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POLI2001 Ideas in Political Science and Social Movements

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Develop your draft essay plan into a fully referenced research essay. Your essay must include:
Your name and student number not included in the word count
The essay topic you are writing on stated clearly on the first page not included in the word count
An introductory paragraph that outlines the research question your essay answers, why this is an important question to ask, and a brief summary of you overall argument

At least three major arguments that draw upon the resources you have consulted.
A concluding paragraph or paragraphs that bring together the main strains of your argument into a clearly stated overall answer to the essay question.

Answer:

Introduction:

Movements have been evident all over the globe starting from Latin America, African Continent, Asia or America; people have struggled to bring change in the society. Similarly, the world has seen many movements from the common people for the sake of gaining democracy. The purpose of this essay is to highlight the major reasons behind the movement. The thesis statement developed for this piece of debate is, to what extent movement help in revitalizing democracy. In the view point of Haynes (2013), politics have rather turned out to become a business. This business depends on capturing large sum of money rather than harnessing the allegiance and talent of the people of the society. There have been several other reasons that have ultimately leaded to the situation where the people have to revolt for the sake of their rights in the society where they live. The major concept of democracy is to fight for the people against any kind of oppressive situation that takes place in the society. It should be the primary concern of the government or the ruling party to consider the perspective of the people and shape their ruling way considering the rights of the individual people.

Discussion: 

  69 Download     📄   10 Pages / 2385 Words

As commented by Park (2008), social movements are open to all because a collective approach is undertaken by the people of the society to fight against the oppression in the society. The social movement are always inclined towards mass protests where the common citizens have their openness of thoughts and action towards the country or the political scenario prevailing in the country. We often found that people come together to fight for a common cause. In the viewpoint of Robteutscher (2005) that in a society the minority group often have to suffer. Therefore we are often found that the major causes behind the movement for the democracy of a country is related to getting back the right and opportunity for the minority people. Thus, it can be easily said that the main motive behind the social movement is to change the existing power and political authority of a particular country or society and create a better place for every single individual to live (Park 2008).

In this respect Wittes (2008) argued that social movements also play an important role in the decision making process. there are many evidences when the citizens of a nation protest against oppressing nature of the ruling authority.  Everyone wants their own rights. It is when the situation becomes drastic and people are not able to tackle the situation, they are often found to revolt against these oppressing things and they start fighting for democracy. With the help of social movement common people can also be able to present their point of view or opinion on a particular topic (Robteutscher 2005). It has to be understood that the government is responsible for deciding what is right and what is wrong for the people in a state. However, it might not happen that the decision taken by the government matches with the opinion of the common citizen. as pointed out by Smith (2008) every society has that intellectual group of people who are there to contribute to the societal decision making process. They are the one who decides what is actually right or what could have been right for the citizens of the country. However, this process is not responsible for the ultimate results in discussion and arguments. The government is also not lucid enough that it would consider the plea of the citizens and would come up with the approach that has been proposed by them (Robteutscher 2005). In fact it is often found that the government comes up with the decision that is not aligned with the decisions made by the common citizens (Polletta 2012). The intellectual group of people could not be satisfied with such decision and as a result of which they are found to Revolt for their own rights and justice. This revolution is nothing but movements that ultimately results in waging a war to save democratic values.

Reading Robteutscher (2005), it has been found that the history of every nation is full of revolutionary movements and fights that the citizen of those nations had to do because their rights were not fulfilled. Robteutscher (2005) commented that the revolutionary movement of the citizens to fight for their own rights has not been ended in the history but there are still many evidences that are found in the contemporary world as well.  In the article Polletta (2012) has pointed out how the people of America protested against the oath taking ceremony of Donald Trump on the day when he was given the position of the President of the country. it can be argued in this respect that even Donald Trump has became the President of the country only because of the people of the nation there still remained many people who were not so happy with the People's decision. The movement was very clearly evident among all and it was a clear scenario of fighting for democracy even in the contemporary time.

As stated by Park (2008) movements can never improve the quality of democracy of a nation. Movements often results in replacing the existing policies that have been drawn by the authorities of the nation. People who carry out the movement are the ones who wanted to change the current situation and wanted to come up with a new bunch of ideas. keeping the same situation into consideration Park (2008) comment that the new change or the ideas that shall be proposed by the people who make movements might not be good enough for a particular country to run. As commented by Isin (2013) that the policies that are framed for a particular country requires huge set up and they are built only after navigating all the possible instances and the outcomes of those policies. Isin (2013) commented that the leaders who are responsible for running the country has the responsibility of considering 360 degree aspect of the outcome of the decision. Leaders are not only responsible for their own country but are also responsible for other countries as well. It is for the same reason the decision made by the government of the country should be abided by the people of the country and should not be revolted.

As argued by Haynes (2013) sometimes the decisions made by the government are completely done keeping their own aspects into consideration and they do not consider the situation of the people of the country. Ultimately the citizens have to suffer and this is when they are found to raise their voice and revolt against the oppressing situation. For instance in Libya, common citizens have to ultimately get down on the road in order to protest against the oppressing nature of the then ruling authority Gaddafi. People were no longer being able to tackle the oppressive nature of him and so they have to think about themselves and come up with the approach of fighting against the situation (Haynes 2013). The result of this is known to all people where freed from the oppression of Gaddafi and they could lead a better life than they were leading before (Guilhot 2005). Here lay the importance of revolution. In order to revitalize democracy in a country this is indeed important because people are born free and they cannot consider themselves to be oppressed by others. If people are capable of fighting for their own right they should do it with full confidence.

Revolution in the state of democracy are not always aligned for the change of the government authority but at times it is also found that people revolt in order to get what they are deprived of. For example issues related to inequality in terms of gender, race, religion have been a cause of revolution in the major developed countries of the world. In America there is inequality in the pay structure between men and women (Goodwin et al. 2009). This is a common and a long awaited debate that has been considered as a form of revolution against the ongoing policies and laws followed by the government of that country. In such situations there is no need for the entire change in the ongoing policies that the present government authority has undertaken, but it requires the government to think of betterment about the life of the people and consider their point of view as well. In such cases Della Porta (2009) commented that democracy means equal rights and opportunity for every citizen in the country. However, sometimes this is not evident in many cases and the government fails to meet the needs and expectations of the people. This is when people start asking for their own rights which is definitely a right thing that they asked for. In fact, the government should be careful enough to think about every single individual in the country to come up with approach that would ultimately help all the major sections of the society and not limited to a particular group of people only.

Blaug and Schwarzmantel (2016) have come up with an important perspective for the revolutionary activities that is carried on in the name of equal rights and opportunities in a democratic country. According to Blaug and Schwarzmantel (2016) revolutions often results in better communication among the people of the nation. It is when people come up with a mass protest; it is a result of good communication among the individuals of the society. It has to be understood in order that government thinks about demands that have been reached by the people the voice should be loud enough. This can be possible only if enough number of people join the movement and fight for the same cause (Carr 2007). It is when a huge mass of people join together towards achieving a common goal, it is termed as a mass movement this shows that the government is wrong from their perspective and that the people of the nation are demanding something else that has to be given to them (Du Bois 2013). If the recent condition is considered it has to be said that the advent of social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter has made it easier for the people to communicate with each other and share individuals’ thoughts and believes. It is when this thoughts and believes are matched with a mass group of people they are found to come together for a common cause and fight against the oppression that troubles them (Castells 2015). Therefore, communication and technological advancement has indeed created better opportunity for the people to revolt against any such situation that talks about the democratic rights of the people of a nation. All the mass movements are not new but it has definitely taken a new shape in the recent time.

Conclusion:

With the detailed discussion made on the importance of democracy and how the democratic people can protest against any oppressive nature of the ruling party, it can be easily said that democracy is indeed for the people by the people and of the people. Therefore, it is important that whatever approach is undertaken by the government should always focus on the benefits and rights of the people of the nation rather than focusing on the Global agenda. There is no doubt that the ruling authority of a nation is responsible for all the major perspectives of governmental and ruling perspective, but what actually should matter to them is the betterment of people. Democracy has given the right to the people that if they do not consider the present situation to be healthy enough they can easily revolt against the same situation and fight for their own rights. There is no doubt that the power of the people is increasing and in the recent time it has become easier of the people to open up with their agenda in front of the government or the ruling party.

References:

Blaug, R. and Schwarzmantel, J. eds., 2016. Democracy: A reader. Columbia University Press.

Carr, P., 2007. Experiencing democracy through neoliberalism: The role of social justice in democratic education. Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, 5(2), pp.1-20.

Castells, M., 2015. Networks of outrage and hope: Social movements in the Internet age. London: John Wiley & Sons.

De Sousa Santos, B. and Rodríguez-Garavito, C.A. eds., 2005. Law and globalization from below: towards a cosmopolitan legality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Della Porta, D., 2009. Democracy and social movements. New Jersey: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Du Bois, W.E.B., 2013. Black Reconstruction in America: Toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860-1880. Transaction Publishers.

Goodwin, J., Jasper, J.M. and Polletta, F. eds., 2009. Passionate politics: Emotions and social movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Guilhot, N., 2005. The democracy makers: Human rights and international order. New York: Columbia University Press.

Haynes, J., 2013. Democracy and civil society in the Third World: Politics and new political movements. London: John Wiley & Sons.

Isin, E.F., 2013. Democracy, citizenship and the global city. London: Routledge.

Park, M., 2008. Democracy and social change: a history of South Korean student movements, 1980-2000.  Bern: Peter Lang.

Polletta, F., 2012. Freedom is an endless meeting: Democracy in American social movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Robteutscher, S., 2005. Democracy and the Role of Associations: Political, organizational and social contexts. Hove: Psychology Press.

Smith, J., 2008. Social movements for global democracy. Baltimore: JHU Press.

Wittes, T.C., 2008. Three kinds of movements. Journal of Democracy, 19(3), pp.7-12.

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