A culture is the social value, society believe and ethics behavior. each organization has a culture which take a large factor in planning the business by understanding the logical orders.
Trompenaars’s Model is using to divide any organization into a different culture in order to identify organizational culture; the model divided the organizational culture into seven dimensions; five of them explain human component, one dimension described to time flexibility, the last dimension pertains to environment:
- Universalism Vs. Particularism
Universalism cultures means ideas and thoughts that can be applied everywhere, one reality & focusing on formal rules. this kind of cultures roles, low and logic always come first without any modifications. particularism cultures display how ideas should be applies, reality more subjective, circumstances on commit rules.
- Individualism Vs. Communitarianism
Individualism cultures describe people who regards themselves individual and taking their own decisions individual. on other hand, communitarianism cultures describe people who regards themselves in a group putting priority for taking any decisions as a team work.
- Neutral Vs. Emotional
Neutral cultures are expressing a reason for each emotion, feelings should follow with an explanation. Emotional cultures are expressing the emotions openly without any overcomes emotions.
- Specific Vs. Diffuse
Specific cultures in which people prefer to share together, individual a large public space to share it with others but in small private space share with close friends and colleagues. Diffuse cultures based on relationships which can help in the career or getting wanted deals.
- Achievements Vs. Ascription
Achievement cultures based on the person performance (how to preformed functions). While Ascription cultures based on who is the person or what the person do.
The term learning style may be defined as a specific process by which an individual prefers to learn. According to psychologists, the learning style of individuals varies in accordance to their preferred learning tools and techniques. While some individual may find that they prefer a specific learning style, others may find that they prefers different learning styles at different situation. There are basically 7 learning styles that include visual, logical, aural, verbal, physical, social and solitary.
The usage of different learning styles as well as multiple intelligences for learning is a relatively newer approach. Traditionally, only linguistic and logical teaching methods were used as methods of learning. In this report, a structure interview has been conducted to identify the learning style of one of the classmates. The first element that will be used in order to identify the learning style is the Kolb’s learning process. The second tool that will be used to test the personality of the sample is a questionnaire. After that, the results of both the tests will be compared in order to understand the learning style of the sample and on that basis, a suitable development tool for better learning of the sample will be provided.
2. Literature review
2.1. Kolb’s Learning Cycle Model
The Kolb’s learning style model was established in the year 1984. The chief purpose of the model is to identify the learning style of an individual and help the same to develop his or her learning experiences. Gathering the knowledge about the learning style of a specific individual enables learning to be oriented according to the preferred method (De Jong 2008). The learning style model of Kolb is consisting of 80 questions. There are four stages of the mentioned learning cycle’s models namely diverging, assimilating, converging and accommodating. All the mentioned steps are discussed in detail in the following paragraphs.
Diverging: The Diverging learning cycle includes feeling and watching. Individuals who prefers the diverging learning cycle are capable of looking at different scenarios from a different perspective. These individuals are found to highly sensitive. They prefer watching and feeling rather than performing. That is Diverging individuals first gather information as well as use imaginations in order to solve a specific issue. They are considered to be best at assessing a concrete situation from a good number of different viewpoints. This learning style has been named as “diverging” since these people performs better in situation where there prevails the need to generate ideas. It has been found that individuals with a diverging learning style posses higher cultural interests as well as gathering information. In a jest, these types of people tend to be emotional as well as imaginative and open minded. They prefers to work in groups.
Assimilating: The mentioned learning preference is for individuals who generally pose a concise as well as logical approach. For these individuals, ideas as well as concepts are more crucial than people. These individuals prefer clear as well as specific explanation instead of practical opportunity. They are good at understanding a wide variety of information and organize the same in a clear and logical format. Individuals who prefer assimilating learning style are found to have letter focus on people and are found to be more interested in ideas as well as abstract concepts. Individuals who prefer assimilating learning style are more attracted towed logical theories compared to the theories based on practical values (Svinicki and Dixon 1987). The mentioned learning style is crucial for its effectiveness in information as well as science carriers. Individuals having preference for this style [refers lectures, reading, exploring analytical models in formal learning situations.
Converging: Individuals who prefers the converging learning style posses the ability to solve issues using their learning (De Jong 2008). These types of individual are more concerned with technical tasks and are less concerned with people as well as interpersonal aspects. These types of people are good at finding practical uses of theories and ideas. These kinds of individuals prefers experimenting with new ideas to work and stimulate with practical applications.
Accommodating: The mentioned learning style can be defined as a hand on learning style which relies on intuition instead of logic. These individuals use the analysis of other individuals and prefer to take a experimental and practical approach. Accommodating learning style preferring individuals are attracted to challenges and experiences that are new and try to carry out plans. Individuals who prefer accommodating learning style often tends to rely on the data give by others to conduct their own analysis. This types of individuals are found more to be acting on the gut instinct instead of logical analysis. This learning style is found to be the most prevalent among general population.
According to researchers the experimental learning theory of David Kolb works chiefly on two levels, namely, a four stage cycle of learning along with a four learning style (Beutell and Kressel 1984). Effective learning can be evidenced when a learner progresses through the mentioned cycle. Simelane-Mnisi and Mji (2015) states that the learning cycle of Kolb is basically consist of 4 stages.
According to Loo (1999), there are several educational implications of the Kolb’s learning theory. For instance, the mentioned model helps the educator to develop a more appropriate learning opportunities for the learners. Not only that, it helps the educator to design activities keeping accordance to the specific learning style of the student. This in turn not only enhances the learning experience of the student but also makes the learning more effective.
Simelane-Mnisi and Mji (2015) states that each learning style of the Kolb’s learning process has its own strong points as well as weak points. Hence in order to balance the different requirements of the student, the educator needs to provide learning objectives in several different methods ensuring al the learning style are well covered. For instance group learning is particularly successful if the groups consist of different learning styles (Willcoxson and Prosser 1996).
The sample chosen for the learning style test is a 24 years male classmate who works as a teaching assistant at a recognized university located at Saudi Arabia. A structured interview session has been conducted inn order to assess his learning style. The time needed for the mentioned interview session was 30 minutes. The following actions have been consi=uucted within the 30 minutes of the interview session.
In the first 5 minutes the interview had introduced himself while stating his educational degree and explain his job profile. The next 5 minutes had been required by the interviewee to answer the kolb’s questionnaire that has been trained by the interviewer from the official website of Bunbury. The mentioned questionnaire was consists of 80 questions. All the questions were asked to the interviewee and the question to which the interview had agreed were marked while the questions which were not been agreed were left unmarked. Then all the questions that had been marked ticked were added up and finally, the score gained by the sample was used to determine his learning style.
The last 10 minutes were taken b the interviewee to answer a set of personality questionnaire made of 16 questions where each questions measures one point. The questions were developed based on the leaning style of the sample in order to determine the state of the Kolb’s questionnaire.
Out of the 80 statements mentioned in the Kolb’s Questionnaire that were presented, the mentioned sampled had agreed to 51 statements, that represents 63.75 percent of the total questionnaire. Obviously, it can be understood that the remaining 29 questions were disagreed by the sample. Out of the 51 statement, the interviewee had agreed to 10 questions falling in the diverging section, 10 questions falling in the accommodator section and 18 questions falling in the diverger section and the remaining 13 questions belonging to the converger section. Thus it has been found that the interviewee belongs to the group of diverger.
Out of the 10 personality questions, 7 were agreed by the sample out of the 7 statements, 5 statements that had been agreed upon demonstrated the preferences of the employee towards divergence.
After conducting the interview, it can be concluded both from the Kolbs questionnaire as well as from the personality test that the learning style of the mentioned interviewee is diverging. Thus it can be understood that the learning experience of the mentioned employee mainly depends on concrete experience as well and reflective observation in order to obtain the best learning experiences. The score of 18 out of 20 signifies the strong preference of the sample towards the mentioned learning style. The converger style of learning came second with the score of 13.
From the personality test it has been found that the sample tends to take a logical approach while solving an unexpected issue. This matches with the result of Kolb’s learning style test since divergers are found to function best in situations where different points of views are required.
6. Weaknesses of Kolb’s model and suggested development tools
One of the major weaknesses of the Kolb’s model includes its weaknesses to access the emotional experience of learners. Hence it is highly crucial to include questions that will be able to access the emotional state of the learners which has the potential to influence the learning process of the same. Secondly, The Kolb’s model does not posses the ability to include immediate experience of the learner without focusing on the past events. Finally, the mentioned model lacks questions addressing the environment of the learning that impose impact on his learning process.
In order to develop his learning skill, the sample has been suggested an articulate storyline as his learning development tool. This learning development tool has been developed for sample that prefers divergence and the mentioned tool has the capacity to make the e-learning course interactive and off short duration.
From the above discussion it can be concluded that the personality of the sample has ample potential to impose impact on his learning experience. From the result obtained from both Kolb’s learning style test and from the personality test it had been found that the sample is more likely to solve an unexpected issue logically. Moreover, the sample was also found to be highly emotional and extrovert. Finally, it has been found that both the personality as well as learning style of the sample matches perfectly with his profession.
Beutell, N.J. and Kressel, S.S., 1984. An investigation of Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory: social desirability and normative scoring. Psychological reports, 55(1), pp.89-90.
De Jong, W., 2008. From doing to knowing what you are doing: Kolb's learning theory in teaching documentary practice. International Journal of Technology Management & Sustainable Development, 7(2), pp.151-158.
Loo, R., 1999. Confirmatory factor analyses of Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI?1985). British Journal of Educational Psychology, 69(2), pp.213-219.
Simelane-Mnisi, S. and Mji, A., 2015. Establishing the Reliability and Validity of the Kolb Learning Style Inventory: A South African Perspective. International Journal of Educational Sciences, 11(3), pp.312-319.
Svinicki, M.D. and Dixon, N.M., 1987. The Kolb model modified for classroom activities. College Teaching, 35(4), pp.141-146.
Willcoxson, L. and Prosser, M., 1996. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (1985): review and further study of validity and reliability. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 66(2), pp.247-257.
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