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MGT301 Change Management Theory Literature

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Explaining clearly what current research literature is saying about change management.

Answer:

Introduction

Change management generally refers to the numerous processes that have been commenced by the concerned business organizations. These processes are implemented in order to consider the preparation and the support of the various members of the organization as well as the organization at large to implement the changes (Carnall, 2018). The major drivers of the change include the various factors like the implementation of the technology that has evolved, the reviews of the various processes that are present within the organization. The drivers also include the acquisitions by the concerned business, the mergers of the concerned business organizations. The changes also include the matters that pertain to the pressure created by the new entrants in the market, the changes in the habits of the consumers and the restructuring of the organization (Hayes, 2018). The change management within an organization relate to and abide by the various theories that have been pointed out by the concerned eminent theorists in the field. These theories include the eight major models of the change management that include the change management model as proposed by Lewin, the theories that have been put forth by Kotter, the theory of nudging. These also include several other frameworks like that proposed by McKinsey, Bridges, Satir, Kübler-Ross (Kuipers et al., 2014). The following report aims to deal with the reviewing of the various models of the change management and aims to discuss the implication of the theories in the current scenario of the market.

Review on change management theory literature

The various models of the change management include the eight major models of the change management that include the change management model as proposed by Lewin, the theories that have been put forth by Kotter, the theory of nudging. These also include several other frameworks like that proposed by McKinsey, Bridges, Satir, Kübler-Ross. These models have been discussed as follows.

The ADKAR model is one of the models of the change management that deal with the various factors that have been dealing with the bottom-up approach towards the changes. The model majorly focusses on the matters that pertain to the individuals who have been present behind the implementation of the change processes (Goetsch and Davis, 2014). The model majorly comprises of the various matters that pertain to the achievement of the various goals that need to be reached by the concerned business organization. The goals as depicted by the concerned model are


A – the Awareness of the need for the change

D – the Desire to support as well as participate in the changes,

K – the Knowledge on the various processes of the change

A – the Ability to put forth the implementation of the changes, and

R – the Reinforcement to put forth a sustainability of the change.

The transitional model as put forth by Bridge

Figure 2: Transitional model by Bridge

The transitional model as put forth by Bridge majorly deals with the processes of the transition rather than the processes of the changes that need to be implemented within an organization. The transitional model as put forth by Bridge takes the longer way and for dealing with the transitional processes. These help in the matters pertaining to the consideration of the various reactions of the employees while they have been dealing with the various changes that have been implemented within the concerned organization (Cummings, Bridgman and Brown, 2016).

The theory of the change management as put forth by Kotter tends to deal with the people who have been playing a major role in the matters pertaining to the introduction as well as the implementation of the various changes in the concerned business organization. The concerned model attempts a top-down view of the various people who have been influential in the matters pertaining to the various factors relating to the change that is implemented within the concerned business organization (Verhulst and Lambrechts, 2015). This framework be helpful in the matters pertaining to the changes in the operations of the concerned business firm through the implementation of the urgency in the matters pertaining to the changes in the business concern. This helps in the proper adaptation of the concerned organization in the given business climate.

The change curve as put forth by Kübler-Ross attempts to consider with the matters pertaining to the emotional aspects of the concerned members of the workforce. The employees seem to be affected by the matters that pertain to the changes that have been introduced within the organization. This model majorly deals with the psychological responses that are provided by the concerned employee to the various changes that have been implemented within the given business organization (Worley and Mohrman, 2014). The model aims at the identification of the resentment as depicted by the various employees of the concerned organization. The various stages as identified by the model are the stages that pertain to the denial stage, the anger stage, the bargaining stage, the depression stage and the acceptance stage of the concerned change.

The model of change management by Lewin is one of the most celebrated models related to the matters pertaining to the approaches towards the management of the many changes that need to be implemented within the concerned business organization (Bridgman, 2016). The concerned model be divided into three different stages as discussed.

Unfreezing – This stage involves the various matters pertaining to the analysis of the many procedures that are followed within the company that be changed in order to bring about the various changes in the matters pertain to the overall performance of the concerned organization.

Change – This stage involves the actual implementation of the changes that need to be followed within the given organization. This involve the implementation of the changes and the various matters that pertain to the acceptance of the changes within the concerned organizational setting.

Refreezing – This step involves the following of the concerned changes that have been implemented within the company. This involves the factors related to the various matters pertaining to ensuring the following of the changes that have been implemented within the organization (Bridgman, 2016). The concerned management introduce the reward system for those who have been abiding by the changes that have been implemented within the organization.

The model of change management takes into consideration the factors related to the various matters pertaining to the seven different factors that affect the organizational performance. These lead to the conditions wherein the needed changes can be measured before the implementation of the changes (Salman and Broten, 2017). The various factors that influence the changes are the organizational strategy, the organizational structure, the organizational systems, the shared values within the organization, the organizational style, the members of the workforce of the organization and the organizational skills as depicted by the members of the workforce of the organization (Ravanfar, 2015). 

The nudge theory of change management refers to the conditions wherein the concerned management lets the concerned members of the workforce of the organization choose the various ways in which the needed change be implemented within the organization (Arno and Thomas, 2016). In this case the management is not observed to be implementing or forcing the changes upon the members of the workforce of the organization but instead letting them choose the various ways in which the change be implemented within the organization.

The model of change management as discussed by Satir 

The model of change management as discussed by Satir bears resemblance to change curve that has been discussed by Kübler-Ross. This model considers the management of the changes through the application of the progression of the concerned organization through the five different stages of grief onto the general performance models that are related to the changes within the organization (Doppelt, 2017). The five different stages include the implementation of the late status quo of the organization, the resistance to the changes, the chaos during the implementation of the changes, the integration of the changes and the new status quo within the organization.

Implication of the literature in the current market scenario

The management of the changes within the organization include the factors that relate to the external and the internal environment of the concerned organization. The review of the existing literature suggests that there are several models that be assumed by the management of the organizations so as to implement the changes that are necessary for the company to survive within the concerned market (Kok and McDonald, 2017). The concerned business organizations benefit from the various factors that relate to the matters influencing the changes within the organization like those that pertain to the various external as well as the internal environment of the company. The several factors that pertain to the external environment of the organization are those pertaining to the globalization within the territories wherein the organization have been featuring (Ceptureanu, 2015). The other factor that affect the external environment of the organization are those that pertain to the technological innovations in the concerned field of operations of the company. The innovations in the technological aspects have resulted in the matters wherein the scrutiny of the stakeholders as well as the media have increased thereby leading to the conditions of the excessive pressure on the concerned management of the organization (Nadali, Grilo and Zutshi, 2018). The internal factors that affect the concerned business organization refers to the changes that take place within the organizational culture that is maintained within the concerned business organization, the changes in the expectations of the various members of the organizational workforce that be serving the business organization at the several departments within the business organization. The internal environment also considers the various factors related to the matters pertaining to the management of the varied crisis conditions within the given organization. This help in the overall progress of the business organization thereby resulting in the conditions that are related to the development of the business performance of the business organization (Pascoe, 2017). This is turn help the business organization to gain a higher competitive advantage over the several other organizations that are competing in the same market.

Recommendations

The various organizations might be recommended to implement the various theories and models that are related to the change management within the organization in order to achieve the higher amount of competitive advantage within the concerned market. The business organization might be advised to consider the various factors that influence the changes within the organization like the organizational strategy, the organizational structure, the organizational systems, the shared values within the organization, the organizational style, the members of the workforce and the organizational skills as depicted by the employees of the organization. The business organizations might also be recommended to pay heed to the matters influencing the changes within the organization like those that pertain to the various external as well as the internal environment of the business organization.

Conclusion

In lieu of the afore-mentioned discussion, it might be opined that the various organizations need to implement the various models of the changes like the eight major models of the change management that include the change management model as proposed by Lewin, the theories that have been put forth by Kotter, the theory of nudging and several other frameworks like that proposed by McKinsey, Bridges, Satir, Kübler-Ross which help the business organization to attain a greater competitive advantage over the several other organizations who have been competing in the same market. The concerned business organizations might also be advised to pay heed to the matters influencing the changes within the organization like those that pertain to the various external as well as the internal environment of the organization. Thus, it might safely be concluded that the management of the changes in the external and the internal environment of the concerned organizations help the concerned business organization in the development of the various strategies that are implemented by the management of the concerned organization. These strategies assist the organization in gaining a better competitive advantage over the other organizations that have been functioning in the concerned market.

References

Arno, A. and Thomas, S., 2016. The efficacy of nudge theory strategies in influencing adult dietary behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC public health, 16(1), p.676.

Bridgman, T., 2016. Unfreezing change as three steps: Rethinking Kurt Lewin’s legacy for change management.

Carnall, C., 2018. Managing change. Routledge.

Ceptureanu, E.G., 2015. Research regarding change management tools on EU SMEs. Business Excellence and Management Review, 5(2), pp.28-32.

Cummings, S., Bridgman, T. and Brown, K.G., 2016. Unfreezing change as three steps: Rethinking Kurt Lewin’s legacy for change management. human relations, 69(1), pp.33-60.

Doppelt, B., 2017. Leading change toward sustainability: A change-management guide for business, government and civil society. Routledge.

Goetsch, D.L. and Davis, S.B., 2014. Quality management for organizational excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: pearson.

Hayes, J., 2018. The theory and practice of change management.

Kok, S.K. and McDonald, C., 2017. Underpinning excellence in higher education–an investigation into the leadership, governance and management behaviours of high-performing academic departments. Studies in Higher Education, 42(2), pp.210-231.

Kuipers, B.S., Higgs, M., Kickert, W., Tummers, L., Grandia, J. and Van der Voet, J., 2014. The management of change in public organizations: A literature review. Public administration, 92(1), pp.1-20.

Nadali, A., Grilo, A. and Zutshi, A., 2018, August. A Conceptual Framework of Risk Treatment in Scale up Companies Supported by Using Nudge Theory. In International Conference on Management Science and Engineering Management (pp. 1567-1579). Springer, Cham.

Pascoe, P., 2017. To improve change management, the NHS needs to discard outdated models. LSE Business Review.

Ravanfar, M.M., 2015. Analyzing Organizational Structure based on 7s model of McKinsey. Global Journal of Management And Business Research.

Salman, Y. and Broten, N., 2017. Leading Change. Macat Library.

Verhulst, E. and Lambrechts, W., 2015. Fostering the incorporation of sustainable development in higher education. Lessons learned from a change management perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production, 106, pp.189-204.

Worley, C.G. and Mohrman, S.A., 2014. Is change management obsolete?. Organizational Dynamics, 43(3), pp.214-224.

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