniques that are used in project schedule management include estimating techniques, schedule network analysis, critical path analysis, resource optimization, leads and lags calculation, and schedule compression.

Project Schedule

WBS

Task Name

Duration

Start

Finish

Predecessors

0

Utopia - Tourism development project

334 days

Mon 29/10/18

Thu 06/02/20

 

1

   Designing

10 days

Wed 09/01/19

Tue 22/01/19

 

1.1

      Island structure

10 days

Wed 09/01/19

Tue 22/01/19

41

1.2

      Resort architecture

5 days

Wed 09/01/19

Tue 15/01/19

41

1.3

      Industrial structures

5 days

Wed 09/01/19

Tue 15/01/19

41

2

   Sanctuary Resort Construction

185 days

Wed 23/01/19

Tue 08/10/19

 

2.1

      Requirement gathering

10 days

Wed 23/01/19

Tue 05/02/19

4,2,3

2.2

      Vendor selection

15 days

Wed 06/02/19

Tue 26/02/19

6

2.3

      Construction contracts

10 days

Wed 27/02/19

Tue 12/03/19

7

2.4

      Construction

150 days

Wed 13/03/19

Tue 08/10/19

 

2.4.1

         Foundation

30 days

Wed 13/03/19

Tue 23/04/19

8

2.4.2

         Electrical

20 days

Wed 24/04/19

Tue 21/05/19

10

2.4.3

         Plumbing

20 days

Wed 22/05/19

Tue 18/06/19

11

2.4.4

         Lift installation

15 days

Wed 19/06/19

Tue 09/07/19

12

2.4.5

         Garden

20 days

Wed 10/07/19

Tue 06/08/19

13

2.4.6

         Parking lot

10 days

Wed 07/08/19

Tue 20/08/19

14

2.4.7

         Rooms

25 days

Wed 21/08/19

Tue 24/09/19

15

2.4.8

         Roads

10 days

Wed 25/09/19

Tue 08/10/19

16

3

   Industrial development

55 days

Wed 09/10/19

Tue 24/12/19

 

3.1

      Tourism

15 days

Wed 09/10/19

Tue 29/10/19

17

3.2

      Develop agriculture

20 days

Wed 09/10/19

Tue 05/11/19

17

3.3

      Establish fisheries

10 days

Wed 09/10/19

Tue 22/10/19

17

3.4

      Pearl and jewellery harvesting

20 days

Wed 06/11/19

Tue 03/12/19

21,19,20

3.5

      Hydroelectric Supply

15 days

Wed 04/12/19

Tue 24/12/19

22

4

   Project administration

306 days

Mon 29/10/18

Mon 30/12/19

 

4.1

      Scope Management

10 days

Mon 29/10/18

Fri 09/11/18

 

4.2

      Schedule Management

10 days

Mon 29/10/18

Fri 09/11/18

 

4.3

      Cost Management

10 days

Mon 29/10/18

Fri 09/11/18

 

4.4

      Risk Management

5 days

Mon 12/11/18

Fri 16/11/18

 

4.4.1

         Risk Identification

5 days

Mon 12/11/18

Fri 16/11/18

25,26,27

4.4.2

         Risk Assessment

5 days

Mon 12/11/18

Fri 16/11/18

25,26,27

4.4.3

         Risk Control

5 days

Mon 12/11/18

Fri 16/11/18

25,26,27

4.5

      Quality Management

5 days

Mon 19/11/18

Fri 23/11/18

 

4.5.1

         Quality Assurance

5 days

Mon 19/11/18

Fri 23/11/18

29,30,31

4.5.2

         Quality Control

5 days

Mon 19/11/18

Fri 23/11/18

29,30,31

4.6

      Communication management

7 days

Mon 26/11/18

Tue 04/12/18

33,34

4.7

      Resource Management

7 days

Mon 26/11/18

Tue 04/12/18

33,34

4.8

      Procurement Management

25 days

Wed 05/12/18

Tue 08/01/19

 

4.8.1

         Procurement Documentation

10 days

Wed 05/12/18

Tue 18/12/18

35,36

4.8.2

         Bidding

6 days

Wed 05/12/18

Wed 12/12/18

35,36

4.8.3

         Contractor selection

5 days

Wed 19/12/18

Tue 25/12/18

38,39

4.8.4

         Contract arrangement

10 days

Wed 26/12/18

Tue 08/01/19

40

4.9

      Environment Management

4 days

Wed 25/12/19

Mon 30/12/19

 

4.9.1

         Stakeholder Management

4 days

Wed 25/12/19

Mon 30/12/19

23

4.9.2

         Integration Management

4 days

Wed 25/12/19

Mon 30/12/19

23

5

   Environment management

10 days

Tue 31/12/19

Mon 13/01/20

 

5.1

      Internal environment

10 days

Tue 31/12/19

Mon 13/01/20

43

5.2

      External environment

10 days

Tue 31/12/19

Mon 13/01/20

44

6

   Project closure

18 days

Tue 14/01/20

Thu 06/02/20

 

6.1

      Documentation

15 days

Tue 14/01/20

Mon 03/02/20

47,46

6.2

      Deliverables approval

10 days

Tue 14/01/20

Mon 27/01/20

47,46

6.3

      Sign off

3 days

Tue 04/02/20

Thu 06/02/20

49,50

Following resources are used in the proposed project:

Resource Name

Max. Units

Std. Rate

Ovt. Rate

Cost/Use

Accrue At

Base Calendar

Project sponsor

100%

$0.00/hr

$0.00/hr

$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Project Manager

100%

$120.00/hr

$0.00/hr

$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Quality Officer

100%

$85.00/hr

$0.00/hr

$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Finance Manager

100%

$80.00/hr

$0.00/hr

$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Contractor

100%

$70.00/hr

$0.00/hr

$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Workers

100%

$55.00/hr

$0.00/hr

$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Project cost management involves planning, estimation, budgeting, and cost control. The scope management plan would involve activities like cost estimation cost baseline development, and change request management. Tools and techniques that can be used for cost management planning include data analysis, estimation techniques, cost aggregation, and performance indexing.

Cost Management Plan

Introduction: The cost management plan defined the cost elements of the project and how they would be controlled so that the project expense does not overshoot the initial planned budget for the tourism project.

Cost management approach: WBS would be used as the baseline for the cost control such that the total budget would be distributed to each major element of the WBS for obtaining the needed resources. The allocation of cost would depend on the resource requirements and duration of each activities aligned in the WBS. For establishing control, the funds would not be released at one go but only as per their requirements as and when resources are allocated on the project at each stage of lit as defined in the WBS.

If any major activity of the WBS consumed cost more than allocated then adjustments would be made with resource shifting go that the whole project is not affected and the costs would be adjusted to ensure the progress of the project is also not hampered. In case the project faces some major risks leading to major changes like scope additions that would require additional fund that allocated then the contingency fund would be utilized with limited amount allocated only for the change. The objective of cost magnet still remains that the contingency fund is not needed unless in extreme emergencies and the project is sufficiently completed within the allocated budget.

Measurements: Some measurement metrices would be used for measuring the cost and related figures on the project which would help the project manager establish the needed control over project costs. These measurements include cost variance, cost performance index, planned value, earned value, and actual costs. The major matrix that would define the control parameters and would be monitored on the project would be cost performance index. Cost Performance Index which would calculate as Earned value/planned value and would be in the range of 0.9 to 1.2 reflecting good performance while any value above or below this range would be considered as sub-par or underutilized performance on eh project.

Reporting: The cost of the project would be monitored and recorded by the project manager and it would be reported to the finance manager who is responsible for the approval for the release of funds throughout the project. If there is a variation found in the cost then appropriate action would be taken by the project manager to bring the project cost in control. While finance manager would be releasing the funds at every stage of the project, the actual investment of the funds in activities and resources would be the responsibility of the project manager who would be the final decision maker for the allotment of funds.

Project budget: The project would be completed in $50 million which would include cost for the construction of the resorts. Besides this, $10 million would be invested on the development of the five industries that are planned in the project. Besides this, an addition sum would be kept as the contingency to take care of emergency situations such as natural calamities or major project issues. This contingency fund would be $6 million and would only be used when there is no other option.

Cash flow statement

The figure below depicts the cash flow of the project (with respect to human resources)

Project Risk Management 

Project risk management involves planning risk management activities, risk identification, risk analysis including qualitative and quantitative assessment, risk response planning, response implementation, and risk monitoring. Risk management plan is developed for risk management while the risk identified are reported through a risk register.  Some tools such as SWOT analysis, root cause analysis, assumptions, and constraints analysis can help identify risks.

The identified risks are assessed for their probability of occurrence the impact on the project based on which a response is planned for each type of risk on a project. A risk management plan has some essential elements that include risk strategy, methodology, roles and responsibilities, contingency planning, and risk categorization. Outputs of risk management process include risk register, risk report, and related updates like assumption log, issue log and lessons learned.

Risk Matrix

A risk matrix can be used to determine the severity of a risk which depends on the likelihood of the occurrence of a risk and on the impact, it would have on the project. Based on the level of severity, a decision can be taken on how to respond to the risk. The risk matrix for the tourism project involving construction of resorts and establishment of the five identified industries is shown below:

Likelihood/impact

Insignificant

Minor

Moderate

Major

Critical

Rare

LOW

Accept the risk and continue with routine project management activities

LOW

Accept the risk and continue with routine project management activities

MEDIUM

Choose the response from avoiding, mitigating, and transferring to act

MEDIUM

Choose the response from avoiding, mitigating, and transferring to act

HIGH

Conduct a project review and act on potential risks to avoid or plan for the mitigation action

Unlikely

LOW

Accept the risk and continue with routine project management activities

LOW

Accept the risk and continue with routine project management activities

MEDIUM

Choose the response from avoiding, mitigating, and transferring to act

MEDIUM

Choose the response from avoiding, mitigating, and transferring to act

HIGH

Conduct a project review and act on potential risks to avoid or plan for the mitigation action

Possible

LOW

Accept the risk and continue with routine project management activities

MEDIUM

Choose the response from avoiding, mitigating, and transferring to act

MEDIUM

Choose the response from avoiding, mitigating, and transferring to act

HIGH

Conduct a project review and act on potential risks to avoid or plan for the mitigation action

HIGH

Conduct a project review and act on potential risks to avoid or plan for the mitigation action

Likely

MEDIUM

Choose the response from avoiding, mitigating, and transferring to act

MEDIUM

Choose the response from avoiding, mitigating, and transferring to act

HIGH

Conduct a project review and act on potential risks to avoid or plan for the mitigation action

HIGH

Conduct a project review and act on potential risks to avoid or plan for the mitigation action

CRITICAL

Conduct a project review every month and act on potential risks to avoid or plan for the mitigation action

Most certain

MEDIUM

Choose the response from avoiding, mitigating, and transferring to act

MEDIUM

Choose the response from avoiding, mitigating, and transferring to act

HIGH

Conduct a project review and act on potential risks to avoid or plan for the mitigation action

CRITICAL

Conduct a project review every month and act on potential risks to avoid or plan for the mitigation action

CRITICAL

Conduct a project review every month and act on potential risks to avoid or plan for the mitigation action (Puri & S.Tiwari, 2014)

To develop a risk management strategy, the potential risks have to be identified and the appropriate actions needed to respond to them have to be defined. A risk management strategy would identify various risk categories, specific risks, their levels of impact, likelihood of occurrence, level of severity based on it, response plan, responsibility and contingency measure. Typical ways to respond to any risk are acceptance, avoidance, mitigation, ad risk transfer.

In acceptance, the risk is accepted as it is because it has non-significant or now impact on the project deliverables. Risks that have same significant impact on the project are best avoided but, in the case, they cannot be, appropriate mitigation measure can be taken to reduce its impact on the project outcomes. Some risks can be associated with other parties to contracts such that the risks appearing can have their impacts shared between the contractors and the project owners through a transfer of some level of risk (Raja, 2012).

Risk category

Risk

Probability of occurrence

Impact

Severity

Response plan

Continency measure

Responsibility

Scope

Scope creep

possible

Critical

HIGH

Conduct a project review for every milestone and avoid the risk by controlling scope changes

Additional approvals may be taken from the sponsor to get more funds

Project Manager

 

Scope change

possible

Moderate

MEDIUM

Mitigate by avoiding most changes that can severely impact the project and accept only those important

Utilize the funds kept for contingencies on the project

Project Manager

Stakeholder

Dissatisfaction in stakeholders

Likely

Major

HIGH

Avoid by involving them in requirement gathering process and review project monthly to ensure that their requirements are met

 

Project Manager

 

Requirements conflict

Possible

Moderate

MEDIUM

Avoid by involving them in requirement gathering process

 

Project Manager

Technical

Problems in construction because of site issues

possible

Minor

MEDIUM

Avoid by inspecting the site before the construction site is chosen

 

Quality Officer

 

Inappropriate choice of design leading to problems in construction

Likely

Critical

CRITICAL

Avoid by getting the design made by experts and getting it verified along the stakeholder requirements

 

Contractor

Change

Changes needed the design of the resort after construction already began

Unlikely

Critical

HIGH

Avoid by ensuring that all the project requirements are well documented before the construction began and the design has considerations for all so that later changes are not needed

 

Contractor

 

Changes happening in the governance structure during the project

rare

minor

LOW

Accept the changes made in the governance structures and act accordingly.

Utilize the funds kept for contingencies on the project

Project Manager

Resources

Lack of resources needed

Possible

Moderate

MEDIUM

Mitigate the issues by hiring new resources needed on the project

 

Contractor

 

Conflicts between team members

Likely

Minor

MEDIUM

Mitigate by involving an intermediary or arbitrator to resolve the problems

 

Contractor

Project Manager

Integration

Lack of coordination in people causing conflicts in implementation

Most certain

Moderate

HIGH

Mitigate by intervention from the project manager to train and motivate project team to bring coordination

 

Project manager

 

Disruption in one part of project affecting all others (Sabyasachi, 2018)

Likely

Critical

CRITICAL

Mitigate by resolving conflicts between different processes

 

Project Manager

Schedule

Delays in deliverables

Likely

Moderate

HIGH

Conduct reviews on every milestone and take steps if there are delays to mitigate the risk by avoiding more delays so that final delivery date can be met

 

Project Manager

 

Schedule overrun

likely

Moderate

HIGH

Conduct monthly reviews and take steps if there are delays to mitigate the risk by avoiding more delays so that final delivery date can be met

Utilize the funds kept for contingencies on the project

Project Manager

Cost

Cost overrun

likely

critical

CRITICAL

Conduct reviews on every milestone and take steps if there are cost increasing the budget to avoid the risk of cost overrun beyond budget

Additional approvals may be taken from the sponsor to get more funds

Finance Manager (Flyvbjerg & Garbuio, 2009)

Lessons Leaned
Project Quality Management 

Project quality management involves planning, management and control of project quality. The project quality is managed as per a project quality plan which is prepared at the planning stage along with identification of the quality metrices. For managing quality, quality evaluation is done on the project and quality reports are prepared. Quality control is established trough control measurements and verified deliverables (Hajsleiman, 2018).

Project resource Management 

Project resource management involves planning, data collection, scope definition, WBS, scope validation, and scope control. The scope management plan would involve use of requirements management plan for planning of scope, requirements traceability matrix for requirement gathering, scope statement for scope definition, and scope baseline WBS. Change requests and work performance information would later be used for scope validation and control.

Responsibility Assignment Matrix

Responsibility assignment matrix identifies the project team and stakeholder responsibilities towards the project deliverable. They can be responsible, accountable, consulting or informed. When a project team member is assigned a task, he or she has to take the responsibility of it and should be made accountable. People who are responsible for a task but not accountable would not be performing at their peak and thus, it is necessary that this alignment is ensured for every person and every task given. There would be some stakeholders or team members who would not need to participate in specific task but may need to be involved because of knowledge such that they are only consulted. Others are only kept informed about the progress of the project.

Project task/ Stakeholder

Project Sponsor

Project Manager

Quality Officer

Finance Manager

Contractor

Workers

Residentials/ LOCALS

Funding

RA

RAC

I

RA

I

I

I

Designing

I

CI

I

I

CI

I

I

Construction

I

RAC

CI

I

RAC

RAC

I

Industrial development

I

RAC

CI

CI

RAC

RAC

CI

Administration

I

RAC

I

I

CI

I

I

Project cost management

CI

RAC

I

CI

CI

I

I

Project quality management

I

CI

RAC

I

CI

I

I

Project scope management

I

RAC

I

I

CI

I

I

Project resources management

CI

RAC

I

CI

CI

I

I

Project integration management

I

RAC

CI

I

CI

I

I

Project schedule management

I

RAC

I

I

CI

I

I (Hajsleiman, 2018)

Project closure

CI

RAC

CI

CI

CI

I

I

A team charter can be made for the construction work for resorts which would be guiding the contractor team on the project.

Team Purpose: The team would ensure that all the resort facilities are constructed as per the design

Time: Ensure that the construction is completed within 3 years following the given milestone dates for construction of individual parts of the project

Scope: The scope of project includes excavation, foundation, construction, interiors, exteriors, painting, and road construction.

Members: Members included in the development of the project would be the selected contactors, workers, the project manager, and the quality officer guiding them.

Desired Results: The team desires to complete the construction with high quality and sustainable construction having all necessary requirements of stakeholders fulfilled. The construction should be finished within budget and as per the planned schedule.

Resources: The team would be provided with the funds needed for construction and training on project management by the project manager.

Reporting: The workers would be reporting to the contractor every month and to the project manager every week on the project progress using a formal report for contractor and a review conducted by the project manager.

Deliverables: The deliverable of the project would be the constructed resort with the inspection reports on compliance to standards of quality and requirements of stakeholders (EFFO, 2009).

Hierarchical Chart
Project Communication Management 

Project scope management involves planning, data collection, scope definition, WBS, scope validation, and scope control. The scope management plan would involve use of requirements management plan for planning of scope, requirements traceability matrix for requirement gathering, scope statement for scope definition, and scope baseline WBS. Change requests and work performance information would later be used for scope validation and control.

Project Procurement Management 

Procurement management processes involve planning, procurement, and control. Planning involves documentation of the procurement related decisions including procurement approach and types of sellers to take. Procurement involves getting responses from sellers, selecting one or multiple sellers, and awarding them the contracts. Control is established through monitoring, corrections, and contract close out processes.  Project charter is taken as the input for gathering and processing data on project to be able to come up with a procurement management plan.

The procurement planning would include documentation of procurement strategy, statement of work, source selection criteria, and stakeholder register. Formal policies and procedures are developed for guiding the procurement process in the project organization. Different types of legal contractual relationships can be formed based on which contracts are prepared. These can be fixed price contracts, cost-reimbursable or time and material contracts. Fixed price contracts can be firm fixed price, incentive driven, or with economic price adjustments. Reimbursable contracts can be cost plus fee, cost plus incentive, or cost-plus award.

Statement of Work

Statement of work is prepared to guide an arrangement happening between the project owners and the contractor such that the responsibility of the contractor is clearly identified along with the pricing and acceptance criteria such that the project deliverables are only accepted when they fulfil those criteria.

Introduction: This statement of work is prepared for the agreement between the project organization and the contractor selected for the construction of the resorts with 2,500 accommodations on the Elysium island.

Project Scope: Activities that are within the scope of the project include –

  • Procurement of materials and equipment’s needed for construction
  • Designing of the resort architecture for the development work
  • Excavation and cleaning of the site upon inspection for building the foundation
  • Construction of the foundation and the resort
  • Construction of windows, interiors, and provision of electrical and plumbing facilities
  • Painting outside each of the resort structure
  • Construction of the road from resort and the public infrastructure on the island
  • Compliance with the quality standards for the construction material and fabricated construction units

Work requirements: The project would be following the four-stage process for the development of it which would involve planning, designing, construction, and review. In the planning phase, the work of the construction would be outsourced to the contractor who would be developing the plan for the construction based on the stakeholder requirements and would identify various activities that are required to be executed.

Once activities are planned, the design stage would begin involving contractors in the process of developing architectural models of the island resorts. These designs would be approved by the project owner and once they are approved, the construction process would begin involving excavation, cleaning, construction, interiors, exteriors, roads, and painting. Upon completion of the project, a review would be conducted on the site by the project manager to ensure that all stakeholder criteria are well met. The review would judge the project outcomes based on the predefined acceptance criteria such that only after the contractor has met the criteria will the project be accepted and the payments would be released to the contractor.

Schedules

Task Name

Duration

Start

Finish

Utopia - Tourism development project

334 days

Mon 29/10/18

Thu 06/02/20

   Designing

10 days

Wed 09/01/19

Tue 22/01/19

      Island structure

10 days

Wed 09/01/19

Tue 22/01/19

      Resort architecture

5 days

Wed 09/01/19

Tue 15/01/19

      Industrial structures

5 days

Wed 09/01/19

Tue 15/01/19

   Sanctuary Resort Construction

185 days

Wed 23/01/19

Tue 08/10/19

      Requirement gathering

10 days

Wed 23/01/19

Tue 05/02/19

      Vendor selection

15 days

Wed 06/02/19

Tue 26/02/19

      Construction contracts

10 days

Wed 27/02/19

Tue 12/03/19

      Construction

150 days

Wed 13/03/19

Tue 08/10/19

         Foundation

30 days

Wed 13/03/19

Tue 23/04/19

         Electrical

20 days

Wed 24/04/19

Tue 21/05/19

         Plumbing

20 days

Wed 22/05/19

Tue 18/06/19

         Lift installation

15 days

Wed 19/06/19

Tue 09/07/19

         Garden

20 days

Wed 10/07/19

Tue 06/08/19

         Parking lot

10 days

Wed 07/08/19

Tue 20/08/19

         Rooms

25 days

Wed 21/08/19

Tue 24/09/19

         Roads

10 days

Wed 25/09/19

Tue 08/10/19

   Industrial development

55 days

Wed 09/10/19

Tue 24/12/19

      Tourism

15 days

Wed 09/10/19

Tue 29/10/19

      Develop agriculture

20 days

Wed 09/10/19

Tue 05/11/19

      Establish fisheries

10 days

Wed 09/10/19

Tue 22/10/19

      Pearl and jewellery harvesting

20 days

Wed 06/11/19

Tue 03/12/19

      Hydroelectric Supply

15 days

Wed 04/12/19

Tue 24/12/19

   Project administration

306 days

Mon 29/10/18

Mon 30/12/19

      Scope Management

10 days

Mon 29/10/18

Fri 09/11/18

      Schedule Management

10 days

Mon 29/10/18

Fri 09/11/18

      Cost Management

10 days

Mon 29/10/18

Fri 09/11/18

      Risk Management

5 days

Mon 12/11/18

Fri 16/11/18

         Risk Identification

5 days

Mon 12/11/18

Fri 16/11/18

         Risk Assessment

5 days

Mon 12/11/18

Fri 16/11/18

         Risk Control

5 days

Mon 12/11/18

Fri 16/11/18

      Quality Management

5 days

Mon 19/11/18

Fri 23/11/18

         Quality Assurance

5 days

Mon 19/11/18

Fri 23/11/18

         Quality Control

5 days

Mon 19/11/18

Fri 23/11/18

      Communication management

7 days

Mon 26/11/18

Tue 04/12/18

      Resource Management

7 days

Mon 26/11/18

Tue 04/12/18

      Procurement Management

25 days

Wed 05/12/18

Tue 08/01/19

         Procurement Documentation

10 days

Wed 05/12/18

Tue 18/12/18

         Bidding

6 days

Wed 05/12/18

Wed 12/12/18

         Contractor selection

5 days

Wed 19/12/18

Tue 25/12/18

         Contract arrangement

10 days

Wed 26/12/18

Tue 08/01/19

      Environment Management

4 days

Wed 25/12/19

Mon 30/12/19

         Stakeholder Management

4 days

Wed 25/12/19

Mon 30/12/19

         Integration Management

4 days

Wed 25/12/19

Mon 30/12/19

   Environment management

10 days

Tue 31/12/19

Mon 13/01/20

      Internal environment

10 days

Tue 31/12/19

Mon 13/01/20

      External environment

10 days

Tue 31/12/19

Mon 13/01/20

   Project closure

18 days

Tue 14/01/20

Thu 06/02/20

      Documentation

15 days

Tue 14/01/20

Mon 03/02/20

      Deliverables approval

10 days

Tue 14/01/20

Mon 27/01/20

      Sign off

3 days

Tue 04/02/20

Thu 06/02/20

Pricing: A total budget of $50 million has been allotted for the construction project with fees assigned for each contract work as per the fixed price.

Human resources cost are shown below:

Task Name

Fixed Cost

Fixed Cost Accrual

Total Cost

Baseline

Variance

Actual

Remaining

Utopia - Tourism development project

$0.00

Prorated

$471,240.00

$0.00

$471,240.00

$0.00

$471,240.00

   Designing

$0.00

Prorated

$30,400.00

$0.00

$30,400.00

$0.00

$30,400.00

      Island structure

$0.00

Prorated

$15,200.00

$0.00

$15,200.00

$0.00

$15,200.00

      Resort architecture

$0.00

Prorated

$7,600.00

$0.00

$7,600.00

$0.00

$7,600.00

      Industrial structures

$0.00

Prorated

$7,600.00

$0.00

$7,600.00

$0.00

$7,600.00

   Sanctuary Resort Construction

$0.00

Prorated

$109,800.00

$0.00

$109,800.00

$0.00

$109,800.00

      Requirement gathering

$0.00

Prorated

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

      Vendor selection

$0.00

Prorated

$24,600.00

$0.00

$24,600.00

$0.00

$24,600.00

      Construction contracts

$0.00

Prorated

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

      Construction

$0.00

Prorated

$66,000.00

$0.00

$66,000.00

$0.00

$66,000.00

         Foundation

$0.00

Prorated

$13,200.00

$0.00

$13,200.00

$0.00

$13,200.00

         Electrical

$0.00

Prorated

$8,800.00

$0.00

$8,800.00

$0.00

$8,800.00

         Plumbing

$0.00

Prorated

$8,800.00

$0.00

$8,800.00

$0.00

$8,800.00

         Lift installation

$0.00

Prorated

$6,600.00

$0.00

$6,600.00

$0.00

$6,600.00

         Garden

$0.00

Prorated

$8,800.00

$0.00

$8,800.00

$0.00

$8,800.00

         Parking lot

$0.00

Prorated

$4,400.00

$0.00

$4,400.00

$0.00

$4,400.00

         Rooms

$0.00

Prorated

$11,000.00

$0.00

$11,000.00

$0.00

$11,000.00

         Roads

$0.00

Prorated

$4,400.00

$0.00

$4,400.00

$0.00

$4,400.00

   Industrial development

$0.00

Prorated

$186,000.00

$0.00

$186,000.00

$0.00

$186,000.00

      Tourism

$0.00

Prorated

$33,000.00

$0.00

$33,000.00

$0.00

$33,000.00

      Develop agriculture

$0.00

Prorated

$52,800.00

$0.00

$52,800.00

$0.00

$52,800.00

      Establish fisheries

$0.00

Prorated

$19,600.00

$0.00

$19,600.00

$0.00

$19,600.00

      Pearl and jewellery harvesting

$0.00

Prorated

$65,600.00

$0.00

$65,600.00

$0.00

$65,600.00

      Hydroelectric Supply

$0.00

Prorated

$15,000.00

$0.00

$15,000.00

$0.00

$15,000.00

   Project administration

$0.00

Prorated

$98,960.00

$0.00

$98,960.00

$0.00

$98,960.00

      Scope Management

$0.00

Prorated

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

      Schedule Management

$0.00

Prorated

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

      Cost Management

$0.00

Prorated

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

      Risk Management

$0.00

Prorated

$14,400.00

$0.00

$14,400.00

$0.00

$14,400.00

         Risk Identification

$0.00

Prorated

$4,800.00

$0.00

$4,800.00

$0.00

$4,800.00

         Risk Assessment

$0.00

Prorated

$4,800.00

$0.00

$4,800.00

$0.00

$4,800.00

         Risk Control

$0.00

Prorated

$4,800.00

$0.00

$4,800.00

$0.00

$4,800.00

      Quality Management

$0.00

Prorated

$6,800.00

$0.00

$6,800.00

$0.00

$6,800.00

         Quality Assurance

$0.00

Prorated

$3,400.00

$0.00

$3,400.00

$0.00

$3,400.00

         Quality Control

$0.00

Prorated

$3,400.00

$0.00

$3,400.00

$0.00

$3,400.00

      Communication management

$0.00

Prorated

$6,720.00

$0.00

$6,720.00

$0.00

$6,720.00

      Resource Management

$0.00

Prorated

$6,720.00

$0.00

$6,720.00

$0.00

$6,720.00

      Procurement Management

$0.00

Prorated

$27,840.00

$0.00

$27,840.00

$0.00

$27,840.00

         Procurement Documentation

$0.00

Prorated

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

         Bidding

$0.00

Prorated

$3,840.00

$0.00

$3,840.00

$0.00

$3,840.00

         Contractor selection

$0.00

Prorated

$4,800.00

$0.00

$4,800.00

$0.00

$4,800.00

         Contract arrangement

$0.00

Prorated

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

      Environment Management

$0.00

Prorated

$7,680.00

$0.00

$7,680.00

$0.00

$7,680.00

         Stakeholder Management

$0.00

Prorated

$3,840.00

$0.00

$3,840.00

$0.00

$3,840.00

         Integration Management

$0.00

Prorated

$3,840.00

$0.00

$3,840.00

$0.00

$3,840.00

   Environment management

$0.00

Prorated

$19,200.00

$0.00

$19,200.00

$0.00

$19,200.00

      Internal environment

$0.00

Prorated

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

      External environment

$0.00

Prorated

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

   Project closure

$0.00

Prorated

$26,880.00

$0.00

$26,880.00

$0.00

$26,880.00

      Documentation

$0.00

Prorated

$14,400.00

$0.00

$14,400.00

$0.00

$14,400.00

      Deliverables approval

$0.00

Prorated

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

$0.00

$9,600.00

      Sign off

$0.00

Prorated

$2,880.00

$0.00

$2,880.00

$0.00

$2,880.00

Acceptance Criteria

The SOW would be prepared between the independent contractor and the project owner of he resorts highlighting the acceptance criteria for deliverables. Each project stage progress would be updated by the contactor to the project manager representing the resort owner. Meetings would then be conducted between the project manager and the project owner to discuss if the project is going as per the plan and there is something needed to be done for the contractor management or project management for improvement.

Each project stage would have some acceptance criteria defined that would be recorded and presented to the owner by the project manager based on which the discussions would happen and decisions would be taken. This would also include review of the project schedule and cost compared to the plan and the budget. The contractors would be updating the project progress to the project manager weekly while the project manager would be communicating the same to the project owner based on major milestones or in the case of emergencies when major discrepancies that can have severe impacts on the project are observed.

The communication from the contractor would go in the form of regular report while project manager would be meeting the owner face to face for a discussion along with the submission of the reports. In this meeting, the approval of the stage completed would be sought and only after it is approved as per acceptance criteria will the next stage proceed. In the final phase of the project, whole project review would be submitted by the contractor to the project manager with the documentation of each acceptance criteria and how they are sufficiently met.

The project manager would have a closure checklist along which this would be checked and if all deliverables are met then the report would go to the project owner for final approval of acceptance of deliverables so that contractor can expect payment and release the resources deployed on the construction project.

The acceptance criteria for each major stage of the project is listed in the table below

Review

Acceptance Criteria

Reviewer

Contractor Selection

The contractor must be financially capable which would be reflected by its financial statements and the credit rating.

Contractor must be technically sound in its work which would be reflected through its servicing capabilities, past experiences with other construction projects and technology used for construction (NYU, 2015)

The contractor must have a strong management which would be reflected by the experience of those on top levels and the review from the earlier clients

The contractor reputation in the industry must be sound for which the contractor would be researched to get data on its past relationships with construction companies, business experience and past failure or success (Puri & S.Tiwari, 2014).

Project Owner

Design review

Following performance metrices would be used to check the soundness of the design developed for the resort construction:

· The design should be feasible to construct within the budget

· The design should be feasible to construct within the given timelines (Bakar, 2010)

· The architecture of the reports must have consideration of all the desired facilities that are accepted during requirement gathering from the stakeholders

· The design should not have any technical or functional flaws that can hinder construction (Sabyasachi, 2018)

Contractor

Project Manager

Quality Officer

Construction review

The results of the construction work must be accepted only when the following criteria are met

· The construction has all the deliverables met as identified in the contract

· The construction work and the materials have met the criteria of compliance to the standards defined in the contract (Karlick, 2010)

· All the construction work has been completed as per the schedule without major delays

· In the case of delays from the contractor side, the penalties have been accounted for and agreed upon between the contractor the owner (EFFO, 2009)

 

Quality Officer

Project Manager

Acceptance

The tourism organization and the contractor organization are represented by the people mentioned below who would accept the contract terms in this Statement of Work and would acting as the authority for decision making.

ABC Resorts

 

XYZ Contractors

Company name

 

Company name

Warren Dale

 

Allen Goose

Full name

 

Full name

Project Owner

 

Project Manager

Title

 

Title

 

 

 

Signature

 

Signature

 

 

 

Date

 

Date

Project stakeholder management involves identification, planning, management, and monitoring of stakeholders. A stakeholder register is prepared that documents that stakeholder management strategies and activities. A stakeholder management plan would document the approaches to manage communication and engagement with stakeholder on the project. A number of tools and techniques that can be used for stakeholder management planning include stakeholder analysis, stakeholder mapping, and stakeholder engagement plan.

Stakeholder Mapping & Analysis

Stakeholder mapping and analysis can be used to identify specific strategies that should be used for managing or engaging the project stakeholders. Stakeholders can be grouped into different types based on the level of influence they have on the project and the interest they carry on the project. An influence-interest grid is commonly used to identify stakeholder categories that help in taking decisions on how these stakeholders can be differently engaged on the project to bring them most satisfaction with optimum use of resources and engagement strategies.

Stakeholders with low influence and less interest may only be kept informed about the project during major milestones but the stakeholders that carry high influence have to be formally consulted from time to time and those also with the high interest have to be engaged with closely. The stakeholder mapping grid below identifies the stakeholders of the tourism project in appropriate categories.

Interest/Influence

Low

Moderate

High

Low

Residentials

Government

 

Medium

Labour/ Workers

 

Suppliers

Contractors

 

Tourists

Finance manager

High

 

Quality officer

Project Sponsor

Project manager

Project Owner

The engagement strategy to be used for each category of stakeholders may be decided based on their location on the influence-interest grid. Those with low power and low to medium influence such as residentials are usually the latent category who just kept satisfied which in the current project involves government. Thus, the project manager needs to ensure that government is well reported to as over governance structure and kept satisfied. Those with high influence and high interest have to be managed very closely such as project manager, project owner and project sponsor through regular or period reporting.

These types of stakeholders are called promotors as they can help promote the tourism project across globe which would increase the chances of gaining revenues from the developments at later stages. Apathetic are those stakeholders with low to moderate power and medium to high level of interest such as labours and residentials. Defenders are the stakeholders who have moderate to high interest but moderate power such as quality officer, suppliers, and contractors, these have to be closely monitored on the project through the use of appropriate reporting and review processes.

Stakeholder Engagement

The stakeholders would be engaged in different ways through the use of appropriate communication strategy, mode and involvement of the respective stakeholder. They could be engaged closely, satisfied or just kept informed based on the category they belong to as identified in the analysis section of this report. Once their category is correctly identified, specific topics of communication can also be identified and accordingly an engagement plan can be made. The table below presents the plan to engage stakeholders of different types involved in the tourism project.

Stakeholder group

Interest, Influence

Engagement strategy

Mode of communication

Frequency of communication

Residents

Low, low

Keep them informed of the project start, progress and completion through media

Advertisements and announcements

At the start of the project and at the end of it, regular through placement of signs and hoardings

Government

Low, moderate

Take permits for the construction work in written from the respective officials and authorities

Format reports through submission and emails

At the time of starting the project

Workers

Medium, low

Provide information on deliverables, guidance on construction work, and management for routine activities on the project

Face to face, calls, and email reports

Daily communication with the contractor and the project manager

Suppliers

Medium, moderate

Supplier must be given complete information of materials and equipment’s needed through procurement contracts

Emails, calls, orders, and face to face discussions

At the start of the project and during delivery milestones

Contractors

Medium, moderate

Contract must be given complete information of wok needed through procurement contracts

Emails, calls, orders, and face to face discussions

Weekly schedule for communication of project progress

Tourist

Medium, high

Tourist requirements for the resort and other facilities must be met and thus, they are involved in requirement gathering stage as well as are kept informed through advertisement and announcements when the project is on the verge of completion

Media exposure, survey, interviews, and calls

At the start of the project for requirement gathering and on completion of the project to informed possible opening date for resort

Finance manager

Medium, high

To be communicated about the need for funds and the times they should be released as per the project plan

Plan submission over email, calls, and review meetings

At the start of the project and during milestones

Quality officer

High, moderate

To be communicated about the need for quality compliance and the times quality officer is needed for a review

Plan submission over email, calls, and review meetings

At the start of the project and during milestones

Project manager

High, high

High level of engagement with coordination done throughout the project at every stage such that the project manager is responsible for initiation, construction, competition, and closure of the project.

reporting over email, calls, and review meetings with stakeholders

Daily engagement

Project owner

High, high

High level of engagement with coordination done throughout the project at every stage such that the project manager would be communicating progress of the project at every stage.

reporting over email, calls, and review meetings with stakeholders

Weekly engagement through progress reporting

Project sponsor

High, high

Submission of project budget and charter for approval of the desired budget of the project and to get additional funds on the project if required through similar approval process

Reports and face to face meetings with the project manager and project owner

At the beginning of the project and when additional funds are required to be approved (Creedy, 2006)

Environment in which a company operates creates an influence on the project. These factors can be internal external environmental factors or internal operational factors. Enterprise environmental factors include organizational culture, governance structures, resource distribution, infrastructure, information technology, resource availability, and employee capabilities.

Organization culture: The organization would follow the project manager structure and thus, eh culture would be shaped accordingly. This would need the realignment of the company personnel for the current project for which they would need to learn about the project management disciplines. The whole project would be guided by the project manager who would be seen as the owner of the project for the execution and the project would follow a chain of command from him. The project would involve others in the requirements gathering stage but once the plan has been constructed, the project manager would be the final decision makers.

However, the project needing a close coordination and cooperation between people, the project manager would follow a constructive approach to leadership such that the individua teams working on the project would be open to giving suggestions for improvement but they would only be approved by the project manager after careful consideration. The culture would be aligned towards the organizational objectives of providing maximum productivity within the given time and utilizing resources to their maximum so that project budget is not overutilized and the project can be completed within budget (BOOM, 2009).

Governance Structure: The governance structure of the project is not just guided by the internal and supply chain organizations but also by the external government agencies as well as others who exist in the external environment of a project organization. They would include the government entire that provide governance structures for the regulation, communities living nearby and the tourists. The government would identify the permits to be awarded and thus, would have to be legally complied to in terms of the following of acts and regulatory guidelines for quality of materials. Quality of construction, use of facilities, safety considerations a d environmental consideration.

Thus, a team of legal procedure management would have to be formed to take care of all the permits and regulatory compliances assorted with the local and national government. The communities would not have a power but an influence on how things are going in third vicinity so that they can support the project as well as hamper its progress and thus, they are needed to be kept satisfied with appropriate information given to them on how the construction project would benefit the community as a whole.

In the current project, the project would generate jobs for local people and establish industry which is likely to receive a good level of support from the local communities. The third part of governance is provided by the tourist who may to have any direct say on the project but their requirements for the safety, tourism facilities and other cultural provisions would have an influence on the environment. If the project fails to have their considerations and needs met then the tourists would not be coming to the island and the project would not be able to earn as desired (Merwe, 2016).

Conclusions

The current project plan has been prepared for the management of the tourism project that is in the second phase of the tourism development in Utopia. The plan followed the PMBOK guideline and identified all the major project management areas with tools and techniques used in each category to develop this plan. It was found that the whole project can be run in an integrated manner while plans and processes can be identified for each of the ten knowledge management areas defined in the guide. Specific tools and techniques are available that could help at every stage of the project development and in managing each area of the emanated.

Some of the tools and techniques that are used in the cure the plan includes requirements traceability matrix for presenting requirements gathered from stakeholders, risk analysis to understand the impact of the risks and create a response plan, and work breakdown structure for highlining that individual activities that would be needed on the project to be completed in order to complete the tourism project. The project would use the five phases of development including initiation, planning, execution, monition and control, and closure. The current project is in the planning stage and accordingly this project plan with multiple sub-project plans for ache knowledge areas of the project management have been developed.

References

Bakar, A. H. (2010). Critical Success Factor For Sustainable Housing: A Framework From The Project Management View. Universiti Sains Malaysia.

BOOM, A. K. (2009). Failing of mega projects . University of Aarhus .

Creedy, G. D. (2006). Risk Factors Leading to Cost Overrun in the Delivery of Highway Construction Projects. Queensland Univesity of Technology.

EFFO. (2009). Serving the Community Through Successful Project Delivery: A User Guide to Post Implementation Reviews . EFFO.

Flyvbjerg, B., & Garbuio, M. (2009). Delusion and Deception in Large Infrastructure Projects: Two Models for Explaining and Preventing Executive Disaster. Delft University of Technology.

Hajsleiman, H. M. (2018). How to manage complex projects - an adaptive approach highlighting the Human Factor and Information Management and Communication. Stavanger University.

Hoover, J., Rodgers, J., Salter, L., Stempfley, T., Strack, R., & Wichner, D. (2014). Quality Management Plan: Sustainable Home Construction Project:Project Scope Statement, Communication Plan, and Responsibility Matrix. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Worldwide.

Karlick, M. (2010). Framework for Conducting Post Implementation Reviews (PIR). Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc.

Merwe, L. v. (2016). Best Practice: Project Governance Framework. Virtual Project COnsulting.

NYU. (2015). Guidelines for Writing a Scope of Work. NYU.

Puri, D., & S.Tiwari. (2014). Evaluating The Criteria for Contractors’ Selection and Bid Evaluation. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, 44-48.

Raja, U. (2012). Contract strategy for construction projects. The University of Manchester.

Sabyasachi. (2018). The Importance of Having Clearly Defined Acceptance Criteria in Your Projects. Simplilearn.

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