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PHI103 learning activity week 1

pol103: learning activity/week1

ANSWER

Sure incorrect

A set of claims in which some, called premises, serve as support for another claim, called the conclusion -argument

A statement in an argument that serves as support for the conclusion -premise

The process of drawing a claim (the conclusion) from the reasons offered in the premises - inference

A sentence that presents an assertion that something is the case- claim

The claim supported by the premises-conclusion

Term Definition

Inference The process of drawing a claim (the conclusion) from the reasons offered in the premises

Claim A sentence that presents an assertion that something is the case.

Argument A set of claims in which some, called premises, serve as support for another claim, called the conclusion

Premise A statement in an argument that serves as support for the conclusion

Conclusion

The claim supported by the premises

In this case, the statements that sugar is highly addictive and that it is terribly unhealthy are given in support of the claim that you should give it up. The argument in standard form is:

Premise: Sugar is terribly unhealthy.

Premise: Sugar is highly addictive.

Conclusion: You should give up sugar.

  • Which is true of standard form arguments? The premises are listed above the conclusion.

In this case, the statements that the speaker is stuck in terrible traffic and has to pick up a present on the way are given in support of the claim that the speaker will be late to the party. The argument in standard form is:

Premise: I am stuck in terrible traffic.

Premise: I have to pick up a present along the way.

Conclusion: I am going to be late to your party.

*Which of these shows how to present arguments in standard form? Premise #1

Premise #2

Conclusion

*Which of the following is true of deductive and inductive arguments? The connection between the premises and conclusion is weaker in an inductive argument, but they are used more widely than deductive arguments.

*What is critical thinking? Careful assessment when forming judgments

*What is a set of premises given in support of a conclusion? Argument

*In informal logic, the main method for identifying, constructing, or examining arguments is to extract what we hear or read as arguments and put this in standard argument form. Standard argument form includes one or more claims, called premises, on a separate lines in support of a final claim, the conclusion. For instance:

Premise

Premise

Conclusion

*Regarding standard form arguments, which of the following are true?

 In informal logic, the main method for identifying arguments is to put them into standard argument form, with the premises listed above the conclusion (each on a separate line), as follows:

Premise

Premise

Conclusion

 The premises are the sentences used to support the conclusion. Each premise should be listed on a separate line.

The premises and the conclusion have to be claims (sentences that assert that something is true).

 The conclusion is not typically more certain than the premises, as the premises are given in support of the truth of the conclusion.

 In standard form arguments, the conclusion is not listed first, but at the end, after the premises.

 Each premise may or may not be true—a standard form argument may have false premises.

*Logic is defined as the study of arguments that serve as tools for arriving at warranted judgments.

  • Logic is a skill we all possess. While it can be useful in debates, it is not about winning but about learning to reason well. Its value is not purely theoretical but applies in our daily lives. Logical reasoning does not replace emotion but makes sure that our inferences are based on reasoning rather than merely emotions.
  • What is a judgment? An informed evaluation
  • logic-The study of arguments as tools for arriving at warranted judgments

Rhetoric- The art of persuasion

Philosophy- The activity of clarifying ideas with the goal of seeking truth

Informal logic --The study and description of reasoning in everyday life

Critical thinking- The activity of careful assessment and self-assessment that employs logical reasoning as the principal basis for accepting beliefs or making judgments

  • Which of the following is true of inductive arguments? The truth of the conclusion is intended to be made more likely by the premises.

They do not guarantee their conclusion

At best, they make their conclusions probable.

the premises of a good inductive argument offer good grounds for accepting the conclusion.

  • What is the purpose of a logical argument? To demonstrate what is true based on reasoning
  • Which of these are traits of intellectual modesty? Seeking to understand what others think; Being willing to embrace change
  • Which are conclusion indicators? Thus; as a result, therefore

As a result...

Thus...

Therefore...

For these reasons...

It follows that...

Hence...

So...

premise indicators are:

  • Because...
  • Since...
  • For...
  • Given that...
  • As...
  • Owing to...
  • Seeing that...
  • Which of the following are true of inductive arguments?

At best, they make their conclusions probable.

The premises of a good inductive argument offer good grounds for accepting the conclusion.

They do not guarantee their conclusion.

*Which of these is true of the differences between arguments and explanations?

-An argument attempts to show that a conclusion is true; an explanation attempts to show why it is true.

-The conclusion of an explanation is likely to be less controversial than the premises.

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