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Assessment Tasks and Instructions

Assessment 1

Your task

You are required to complete all questions and tasks for assessment.

  1. The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating provides 5 nutritional guidelines for adults, children and adolescents, and the Elderly, which vary slightly for each group. Provide a brief description of what these recommend in general:


1.To achieve and maintain a healthy weight, be physically active and choose amounts of nutritious food and drinks to meet your energy needs.

2.Enjoy a wide variety of nutritious foods from these five groups every day: vegetables and legumes, fruit, grain foods, lean meats, poultry and fish, and dairy.

3.Limit intake of foods containing saturated fat, added salt, added sugars and alcohol.

4.Encourage, support and promote breastfeeding

5.Care for your food; prepare and store it safely

  1. Explain two (2) implications that the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating has towards your role as a chef:


1.Eat Carbohydrate Foods Regularly

Choose quality carbohydrates - base this choice on whole plant foods rather than refined foods. Low carbohydrate diets are not recommended.

Include more Low Glycaemic Index (GI) foods - carbohydrate foods that are broken down and digested slowly by the body should be encouraged at each meal

2.Reduce Saturated Fat Intake

Remove fat from meat and skin from chicken; consume less butter, cream, cheese, cooking margarine, palm oil, copha, coconut milk/ cream, processed snacks and take-away foods

Choose healthier, poly-unsaturated and monounsaturated fats rather than saturated fats

  1. You are working as the chef in a hospital and a new patient has Coeliac disease. How will you ensure that the patient is not adversely affected?

Factors to be considered during the selection, preparation, cooking and serving processes

The gluten-free diet is the only treatment for coeliac disease.the diet must be strictly gluten-free and it is life-long. This allows the bowel to heal and absorb nutrients properly again.so during the selection, preparation, cooking and serving processes ,must Make sure toremoval of more food sources and is stricter than a wheat-free diet. The gluten-free diet includes avoiding:

Wheat (all varieties including spelt, durum, kumat, dinkel)




Derivatives of these products such as malt

Symptoms of coeliac disease can include:

Diarrhoea or constipation or a combination of both



Abdominal pain


  1. You work at Hotel Futura as a chef. For a seminar the hotel offers the food choices outlined in the table below. Which menu adjustments would be required for each course for guests requiring gluten free meals and for those who suffer from diabetes?


Morning Tea


Afternoon Tea


Poached Eggs on sour dough with ham and spinach

Assorted sweet muffins

Pork Piccata, mushroom risotto, Ratatouille

Tropical Fruit Salad

Mini Danish, assorted tea sandwiches

Caesar Salad

Sole fillets with beurre blanc, steamed asparagus

Chocolate Raspberry Mille Feuille

Gluten Free


Morning Tea

Afternoon Tea

Chocolate Raspberry Mille Feuille

Poached Eggs on sour dough with ham and spinach

Assorted sweet muffins

Mini Danish, assorted tea sandwiches






Tropical Fruit Salad

Pork Piccata, mushroom risotto, Ratatouille

Caesar Salad

Sole fillets with beurre blanc, steamed asparagus

  1. List three diseases that can be linked to diet, and explain how a change in diet could be beneficial in these cases:


1.Coronary heart disease: high intake of plant foods and dietary, low intake of fat and saturated fat lowes chances of heart attack

2.Hypertension (high blood pressure): high intake of plant foods and low salt intake lower chance of high blood pressure

3.Cirrhosis of the liver: low alcohol intake lower chance of Cirrhosis of the liver

  1. What are the requirements for the following dietary needs?

Dietary needs


Lactose intolerance

Low sodium


Diabetes mellitus

keep some cheese, yogurt, and even milk in your lactose-intolerance diet and treatment plan.

Has a reduced salt intake. Remember that many food items use salt or sodium as a preservative (monosodium glutamate [MSG], tomato paste, ham)

must avoid foods such as wheat, barley and rye breads, flour, wheat and oat-based cereals, wheat pasta, biscuits, cakes, pastry products, etc

Healthy eating

Weight loss

Regular exercise - a minimum of 30 minutes a day, 5 times a week

Medication or insulin

  1. Some religions have specific requirements regarding which types of food or food combinations may be consumed. What is the basic information you need to consider when writing menus for the following client groups, but also generally when catering for any religious based requirements?



Jewish customers

Muslim customers

Hindu customers


Jews observe a strict diet and only eat foods God has designated as kosher (fit for consumption). Jews do not eat anything that has encountered pain, suffering, sickness or is considered unclean.

Muslims do not eat pork, blood, carrion or any animals that are found dead. They must eat halal meat which has been butchered according to a special ritual. All meat must come from an herbivorous animal. Alcohol is also forbidden

Hindus practice non-violence and respect towards all life and therefore have to balance the need to eat with their other beliefs. As a result many are vegetarian. If meat is eaten, it is never from a cow, as the cow is considered to be a sacred animal. Food that stimulates the senses such as garlic and onions may also be avoided by some followers.

to achieve and maintain a healthy weight, be physically active and choose amounts of nutritious food and drinks to meet your energy needs.

Limit intake of foods containing saturated fat, added salt, added sugars and alcohol.

Texture modifications are usually required where people suffer from problems chewing foods, which would require puréed foods, or have difficulties with swallowing, which would require puréed food to be pushed through a fine sieve.

Some patients may require texture modification or in simple terms food needs to be puréed for the patient, e.g. if their jaw is wired or they have difficulty swallowing, a condition known as dysphagia which can happen after a stroke, muscular injury or other reason.

The Dietitians Association of Australia and Speech Pathology Australia have developed the Australian Standards for Texture Modified Foods and Fluids in order to help chefs prepare foods with the appropriate texture.

For fine textures Pacojets, Thermomixes and blenders can be used to create very fine purées of ingredients such as fruit pulps and concentrates, fish and meat paste, puddings, sauces, yoghurts and custards. Mincers, cutters and commercial moulis are often used for very fine applications.

1. Lactose is a sugar common in dairy items such as milk.

If lactose is not correctly processed by the stomach, it will pass through the digestive tract until bacteria digest it and create gas, whichcan cause abdominal pains, cramps and other symptoms

Alternatives such as sheep's milk or goat's milk are often used, or milk products which have the enzyme lactase added to break down the lactose.

2. Many people, especially children, are sensitive to nuts.

Nuts can cause severe reactions which can result in anaphylactic shock. If not treated quickly and correctly, anaphylactic shock can result in death!

Avoid to use any of ingredient include nuts

3. Gluten intolerance and Coeliac disease are intestinal disorders in which the body reacts badly to gluten, a protein component in grains such as wheat, rye and barley.

gucluten-free alternatives such as corn, rice, soy, tapioca and potato flours are good substitutes. Be aware of hidden gluten in items such as soy sauce, beer, condiments, small goods, etc.h as wheat, rye and barley

4. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a flavour enhancer which can cause a sensitivity reaction.

Foods containing MSG should be avoided and natural flavourings used instead.

  1. Which major nutrients are provided through the following foods?
  1. Bread, cereal, rice, pasta, noodles

good sources of fibre, carbohydrates, protein and a wide range of vitamins and minerals.

  1. Vegetables, legumes Capsicum, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, and tomatoes x

Good sources of dietary fibre

  1. Dark green and orange vegetables like spinach, broccoli, carrots and pumpkin

Vitamin A (Fat soluble),Calcium

  1. Green vegetables, dried peas, beans and lentils

Good sources of dietary fibre. Vitamin A

  1. Fruit
  2. Which nutrients are the main energy providers for the human body?
    What is their general role, nutritional value and how much of each should be included in a healthy diet?

Macronutrients are larger biological compounds required for energy. The primary macronutrients needed are:carbohydrates, protein, and fat.

Proteins - to include all essential amino acids

Fats - saturated, unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and essential fatty acids (Omega-3 and Omega-6)

Carbohydrates - preferably complex types

Protein provides 11-15% of our daily energy intake;30-33% of our daily energy intake come from fat: 50-55% of our daily energy intake should come from carbs

  1. What are food additives?
    How can additives affect individuals and how can you as a chef identify specific additives in foods? Food additives play an important part in our food supply ensuring our food is safe and meets the needs of consumers.

Some people have increased sensitivity to particular ingredients or constituents of food. It is essential that you take this matter seriously as an allergic reaction may result in death

  1. Which factors need to be considered when choosing cookery methods to ensure foods maintain maximum nutritional values or meet dietary requirements?

consideration are:

Allergies and special diet requirements

Texture modifications, e.g. purées, homogenised, strained diets

Thickened drinks as per Speech Pathology Australia standards

Children's menu based on the Australian Dietary Guideline Standards

Menus for the elderly based on the Australian Dietary Guideline Standards

Menus for people with disabilities that require special diets, e.g. chopped, sensory modified,

  1. What are the key features of the following lifestyle diets?


Key Features


No food or product of animal origin at all, e.g. milk, gelatine or honey. The diet has to be monitored carefully as it can lead to the risk of nutritional inadequacy, especially protein and vitamin B12. Vegan sources of protein include nuts, seeds and legumes (including soy)

Lacto vegetarian

No animal flesh or eggs or egg products. Milk and milk products are generally included. The protein intake of the diet may be low if not carefully planned.

Ovo vegetarian

No animal flesh or dairy products but eggs are allowed

Ovo-lacto vegetarian

No animal flesh but eggs and dairy products are allowed. This form of vegetarian diet is usually not at risk of nutritional deficiencies

Pesco vegetarian

No red meat or poultry but seafood is allowed. This form of vegetarian diet is usually not at risk of nutritional deficiencies

Semi vegetarian

No red meat but will eat poultry and seafood. This form of vegetarian diet is usually not at risk of nutritional deficiencies

  1. How do storage and part processing affect the nutritional values of fresh fruit and vegetables?

A variety of things can happen during the growing, harvesting, storage and preparing of food that can affect its

nutritional content. Processes that expose foods to high levels of heat, light or oxygen cause the greatest nutrient

loss. Most vegetables are peeled or trimmed before cooking to remove the tough skin or outer leaves. But most

nutrients, such as vitamins, tend to lie close to the skin surface, so excessive trimming can mean a huge reductionin a vegetable’s nutrient value.

Store foods properly, such as keeping cold foods cold and sealing some foods in airtight containers.

Keep vegetables in the crisper section of the refrigerator.

Try washing or scrubbing vegetables rather than peeling them.

Use the outer leaves of vegetables like cabbage or lettuce unless they are wilted or unpalatable.

Microwave, steam, roast or grill vegetables rather than boiling them.

If you boil your vegetables, save the nutrient-laden water for soup stock.

  1. Which nutritional requirements need to be considered for the following customer groups?

Customer Group


Girls during adolescence/women during menstruation

Increased need for iron/double intake requirements of iron during menstruation

Pregnancy and during lactation

Increased caloric intake depending on stage of pregnancy, additional requirement for iron, zinc and folate (the latter particularly during the earlier stages)


May require increased levels of iron

Dietary requirements vary according to type of sport and performance level; a diet high in carbohydrates may be preferred during endurance sport events

Defence Force Personnel

May require high protein and low, healthy fats in their food to supply energy needs

May need variation to standard ration packs when in the field

Require sufficient vitamins in their diet

Vegetarian diets

To ensure all essential amino acids are included, protein from diverse plant sources – legumes, nuts, cereals or dairy (if consumed) as well as soy products should be eaten

People with Disabilities

Requirements vary from sensory modified or chopped up foods for ease of handling, to specific requirements such as feeding through a gastric or nasal tube.

The disability may also affect the ability to digest proteins, yeast or certain bacteria

Institution-based Catering

In general many elderly people prefer softer textures and foods cooked by using traditional moist cookery methods (stewing, boiling, braising, poaching and steaming). They also often avoid food items with small seeds or nuts as this can cause discomfort, particularly with dentures.

At schools and childcare facilities it is essential to follow the general requirements for preparing food safely, as there are higher levels of allergies and food intolerances in children.

People living in remote regions

Availability of fresh produce is limited, particularly fruit and vegetables

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island people may supplement purchased food with traditional hunted and foraged foods

Consumption of bush foods should be supported and encouraged

When preparing food for this age group, chefs should consider the following:

Many fried and crumbed foods, smallgoods, poultry and some meats as well as pies and sausage rolls contain substantial amounts of saturated fats. Trim visible fats, use plant-derived oils for cooking and frying and choose quality oils for salads and dressings

Provide a wide selection of dishes from all food groups, using healthy methods of cookery (boiling, poaching, steaming, grilling, etc.)

Offer balanced portion sizes to prevent over-eating

Avoid excessive use of cream and butter in menu dishes

Provide balanced menu options for vegetarians (which can be included as part of other menu items as well)

Limit the amount of sugar but use alternative natural sweeteners like honey, fruit juices, coulis, etc.

Limit the use of salt in cooking but use fresh herbs

Consider sources of protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins and minerals when creating menus to offer balance – seasonal and fresh is the winner

People affected by disaster or environmental extremes

Enjoy a wide variety of nutritious foods

Choose low salt foods and use salt sparingly

  1. Complete the following yield tests, calculating the Net yield per Kg and the net portion cost for each commodity based on the net cost per Kg and the portion size per kg provided.

List the formulas or working steps you have used for the asparagus and the Sirloin Calculations in the table.


$ / kg


Net Yield/ kg

Net cost/kg

Portions /kg

Net Portion Cost/ $



























































Loin of Pork







Leg of Lamb







Formulas/Calculation steps – Asparagus:

Net Yield/ kg:

1000 g Asparagus = $ 11.30

22%of 1000 g = 1000 x 22 : 100 = 220 g

1000 g (Asparagus) - 220g (Trimmings) = 780 g


Net Portion Cost/ $: 1000 g net cost of Asparagus=$14.49


Formulas/Calculation steps – Sirloin:

Net Yield/ kg:

1000 g Sirloin:

= $ 16.80

26%of 1000 g = 1000 x 26: 100 = 260 g

1000 g (Asparagus) - 260g (Trimmings) = 740 g


Net Portion Cost/ $:

1000 g net cost of Sirloin:=$22.70


  1. Provide an overview of the following contemporary dietary trends and provide an example for potential impacts each of these may have on health or nutritional balance.




Cabbage Soup Diet

It involves eating only cabbage soup for a week

While causing weight loss it leads to an imbalance of nutrients

Lemon Detox

For a given period no food is eaten and only a mixture of lemon juice, salt, water and possible herbal teas are consumed. This supposedly removes toxins in the body

It leads to weight loss but the lack of nutrients affects the body and often leads to excessive gain once the diet is finished

Macrobiotic Diet

This diet has its roots in Japan and consisted of only eating brown rice and water. The diet has now been slightly amended focussing on high fibre, low fat and no animal foods

It leads to low iron, calcium and protein intake plus a lack of trace elements and if done for an extended time period can lead to osteoporosis

Raw Food Diet

75% of all food consumed is raw food, as the diet logic says that cooking destroys enzymes

Eating raw food is fine in most circumstances but the key focus has to be on balancing nutrients which is difficult with this diet

Stone Age Diet

It is also referred to as Palaeolithic or Paleo diet, Caveman diet or pre-historic diet. The diet includes products that were available to caveman, i.e. meat, seafood, root vegetables that can be eaten raw, fruits, nuts and natural sugars. It excludes all grains, refined sugars, yeast, alcohol, dairy products, processed meats and salT

The shortfall in carbohydrates can lead to nutrient deficiencies and there is no scientific basis to the claims made by the diet. Additionally the animals and food that we consume nowadays are quite different from the food sources of the past

  1. Provide 3 methods you can employ to obtain feedback on dietary menus and customer satisfaction:

1.Formal questionnaires

2.Direct feedback from customers

  1. Supplier comments and Reviews
  1. List the 2 most important aspects in terms of feedback which must be considered when evaluating the success of a menu or dish:
  1. Adequacy of the menu for the dietary needs of all concerned

2.Satisfaction or enjoyment of the dishes by customers

  1. What is the importance of health professional when seeking feedback on dietary menus? Whom could this include?

With dietary menus feedback needs to be sought not only from customers but also the other stakeholders such as dieticians and other allied health professionals.

Doctors and nurses may also supply specific feedback based on the medical needs of the individual. Specialists are there for a reason!

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