MMS773 Sport Broadcasting and Sports Broadcasting
1. New broadcast models Assessing the potential for non-corporate or smaller sports
The sports broadcasting enable to display the sports events on televisions and internet nowadays so that people all over the world can view it. The sports broadcasting is the actual live coverage of sports unlike the other television programs on radios and is also managed with the use of other broadcasting media. A major benefit of the sports broadcasting is that it can allow a huge amount of population to experience the sports events and are mainly broadcasted in a variety of languages too. The sports broadcasting enables the involvement of multiple commentators who describe the sports events as it happens and is considered as live coverage of sports. There are different types of broadcasting media that are used to present the live coverage of the sports events to the audiences, and they can easily watch those on televisions or even listen to the commentaries done on the radio describing every minute of the sports events happening (Aman et al. 2015). The essay will demonstrate the various findings that have been gathered considering the use of new models for broadcasting the sports events in Australia.
It is seen that the people in Australia like to watch every kind of sports in televisions and most of the top rating television programs are the sports events. With the advancement in technology and communication, the media market has transformed to a huge extent and has created a positive impact on the sports broadcasting on televisions as well. This has not only made it easy for the people to enjoy their sports events on televisions but also on various live televisions that can be accessed with the use of internet in computer systems and mobile phones. There has been the availability of large amounts of data and information from where the people can choose from as well as view the sports events for as many hours as they want (Aman and Bennett 2015). From few data analysis, it has been found that nearly 130,000 hours of sports programming are available on broadcast and cable TV while nearly 40 billion hours have been spent on viewing the sports events that are broadcasted on televisions.
For understanding the various models used for broadcasting the sports events, it is important to know the significance of broadcasting of sports events and related broadcasting contracts present in Australia. There are various laws including the Australia's Anti-siphoning laws that manage the protection of the sports events that are broadcasted in televisions along with management of proper broadcasting models that can influence the approaches to ensure free-to-air television broadcasters (Beloff et al. 2012). Few of the channels where the sports events are broadcasted include Fox Sports, ESPN, Network Ten that feature the English Premier League, English Football league championship, Major league soccer, etc. The Domestic cups are shown on Antenna Pacific, belN sports, Euro sports and even Optus where most of the soccer events are shown live. Most of the live Cricket matches are broadcasted on Nine Network, TBA, Cricket Australia TV while there are other sports too such as cycling, hockey, golf, horse racing, Rugby shown on the other channels available in Australia (Billings 2012).
The new models of sports broadcasting are utilized for changing and managing improvements to rules and regulations on the sponsored content and ensure that all the service users' needs and requirements are fulfilled properly. There could be many situations when the media industry in Australia might face complexities to evaluate the most important business models used for managing the sponsored content. The models are needed to be selected wisely for producing relevant content related to the product or service offered and apply those with the sports broadcasting with effectiveness (Budzinski 2012). Sports events broadcasting is a kind of service that incurs huge amount of cost due to the sports rights obtained along with proper coverage of the live event and displaying it on the media channels. Other than this, there are other related expenditures as well including the need of highly skilled staffs, commentators who are paid high amounts of wages, use of equipments for broadcasting that are quite costly along with production of sport content. However, the sports events have a great value to the broadcasters because it is best when watched live and delivered to a large and diversified audience groups. However, in the recent days, the value of sports events has declined largely in Australia. During the last year, in Australia, it was found that there were lesser chances of selling the advertising and promotions of sports to cover the entire price that had been spend for gaining the satellite and other broadcasting rights (Cutcher 2012). Though the business model used for broadcasting the sports has not been deteriorated in terms of quality, there might have been few distortions, which had created further issues as well. The sports organizations have been working as partners with the broadcasters of sports events to deliver the right kinds of services to the diversified group of people based on their demands and preferences (Donders and Van Rompuy 2012).
Importance of business models for small and non-corporate sports
It becomes difficult for the smaller and non-corporate sports such as hockey, basketball, etc. to get broadcasted on the televisions and radios due to the poor income generated along with lesser popularity among the people, who prefer to watch soccer events and cricket matches more. There are many athletes and sportsmen who play very well, and often their talents and skills have been ignored due to the lack of broadcasting of the sports on the media channels. These kinds of smaller sports events are considered as disability sports by many because the big guns get most of the sponsorship because of greater exposure and create issues for the non-corporate sports to manage successful broadcasting (Doukas 2012). One such example could be the winner of the basketball tournaments held in Australia, and it was The Australian Pearls, though the team did not manage to become familiar with the diverse audiences. They even won a gold medal, though they were not provided with the various benefits that a popular sportsman gets from big matches. Thus, it is important for these smaller and non-corporate sports to get broadcasted on televisions and various internet media channels so that more and more people can get familiar with the sports and watch consistently (Evens 2013). The business models should be followed for delivering the right kinds of content to the audiences and ensure that they gain enough interest to watch that on television and learn the respect these kinds of sports as well. The Australian Institute of Sport currently introduced a nationwide search for identifying the most suitable athletes and sportsmen to compete in the combat sports. The purpose of doing so was to win more medals in Olympics as well as accomplish the goals and objectives of Australian Sports Commission by making the sports events successful and ensure broadcasting on television and other media channels (Evens, Iosifidis and Smith 2013). It was an effective approach of using all these business models to focus on maintaining ethics in sports broadcasting as well as manage the sponsored content properly through implications of various stakeholders who were involved in the business (Greer and Jones 2012).
The sports broadcasters often face difficulty to survive in business and ensure proper reach to the audiences With the increased use of cables and content management, the entertainment measures have been influenced positively, and this has also resulted in managing better exposure like never before. The business models are used to make sure that the issues related to purchasing of sports channels are also overcome. There are several cases when service users pay for the entire bundle of channels that are provided by the service provider, though there are many channels that are not needed at all (Hajkowicz et al. 2013). This gives the customers access to many channels, few of those, which are not even accessed or watched by people, still they pay for the entire bundle to watch the sports even broadcasting channels like ESPN, Fox Sports, Network Ten, etc (Smith, Evens and Iosifidis 2015).
The broadcasting models have transformed the entire media industry in Australia by allowing them to use antennas to catch the free content. The signals are sent by charging the customers with subscription fees for getting the content delivered to the television channels. The channels had become more limited as well, though the fees had been much less when compared to the regular cable subscriptions (Hohteri and Weigh 2012). Few of the service users disagreed to the fact and stated that they had been misguided and stated that foul practices were managed to create high quality content that was broadcasted again. In case the networks lose the rights to charge fees for transmission, the business models that were used should be avoided immediately, and a pay-only model should be adopted as soon as possible (Horner 2013).
Advantages of using the Broadcasting model
The broadcasting model is used to manage the mass distribution of governance-related data and information that have been already accessible to the public domain with the utilization of Information and Communication Technology system or ICT. This kind of model has raised awareness among the people and made them aware of the various processes of governance and services provided by Government of Australia for influencing the broadcasting of non-corporate or small sports (Hull and Lewis 2014). The model also has been beneficial for the audiences to develop opinions and feedbacks of the Government and manage the delivery of administrative services as well. With the availability of relevant data and information, it would be easy and convenient to become more empowered and raise voice for the concerns and furthermore influence the processes of Government by making those more convenient and easy to popularise the sports shown on television and the internet live websites. By applying this kind of broadcasting model, it would be easy and more convenient to utilise the right kinds of technologies and reduce the risks of information failure situations in case the audiences are not aware of the new and existing sports broadcasting services delivered by the Government (Hutchins and Rowe 2013). An alternative channel or medium could also be provided to keep the audiences remain updated with the latest Governance related data and information and then manage validation and reliability of data and information that have been collected from different other sources. Thus, it could be understood that the broadcasting model had been used as a disseminating or distribution model for transmitting the user data and public domain information from a private domain to a wider and large public domain (Kim et al. 2013).
The model has been applied in certain situations for introducing various laws, legislation and rules of the Government by making the names, contact addresses, email, contact number, etc. available online and make it easy for the audience to get answers to their queries in case of any broadcasting issues. The applications of this model also include managing the accessibility of data and information including the plans by Government, budget, expenses and reports of organisational performance available online (Lee and Fort 2014). The major judicial decisions should be put to benefit the general audiences and develop proper plans for undertaking future actions online through the management of environmental decisions, state vs citizen decisions, etc (Smith, Evens and Iosifidis 2015).
The benefits of using the broadcasting model also include universal availability to the general audiences in Australia of the services related to sports event broadcasting. The frequencies and broadcasting-related activities are allocated properly for ensuring that the rules and regulations implemented shall be supervised properly. The model is beneficial for making sure that the various scopes and opportunities are accessed based on the needs and preferences of the society in terms of the various social, political, cultural and local factors (Lefever 2012). To deliver high quality content, the use of broadcast model could also include information, education, advertising, culture and demands of consumers about how much they had been familiar with the sports event and whether they would prefer to watch it or not. The model used for broadcasting the sports events includes two different types of systems including the public service variant, and the other one includes privately owned and financed systems. Though this distinction is not absolute, few commercial sports broadcaster have public duties as a licensing option. The public service broadcasting models have abilities to fulfill the needs and requirements of the social institutions and serve many other political groups as well (Lefever 2012).
The broadcasting model is one of the most complex Digital Governance models that improve the ability to manage accessibility and flow or transfer of data and information to each and every segment of the country. This could not only bring good governance but would also result in ensuring that the non-corporate and small sports were broadcasted on televisions and ensure making more people familiar with these kinds of sports. It is often seen that the Governance related information and data that are basic have not been available for the opening and closing time of the Government offices and other departments that deal with the issues of broadcasting of smaller sports on the televisions in the country (Liu and Carr 2014). This model should be adopted by the central and state Governments in Australia to ensure that proper governance services are delivered to the constituencies, and more people are involved in the processes of Governance. This would also improve the quality of lives of people, create convenience for making these kinds of smaller sports popular, and make those broadcasted on the media with ease and efficiency. The models though have certain benefits, still, free transfer and flow of information may not be possible, which can deprive the society of freedom of speech, political freedom, etc (Liu et al. 2013). The model can be used the sports broadcasters to make judgmental decisions and ensure that smooth flow and exchange of data and information are managed, and smaller sports in Australia gain a good amount of views on televisions, slowly draw in more crowds and enhance the efficiency of the sports activity or event.
The link between the broadcasting of sports through media channels and engagement of service users is still not understood properly. From various researches, it has been understood that media often use competencies to enable live attendance. Basketball is one of the smaller sports that has been played in Australia for some time now. The Dual route framework or DRF has been used to describe the substitute behaviours and use media to determine the involvement of individuals and their consumption of sports events on the media channels were the spirits events have been broadcasted (Mahmood et al. 2015). According to the DRF model aligning the use of media channels with the involvement of individuals can create more service users and attract them to enjoy the new found sports with ease and effectiveness. This kind of model can also distribute data and information and ensure proper consumption of the sports events on the media channels.
Another effective broadcasting model that has linked the use of media with the engagement of audiences in the sports event consumption is the escalator model. The model is concerned with the exposure of sports event, mainly the non-corporate and small sports events to the audiences and escalates or improves the involvement of theirs. Though this can definitely increase the numbers of audiences who can watch the sports event live, still there have been few limitations as well (Milne 2016). Advertising of the sports broadcasting can also influence the behaviours of audiences. The followers of the small sports events follow both the news related to the sports event and watch it. The participation of individuals occurs when personal and social factors such as involvement of youth influence the process of involvement and consumption of media. It has been seen that the consumption of media and leisure participation are interconnected. The data and information obtained from the major league baseball spectators can help in testing the efficiency of the model, determine the nature of media use, and work relationships within the broadcasting offices in Australia (Mitten and Hernandez 2012).
The escalator model is used to spread awareness among the general public through the use of proper media and enhance the attendance of people for the sports event that will be broadcasted on television and other media channels. This can bring good effects on the behaviours of consumers through various levels including the knowledge, awareness, liking, preference and conviction before purchase. Prior to the undertaking of any action or making purchases, the user must be aware of the offerings of the broadcasting channel, and in such cases, the hierarchy of effects model can be used as an alternative to the escalator model. This kind of model enables to understand how individuals can progress through the different types of psychological stages prior to making any decision regarding purchases (Owens 2015). It also initiates awareness among people and ensures that the consumption habits are assessed properly to understand the role of media and its impact on the involvement of people in the watching of sports events of the media channels. The escalator model also illustrated that the media coverage of the sports event had decreased the attendance of people on the ground to watch the matches because they are getting an alternative way of watching the game from ay parts of the world (Pedersen 2013).
The introduction of new sports news and entertainment programs including webcasts, sports bar, cable television, etc. has also changed the perception of users by making them gain a positive mindset regarding the purchase of sports channels to watch the sports events on television. The broadcaster of small and non-corporate sports events has also decided to broadcast of the sports event on television to ensure that a sense of interest is created among the people and they are influenced to watch these kinds of sports events (Peeters 2012). The DRF model enables four different kinds of consumption where each of these follows a different pattern for using media and increasing numbers of people to watch the sports event live on television. Based on this, the service users are categorized who have been engaged in behaviours related to being media dominant or event dominant. The model would also determine the validity and reliability of the various consumption modes as well as ensure that fans are involved in large numbers in the small and non-corporate sports events that have been held in Australia (Sa and Ahn 2015). According to this model, the media dominant service users are also more inclined with the experiencing of sports events on media channels than the event dominant users.
With the introduction of new technologies and communication procedures, the sports industry or marketplace has changed largely, and this has enhanced the consumption by service users through the use of media effectively. The trends of increasing media consumption showed that the level of attendance or involvement of people had become the sources of profit for the broadcasting organization (Santos 2012). The fan base of many teams involved with the small sports like basketball, rugby, baseball, etc. has also got larger due to the media dominant consumers. Segmentation of a particular fan base is possible with the utilisation of a dual route model or framework that can put focus efficiently on sports broadcasting and allow the small sports broadcasting companies to design promotions and advertisements to raise awareness. This would create a positive impact on the media consumption of people by targeting them through the involvement of celebrities and well-known personalities and make the sports event familiar with the people of Australia (Scherer and Rowe 2013). The celebrity involvement can attract the media dominant consumers and create loyal customers. All these models of broadcasting can be used by the organisations, which manage the smaller and non-corporate sports events to gain the full potential and perform to the best potential.
Gaining rights to broadcast smaller sports events
In case a league of the smaller and non-corporate sports is feeling to sell its rights to broadcast entire coverage of the sports events exclusively over the network. There are various situations when the public ownership of broadcasters may not be present in Australia. In such cases, the pricing model can be applied to the Australian TV networks to create a positive impact on the advertising and promotions done by the broadcasters. This could also allow the pay TV networks to compensate for such kinds of limitations and furthermore enhance the fee for subscription. The free TV networks that are present differ across various places all over Australia in terms of the structure of ownership, and even the charges have been applied to both private and public managed free TV networks with ease and effectiveness (Scherer and Sam 2012). The individuals who regulate the decisions regarding purchase or buying can gain rights to market the smaller sports event or non-corporate sports event via television and other media channels too. Based on the model, the league body that manages the non-corporate and smaller sports events can gain the full rights to enable marketing of the league games and matches on television and reach a wider group of audiences (Schultz and Wei 2012). This could not only act as a major source of income but could also manage the payments for the TV rights and feeds for sponsorship with the help of the main sponsors of the smaller and non-corporate sports events’ league. The models of broadcasting are useful for ensuring that the timing of sports events are managed properly by making sure that the networks compete for the TV rights through auctions and the league can also choose the purchaser, which has the ability to generate the highest amount of revenue in business through broadcasting. The owners of the clubs that are involved with the non-corporate and smaller sports events’ management and broadcasting must choose the different types of investment levels by using the models to know the amount of money that will be shared as the prize for winning the league match, directly broadcasted on television (Shank and Lyberger 2014). The network that wins shall choose the price of broadcasting and manage the viewership of the sports event while the sponsors need to pay the right amount of money and even the amount of money utilised for understanding the broadcasting market can be determined effectively.
According to the generation and distribution of revenue from the leagues to the clubs. The broadcasting models can help to identify the risks of over investment tendencies and ensure that the non-corporate and smaller sports events are broadcasted properly on television and other media channels. There are few models of broadcasting for these non-corporate and smaller organisations to incorporate revenues into the basic standards of architecture to manage investments successfully as well as determine the analytical solutions for the investment level of the club (Smith, Evens and Iosifidis 2015). The leagues that can generate high amounts of revenue can even split the generated profit among the teams which have participated and for management of TV contracts and merchandising.
The bidding process model can help to manage the TV networks bids based on the actual nature of broadcasting rights auction and thereby create an impact on the behaviours and attitudes of clubs, which have been part of the smaller and non-corporate sports events in Australia. With the help of bidding, sufficient money can be generated for obtaining the satellite rights and furthermore ensure that the broadcasting is done properly. Thus, it could be understood that incorporating the club ownership into the model would be able to continue with future researches for broadcasting the new found sports on televisions in an effective manner as well. All these models are beneficial for the smaller and non-corporate sports events to increase the welfare of organisation through better flexibility management of business functions. According to the model, there are two networks through the broadcasting rights have been allocated to a particular network only (Stenzel and Scuda 2014). The analysis of welfare related to the broadcasting of sports events by the organisation is done for determining the ways of maximising the welfare for a price that is quite lower than the marginal cost. This would allow the makers of policy to improve the chances and possibilities of managing entry into the broadcasting of sports events by the smaller and non-corporate organisations all over Australia. It could also foster the competition in the market and allow for preventing any networks to manage bids for the rights of broadcasting of the sports events. The income from sponsorship would increase along with the maximisation of viewership by managing competition in the market (Aman and Bennett 2015).
The topic was presented to shed limelight on the Usage of various models of sports broadcasting and draw a large number of viewers. The topic also aimed at the generation of more profit level, which would be possible with the help of broadcasting the smaller and non-corporate sports events live on television and furthermore influence the behaviours of individuals to experience these kinds of sports events and make it more popular and noteworthy. The benefits of broadcasting the smaller and non-corporate sports were illustrated which showed that more audiences would be attracted along with better scopes and opportunities to generate revenue in large numbers as well. This would also make people more familiar with these kinds of sports and allow them to watch the matches broadcasted on television more frequently. The broadcasting models have several advantages both for the small and non-corporate sports broadcasting companies like gaining ownership to broadcast the sports events, availability of the sports events in various channels so that more and more people can watch it and create a good presence in the business market. Few of the models that were discussed in this essay had transformed the entire media industry and even maintained good media content for making the sports events familiar with the people who had interest in these kinds of sports.
Few major advantages of the broadcasting models had been the effective mass distribution of Governance related data and information accessible to the public domain through utilisation of the Information and Communication Technology system or ICT. With the influence of Government, the broadcasting models had further helped in obtaining the responses and feedbacks of audiences and ensured proper management of administration related services for the broadcasting of sports events. The models had enabled universal accessibility to the domain from where the audiences would easily be able to watch the sports events and even people from every part of the world could view it. The utilisation of the broadcasting model had created better scopes and opportunities as well to deliver high quality media content and motivate the viewers to experience the sports events on television properly and with convenience.
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