Discuss about the Paper on Advanced Qualitative Research for Developments.
In recent times there have been witnessed a significant prominence in the utilization and acceptance of qualitative methods in various domains namely health, education, social sciences and other significant spheres. This has further been exhibited in the rise in funding assigned to qualitative assignments or the ones constituting of qualitative component, along with a development in qualitative publications and the incorporation of qualitative methodologies in the educational curricula. It is important to note that qualitative researching and observation is important as well as crucial within the educational arena, thus has been recognized as an immensely gratifying activity because of its high level of engagement with things of utmost importance and significance (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011). Understanding theories on sustainable development have enhanced my theoretical perspective which reveals the propensity level of theories to distinguish aspects of social divergences and conflicts from either conjectural perspective whereby these theories should further be alleviated or further be radicalized in order to purposely produce significant transitions and developments (Hatch, 2002). Through qualitative research, we can effectively explore a broad array of aspects and dimensions of the social world which tends to involve the texture and quality of everyday life, the vital understandings, knowledge, and experiences and further envisages of our research participants, along with the social approaches, institution, discourses or associations perform along with the implication of meanings which are generated. However, this can be executed with qualitative methods and approaches with the usage of techniques or methodologies that celebrate reliability, opulence, intensity, nuance, ideas, and perspective along with the level of complexities rather being inconvenienced by the participants (Hatch, 2002). However, these vital areas of qualitative research at times is evaded in the face of criticisms which state that qualitative research and observation is identified as ‘merely’ anecdotal or is executed in casual and unsystematic ways. The following paper explicitly evaluates certain areas of qualitative research such as understanding paradigms, research designs, literature review, research methods, tools, data collection, data analysis, finds, validity, and reliability of research by providing individualistic reflections on these methods.
Understanding ‘Qualitativeness’ of Qualitative Research
There have been recognized several endeavours in order to define qualitative research in the domain of social sciences and further to determine the distinguishing factors of the method with that of quantitative research. However, there cannot be witnessed any consensus on these areas as qualitative research certainly is not a combined set of techniques, methods and philosophies and thus has emerged as a broad array of intellectual and disciplinary traditions (Lewis, 2015). For example, it can be noted that qualitative research is perhaps most commonly associated with certain institutions which engage broadly within what is regarded as the interpretivist sociological conventions particularly phenomenology and ethnomethodology (Seidman, 2013). Psychology, although predominantly being long associated with quantitative as well as ‘scientific’ research methods, in recent times has developed a more critical school which tends to exhibit greater degree of inclination towards qualitative and sometimes advanced or post modern approaches to conduct research particularly the observations rooted in discourse and content analysis but also psychoanalysis (Hatch, 2002).
However, has been deliberated to be comprehensive set of influences which have generated to be a diverse range of approaches which are identified as qualitative research but on the other hand is formulated to execute a sense of the range of philosophical underpinnings along with methodological methods and practices which have the tendency to be encompassed by time (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011). Furthermore, these various traditions, schools and disciplines function with distinctive perceptions related to what makes the social world go round along with its value and significance. As a consequence, qualitative research comprises of various ideas and techniques related to the extent to which empirical investigation can inform the researchers about the meaning and proper connotations of anything (Graue, 2015). Thus, this signifies that the wide array of traditions which constitute of some kind of interest in qualitative research does not unite distinctively into a single identical philosophy or set of methodological principles (Flick, 2013).
In my perspective, it is a highly comprehensive area of strength of qualitative research that it cannot be condensed to a simple as well as prescriptive set of standards and disciplines and thus I belief that a major proportion of researchers ranging from various different traditions and disciplines exhibit high level of interest in conducting research in some way or the other that is qualitative in nature. Thus, with the understanding obtained by reading “Doing Qualitative Research in Education Settings” by J.Amos Hatch and further acquiring ideas from other books based on qualitative research, I emphasize on the high level of reliability and rich form of qualitative research approaches, strategise and techniques through which I can further develop a sense of comprehending the vital facets of qualitative research.
Paradigms of Qualitative Research
As literature comprises of a range of approaches and techniques in defining the proper understanding and connotations of qualitative research, thus the definitions tend to range from direct endeavours related to any form of statistical techniques or other approaches of quantification to more descriptive formulations such as ‘research paradigm’ that tends to emphasize on the inductive, interpretative methods and techniques applied to everyday world that is further perceived as subjective and socially formulated to a comprehensive level of product-oriented statements (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011). However for example, certain ‘research approaches which aim to generate descriptive data, individual’s written or articulated statements and observable as well as evident behaviour.
By effectively going through the readings of "Doing Qualitative Research in Education Settings" I attained this understanding that research paradigm establishes the overarching perspective for any research project, thus can effectively be used by various scholars to comprehend variety of things. The ideas proposed by Kuhn based on research paradigm has enhanced by level of knowledge that is a fundamental set of principles or assumptions that has been adopted by a methodical and systemic community (Hatch, 2002). Furthermore, I must note that these significant forms of principles define the nature of the world as well as place of individuals involved in it. As through my observation I have noted research paradigms directs at situations and the individuals within those perspectives in a holistic approach which relies at an immense rate on the context of observation, such paradigms thus are not reduced to an secluded variable or to an hypothesis by thus is identified by potential researchers like me to perceive these paradigms as a significant part as a whole. As research paradigm has been identified as a proficient combination of two ideas intrinsically associated to the nature of world as well as the function of researcher (Flick, 2013). Thus it will aid me as a researcher to successfully conduct the research in effective manner. These notions have developed my understanding that would further enhance my understanding and knowledge related to the topic of research I will be conducting. Thus proficient use of apposite research paradigm as well as philosophies will further provide me proper guidance to successfully eradicate these factors from the research.
Understanding aspects of Literature Review
It is significant to note, that the place of substantive theory in qualitative research has been identified as an area of incongruity among qualitative researchers. However certain set of recommendations have identified that extensive literature reviews and comprehensive understanding of significant theory prior to entering into the field of research. Here I must put emphasis on the ideas of Wolcott whereby he stated the “Theory is supposed to help researchers of any persuasion clarify what they are up to and to help them to explain to others what they are up to.” (Hatch, 2002). However this statement of Wolcott reminds me of certain other readings which I have gone through while improving my knowledge on advanced qualitative research that substantive theory is an immense vital aspect that facilitates the understanding of researchers to clarify the potentialities and strategies of the researchers.
Recently, I have evaluated a paper which primarily comprises aspects of sustainable development in the tourism management. The comprehensive literature review part of that paper has further helped me to attain extensive understanding of residents’ support and guidance for the growth of sustainable tourism expansion that has further been discussed in wide range of tourism sectors as such developments have exhibit immense propensity to attain significant demands and desires of the customer base which tends to significantly provide immense opportunities to improve economic progress and further safeguard physical locations while improving the quality and value of life (Seidman, 2013). The comprehensive literature has led me attain valuable insights and observations on the association that exists between community attachment of host inhabitants and their guidance for sustainable development.
Through the hypothesis applied in certain other papers based on sustainability management to a broad range of negotiations and divergences ranging from ethnic apprehensions to religious discrepancies, I have observed that important expounding ability for theorists of executing qualitative analysis of complex forms of contemporary social associations which engages the wide sphere of tourism influences on marginalized sections (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011). One of the primary subject areas of my specialization has extensively shed light on aspects related cultural conflict. However, factors related to cultural conflict and negotiation has been identified as one of the significant themes of tourism influence observations. These observations have further facilitated my perceptive of understanding the critical determinants of social transformation which tend to influence the conflicting factors pertaining between diverse interest associations engaged in the tourism sector .
Importance of Literature Review in Qualitative Research Writing
As conducting a systematic and comprehensive literature review is essential for students to have been developed vigilantly and further given a fact in various forms of research papers. The comprehensive understanding acquired from “The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research” by Denzin and Lincoln has effectively enhanced by level of understanding towards the conceptualization of literature review which is identified both as summary and explanation of the comprehensive and current state of knowledge on a limited area of subject that are found in academic books, journal and articles (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011). However, an extensive literature review can only facilitate me as a researcher to identify topic sentences of each paragraph which would further aid me to identify the paper presented a distinctive position that has been reasonably been positioned both from the beginning to the end. Thus if I can successfully identify that my paper lack a significant form of centrality or guiding concept or further reveal a lack of capacity to critically analyse the literature selected, then as a researcher I must formulate new outline that will be based on what I have discussed in previous sections.
Significance of Qualitative Research Design in Academic Research
Qualitative research design is often identified as a vital research technique implemented extensively by scientists, social scientists and researchers in order to study human behaviour, opinions, theories, and motivations. The research design that has been discussed in the “Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research” by Norman K. Denzin and Yvonna explicitly sheds light on five essential question structures in the issue of Research Design (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011). However these questions fundamentally dealt on the way design is related to the paradigm or context that is being utilised within the research, furthermore focusing on the way empirical materials will be informed by and related to the paradigm that is in question (Hatch, 2002).. Secondly, it further deals with the way these essential materials will permit the researcher to highlight on the issues of praxis and transition by providing questions on the matter on which the research is being conducted and what essential strategies and approaches of enquiry will be used (Ritchie et al., 2013). In addition to this research designs incorporates the important approaches techniques or research tools which are involved in the collection and evaluation of empirical materials that are going to be utilised for the study.
It is significant to note that as the positivist, post positivist, constructionist and critical paradigms signifies various forms of autonomy thereby the design formulated for a qualitative research can be perceived as a vital field which tends to range from rigorous design standards on one hand to an emergent incomprehensible structure directives on the other. As constructive research designs place an exceptional role on the early recognition and development of a research question, a set of hypothesis along with the research establishment and a statement that is based on the sampling approaches must be effectively engaged by formulating any research design. These comprehensive understanding about qualitative research designs have not only enhanced my knowledge of research approaches and methods but further has facilitated me to effectively comprehend a research proposal that is based on several stages as well as pieces of observation which must be proficiently documented (Lewis, 2015). However while aiming to obtain adequate information on qualitative research design, it has enabled me to evaluate that while qualitative investigators may formulate design approaches prior to the research, these designs may always exhibit a tendency to have built in flexibility in order to justify the new and unanticipated empirical materials along with the increasing level of complexities and intricacies while conducting any research (Hatch, 2002)..
Furthermore, by establishing my understandings on Hatch’s ideas, I have been able to comprehend the fact that effectively setting a research design which constitutes a flexible design and formulation is recognised as a form of balancing act. Thus having intensive knowledge on qualitative research design which requires adequate refurbishments with the contextual abilities of the study will be more comprehensive with the flexible side of the equation. Thus, insights which I have acquired have enabled me to examine that the emerging qualitative researchers will exhibit a greater degree of inclination towards the balancing act with the emancipation that the studies will evolve and develop thus resulting to a constructive explanation.
Understanding the importance of Data Analysis in Qualitative Research
There has been witnessed a well-comprehensive tradition and approach for reanalysing aspects of quantitative data. However, in qualitative research there has not been identified any significant aspect of research culture of secondary analysis with a restricted development of secondary analysis in the domain of academic research (Graue, 2015). As secondary data analysis can be comprehended as analysis of data and adequate information obtained for a previous study by another researcher therefore requires the utilization of pre-determined qualitative data. Furthermore several other argumentative grounds have been positioned in other academic domains that secondary data analysis in qualitative research (Smith, 2015). As there can be identified various proposed advantageous areas for the secondary analysis of qualitative data. In comparison to quantitative data, the qualitative research further produces vital amounts of data that is rich in detail, thus it can further comprehend that a considerable degree of the data remains unanalysed while conducting research (Denzin & Lincoln, 2011). Furthermore, the significant differentiation between the four analysis of analysis namely
- primary analysis,
- secondary analysis
- simultaneous data analysis
These exhibit a crucial explanation as the undemanding polemic of either primary or secondary analysis which does not tend to demonstrate the intricacies of the definite or concrete research practice (Ritchie et al., 2013).
Role of utilizing data analysis in academic research
However, as a student I must shed light on the consideration of the general criticisms which emphasize on secondary analysis and further focus on three important arguments. Furthermore, these arguments tend to put greater degree of inclination to the credibility of what has widely been recognized as ‘secondary analysis’ that has previously involved the reutilization of one’s own data and analysis (Hatch, 2002). As being new to research methods, it is essentially significant for me as a student to realize a comprehensive understanding of the variation between qualitative and quantitative data analysis. As the initial phases of data collection tend to involve largely unstructured data, it is significant for me to generate comprehensive information by transcribing all relevant data (Miles et al., 2013). Furthermore, to develop as a proficient and competent researcher I must also comprehend the vital factors of data validation or reliability of an effectual research. As data validation is a vital aspect of the data analysis process factors such as reliability and validity data generated through data validation tends to generate consistent and reliable results.
Thus as a social science student I have successfully comprehended that shedding light on the integral role and accountability of researcher in Qualitative Research is of immense value by with an effective use of conversational writing technique. However, this technique not only aims to motivate readers with high level of engagement and exhilaration of the research process but further provides a unbiased as well as nuanced approach which encompasses a wide range of qualitative methodologies and perspectives related to the research domain in order to facilitate observation or as a venue for the observation. The ideas obtained from the writings of Amos Hatch and Denzin & Lincoln have not only enhanced the level of my understanding about qualitative research procedures but further has enabled me to deal efficiently with the areas of complexities associated with data analysis as well as evaluating the research.
Denzin, N. K., & Lincoln, Y. S. (Eds.). (2011). The SAGE handbook of qualitative research. Sage.
Flick, U. (Ed.). (2013). The SAGE handbook of qualitative data analysis. Sage.
Graue, C. (2015). Qualitative data analysis. International Journal Of Sales, Retailing & Marketing, 4(9), 5-14.
Hatch, J. A. (2002). Doing qualitative research in education settings. Suny Press.
Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, 16(4), 473-475.
Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., & Saldana, J. (2013). Qualitative data analysis. Sage.
Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., Nicholls, C. M., & Ormston, R. (Eds.). (2013). Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers. sage.
Seidman, I. (2013). Interviewing as qualitative research: A guide for researchers in education and the social sciences. Teachers college press.
Smith, J. A. (Ed.). (2015). Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods. Sage.
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