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PHIL 110A Philosophy : Foundations of Humanity

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Questions:

1. Write arguments and counter arguments for subjective v. objective truth (scepticism v universals truth), potentiality v. actuality (change) and the unity/plurality of reality for the following philosophers and concepts:

Pythagoreans (plurality)
Heraclitus (change, unity)
Protagoras (subjective/objective/scepticism)
Parmenides (plurality/unity, change)
Zeno (plurality/unity, change)
Gorgias (scepticism)
Transfinite theory
Discreet/continuous space/time
Absolute/relative change

2. What are pre-Socratic elements of scepticism?

3. How did Socrates challenge relativism?

Answers:

Objectivity is the central concept of philosophy where the truth and reality are defined by the concept that has been broadly defined by the sources. The proposition is considered to be a true form o0f objectivity is when the truths are met without any form of bias that are influenced by any form of feelings, opinions and ideas (Carson, 2013). A second meaning of the term refers to the fair judgments without any complete or partial external influence. Gorgias who was a Sicilican philosopher, orator and a rhetorician argued about the presentation of the logical contradictions. He said that if there is a existence of non exist, then they will both exist and not exist at the same time. He explains that if anything exists then it will be only through the external forces or it can be generated. Gorgias also marked the attention towards the concepts that are comprehensible and knowable. The universality on the other hand defines that the facts of the universe can be understood on being in opposition to relativism. In certain religion, universalism is the quality that is ascribed as the entity whose existence is a continuous phenomenon in the universe (Carson, 2013). The universality in logic argues that a proposition is valued as logical only if it can be accepted as a true concept without forming any contradictions (.Blank, 2014).  

The potentiality of the context refers to the possibility of the concept and the importance of the real records to be the same. In contrast to this, the actuality of the situation refers to the motion or the change in the flow of work in their fullest sense. Aristotle views actuality and potentiality as the promising fundamental for two reasons. One is the disarming simplicity of the concept and the other is its place as a rudimentary for the understanding of the other theories. According to Aristotle’s causality, the subject matter is considered potentiality and the form is considered actuality. Change refers to the difference in a state of affairs that are included in different points of time. The partial concerns of the Eleatics were about the several problems that were raised due to the several changes due to the Zeno’s paradoxes that included the realization that change is impossible and the reality of the universe is perceived as one that will be unchanged. However, Heraclitus is the philosopher who accepted change as a normal procedure in the Universe. He believed that change is like water. In the Universe, water always flow and one cannot step into the same water twice (Baltussen, 2015).

Reality is referred to the things that actually exist in the universe and not the things that are imagined or unrealistic. The concept of reality includes the responses that are observable and that can be comprehensible. Reality can often be illusionary, delusional, fictional or false. The truth always reflects the reality and fictions always show the false picture. The pythogerian approach to philosophy provides aiming the divine (Siegel, 2013). It believed that all the things in the universe could be pursued from its sources. The constant decrease in the mathematical relationships brought a mathematical approach to Pythagoreans that corrected the forms of reality and brought in a good change in the universe.

The term “sceptic” is taken from a Greek word that means seeker after knowledge. It can be used in the in terms of philosophy where people have failed to find the doubts and they are possibility to gain knowledge that are extreme. The pre – Socratic Skepticism is the elements that are the thoughts that were proposed in ancient Greece before the concept of skepticism became the new era for self-consciousness and philosophical stances. The key elements for the pre- Socratic skepticism are the concepts and philosophers who were prominent in this era. They were Heraclitus whose most prominent elementary source was the mistrust in the senses, Zeno of Elea who gave logical and rational arguments (Siegel, 2013). On contrast, Parmenides thought that will a probable risk to change the processes of Universe. Lastly, Protagoras and Sophists maintained that there is a possibility where nothing does exist and if the universe knew anything then they will be communication in the universe to gain knowledge.

Socrates was a Greek Philosopher who was one of the strong pillars in the Western tradition. He believed in proper distinction between gathering true knowledge and opinions. The truths for Socrates are being discussed, but being lived, practiced and embodied. Socrates propagated as souls to be the primary source that can be put forward against moral relativists. He believed in genuine happiness and the foundations of humanity (Bartlett, 2016). Through his belief, he became the martyr for the truth that is understood in philosophy.

References

Baltussen, H. (2015). Understanding Odours in Problemata 12–13: Peripatetic Problems Concerning the Elusive Sense of Smell. The Aristotelian Problemata Physica: Philosophical and Scientific Investigations, 172.

Bartlett, R. C. (2016). Sophistry and Political Philosophy: Protagoras' Challenge to Socrates. University of Chicago Press.

Blank, R. A. (2014). Overcoming the 5th-Century BCE Epistemological Tragedy: A Productive Reading of Protagoras of Abdera.

Carson, N. P. (2013). Passionate Epistemology: Kierkegaard on Skepticism, Approximate Knowledge, and Higher Existential Truth. Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 40(1), 29-49.

Gerson, L. P. (2014). The Aristotelian Commentaries and Platonism. Quaestiones Disputatae, 4(2), 7-23.

Iturbe, M. (2015). The Search for the Arche in the Pre-Socratic Philosophers (The Milesian School). A Path to Dialogue.

Siegel, H. (2013). Relativism refuted: A critique of contemporary epistemological relativism (Vol. 189). Springer Science & Business Media.

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