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MN503 | Internetworking | An Architectural Design For The Business

a. Explain human factors in achieving business and technical goals through planning and design.

b. Investigate and develop an architectural internetworking design for the business and application domains.


Introduction and background of networking

Internetworking is the connection of two or more computers to altercate data such as e-mail message, documents, sharing of resources such as disk storage or printers, sharing of application. Connection is through cables that convey the data in the form of electrical frequencies. But in some cases other types of connection are used. Computer can also communicate through radio waves this is called wireless networking.

Internetworking come in all size and forms. In fact, it is basic to classify networks in terms of the area they cover we have LAN in which PCs are moderately near one another, for example, inside a similar office or building, wide area internetworking which is a connection of two or more local area network that are relatively far apart and metropolitan area internetworking which connect two or more local area networks within a same city. Network topology is the arrangement of network devices in a network

Chronological development

There are numerous clients who utilize computer networks and are found everywhere throughout the world. To ensure efficient communication some models were developed this include OSL and TCP model [1]. OSI model architecture consists of seven layers. It characterizes seven layers in a communication framework. Since there many users using the network models such as OSL and TCP were created to control the devices.

OSl model

This defines how several network components communicates with each other using specified protocols [2].The figure below shows how the layers are arranged in the model.

Application layer







Application layer

This is an organize layer that is associated with exchanging information between at least two hosts.

Presentation layer

This is the layer that deals information arrangement. For instance during record sharing information from the sender is changed over into wired information before being conveyed to the collector.

Session layer

Allow network users with different machines to use the network in different sessions.

Transport layer

Enhances delivery of information to the end users.

The network layer.

It enables delivery of information from the source to multiple users within the network. It uniquely identifies paths that data will follow during its transmission process.

Data link layer.

It transfers information from one layer to another within the network.

Physical layer.

It is made up of the hardware parts within the network .They mainly deal with signaling within the network.

Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).

The TCP and IP are decides that administer associations of PCs to the network. PCs utilize this sort of dialect with the goal that they can be associated with the internet. TCP model is made up of four layers not as much as those that are found in the OSL model[3]. The layers incorporate the application layer, transport layer and finally link layer. IP gives mechanism in which the hosts extraordinarily distinguishes the clients inside the system. The table below shows how layers are arranged in this model.

Application layer




Network accessories

This are the device that are used within the network. This devices include network cables, routers, switches and   network end devices.

Present networking

There is great innovation in wireless networks, wired networking and mobile computing. Organizations have implemented the new technology hence improving their business process. This technologies  increase the speed of communication among individuals .Example technologies like routing protocols  have  indeed increase the speed of communication among networking devices .There are two types of routing protocols dynamic and  static routing[4]. Static routing is where routers are manually configured while dynamic is where routers automatically select the paths which data flow follows. Routing protocols can further be divide into RIP which is a forcefully protocol that uses distance vector to find the distance required for data flow. IGRP is routing technology that is used to exchange data between an independent systems.

Internet speed




Very slow


Very fast

Transferred over short distances

Can be transmitted over  long distances

Can be transmitted over miles of distances

Human basic centric

The innovation of screens has enormously been developed. PC utilizes LCD screen for show as opposed to the cathode beam tubes that were utilized before[5].LCD screens are light and can be effortlessly conveyed starting with one point then onto the next. This show innovation is additionally clearer than the cathode beams screens. The figure below shows an LCD screen.



Another innovation that accessible is the touch screen which gives typists simple time of composing [5]. Contact screens are simpler to use than catch gadgets. More mobiles have been presently created and they are promptly accessible in the web. Implying that one can download them and utilize .Many of this applications are free.

Future Networks

Cloud computing - This is the conveyance of PC administrations e.g. databases and server online over the web. Distributed computing has made correspondence to be simple .It has improve rapid of correspondence through sharing of assets on the web. Numerous organizations store there information online so they can be accessed from anyplace [6]. it has lessened the cost of putting away data. Below is diagram showing devices  in cloudy

IOT-This technology that allows control of digital equipment’s over a network. This technology is mostly used in home appliance equipment’s .One can able to control devices that are connected on the network through a simple click from anywhere as long as he is connected to the same network[6]. This technology saves on time it doesn’t require someone to be around to perform any changes to a given device that is connected to network. The figure below shows IOT devices.

Software defined networking-This technology that helps to make networking more agile and flexible.  The aim of this technology is to make providers to quickly respond to any changes in the network to improve enterprise business requirements. Its plays a part in the situating remote systems to arrange work virtualization for versatile and adaptable situating of the center portable systems which can likewise be known as the control boards .it urges organize architects to do more research before setting up a network system [7].

Intelligent networking – This ability of computer to learn skills from the data that is provided. This technology will make the computer address new skills in the real world.


Networking speed has gradual been increasing for the time it was invented? At fast networking was only done in very short range e,g computers within the  same  building. The speed at which data was transferred was very slow. Currently large sizes of data can be transferred over long distances within a very short time. This shows that network speed is increasing from every now and then. This is prediction that the future network will be faster.


[1] Murali, V. and George, S. Lost online: an overview of internet addiction. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment,2009 13(1), pp.24-30.

[2] Seitz, J. and Stickel, E, Internet banking—An overview. In Electronic Banking (pp. 67-77). Vieweg+ Teubner Verlag.2010

[3] Braden, R., Clark, D. and Shenker,. Integrated services in the internet architecture: an overview (No. RFC 1633),2009

[4] Griffiths, M.D., Kuss, D.J. and Pontes, H.M, A brief overview of Internet gaming disorder and its treatment. Australian Clinical Psychologist,2016 , 2(1), p.20108.

[5] Medaglia, C.M. and Serbanati, A, An overview of privacy and security issues in the internet of things. In The Internet of Things (pp. 389-395). Springer, New York, NY,2010

[6] Wang, N., Ho, K., Pavlou, G. and Howarth, M. An overview of routing optimization for internet traffic engineering. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 10(1),2010

[7] Walter, T., Hourizi, R., Moncur, W. and Pitsillides, S, Does the internet change how we die and mourn? Overview and analysis. OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying,2012. 64(4), pp.275-302.

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