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Smoking Cessation Support Young People

RESEARCH PROPOSAL: HOW DOES SMOKING CESSATION SUPPORT YOUNG PEOPLE AGE 0 - 19 IN ENGLAND

Statement question

Smoking is considered a leading cause of disease and death (preventable) in England. Along with that, smoking is the biggest cause behind inequalities in death ratios among rich and poor. The study purposes to assess the harmful sides of smoking on young people (0-19) in England. In this light, the statement of the main research question is to evaluate the notion of smoking cessation in terms of supporting young people. In context to the statement question, the study will specify the age group 0-19 (young people) in England to carry out research work aptly.

Introduction

This particular study aims at drawing attention towards different areas that include interceptive measures available, promoting cessation and creating awareness shedding the bright light on side effects. Based upon the statement of the research, the chosen areas will enlarge the prospects of carrying out an extensive research in the chosen area. Support activities or the interventions strategies will explore the initiatives taken by regulatory bodies in England. In addition to that, promoting cessation to create awareness, highlighting the harmful sides are going to be explored.

Background and Rationale for the study

The smoking cessation provides an important comparison point for intervention designed to increase smoking quit rates in England. The smoking addiction caused more than 50 million deaths during the recent years. It is very well known that smoking causes the variety of serious health effects, after knowing that smoking is injurious to health. As death rate is increasing due to the smoking, so the new packets of tobaccos disturb with the message. Smoking causes a wide range of diseases including cancers, respiratory problem, osteoporosis and age-related macular degeneration (Maziak et al 2015). The majority of smokers start smoking from the teenage only. On the other hand, the smoker is not aware of the risk factor of lungs cancer. Smoking cessation is an initiative against tobacco used which help to save more lives globally. It is processed to help who are very addicted towards smoking and cannot get rid of it. With the help of smoking cession more than 35% people quit smoking. There are some drugs available from past few years, with nicotine replacement, to help quit smoking. Smoking cessation is an opportunity for the youth that gives the message to be protected with such addicted problem. It is a significant progress that helps to reduce tobacco consumption and increasing the number of quit smoking.

In England, more than 3,000 young people are getting addicted towards smoking. As tobacco users increasing day by day it is indicated that smoking cession is very few less effective in the youth. Smoking creates health issue like cancer and due to smoke it also affects another health issue too (Shahab,et al 2013).It has been revealed that the cessation program helps to provide information through National health promotion to achieve the goals for reducing the number of young age addiction. The American medical association was established to implement, evaluate and achieve the prospects of tobacco cessation program for youth. As a result, there is drastic fall in prevalence of tobacco has slowed in last decade.

Aim and objective

The aim of this study is to research on the impact of smoking on young people 0-19 in England. The aim of the study complies with the research statement made, as it would provide the framework to evaluate negative effects of smoking by supporting smoking cessation considering young people in England.

The aim of the study can further be broken down into the below-mentioned objectives.

To identify the intervention available in England

To scrutinize side effects on smoking

To promote cessation among young smokers

The formed objectives are directly linked with the research aim that covers wider areas related to the topic augmenting its acceptability to a larger number of audiences.

Methodology and justification

Secondary research will be considered to accumulate information from the books, journal, articles etc. The secondary research also gives proper information for carrying out the extended study. While carrying out this study, the research might carry out the secondary research study for better analysis of data. In the mentioned topic of England, the problem could help the research properly by the relevant information from the author’s note or proper journals. There are certain strengths and limitations of the proposed research (Frost, 2015). In the strength, it includes findings literary sources that can be made for the proper selection of information and sampling (number of literary sources) while carrying out the research study. Strength will help the researcher for the proper analysis of data and that can be based on the correct and authentic information. Researchers will find limitations while carrying out the secondary information. This limitation may sometimes create problem to understand the circumstances of the study. Researchers might find the information would not enough for solving out the research problem.

The researcher will conduct a proper search for the literature, by conducting literature search strategy. This strategy for search is mainly done to get the proper database in return of good results (Mamaril et al. 2015). The researcher will conduct this search strategy for getting the importance of the topic; for getting main keywords relating to the topic; for getting related points of the topic; for determining of different features related to the topic; getting a proper information for a topic; getting the proper results for the topic.

While carrying out the research study, a researcher will use different search engines and proper database of the topic. This search engine will include the articles such as academy journal or other collective information of the database. A researcher might take into consideration about the books relating to the mentioned topic for England. This search engine will help to accumulate a lot of information while carrying out the research study by the researcher. The proper collection of information could be found in the bibliography of books and articles of a journal.

While conducting the research study, a researcher will focus on the organization such as NHS, ASH and Quit that uses anti-smoking programs for the welfare of the society in England. Moreover, the government and authority of health in a locality of England set these organizations.

While conducting the research work, the researcher will focus on the main keywords relating to the topic. Researchers will find the keywords that are anti-smoking, awareness program about the ill effects of smoking, effective alternatives to the smoking (Dadhich et al. 2015). In the effective alternatives to smoking will lie with a process of vaping that might help the people of young age lies from 0 to 19 years. Anti-smoking programs made by the organizations of National Health Service (NHS), Action on Smoking Health (ASH) and Charity Organization (Quit) will help the government to carry out the programs for the betterment of the society. Awareness program will help the people to aware about the ill effects of smoking. As the smoking cause many diseases such as respiratory problem and even cause of death (Lu et al. 2015) Awareness program set by the government and little organization will spread the ill-effects of smoking towards the people. Ill-effects of smoking will create bad effects towards the people belonging from very young people of 0 to 19 years. Moreover, the researcher will find that the smoking caused severe problems to a young generation of people, especially in England. So, this key problem will help the researcher to sort out the problems regarding the smoking. A researcher might find that smoking in the young generation would be a major problem of the society.

While carrying out literature search there are certain points that are excluded and included. Firstly researcher will focus on the point that included with the literature search that the proper collection of information regarding the smoking. The researcher will exclude the point on the repetition of the literature searching (Thangamani, 2015). The researcher will also include the main study of the mentioned topic for carrying out the material.The research will find the included study for clearly getting off the review process of the study. Included criteria will lie all the main keys of the topic and also for getting the proper information for the researcher. These will be mainly done to carry out the importance while carrying out the study of research.

Ethical and bias issues

The ethical issues faced by individuals while conducting secondary research revolve around the harm that may ensue to the individual subjects and the factor of consent. It is unethical to use data about individuals in the secondary research when such data contains identifying information of such individuals without their consent. Another important issue faced by individuals while conducting secondary research is irrelevant, inadequate or excessive data. The original data may have been collected for a purpose that is not identical to the purpose of which that individual is using such data and these results in inadequate, irrelevant or excessive data.

Specific methods should be followed to eradicate the ethical and bias issues faced by individuals in the process of carrying out secondary research. When using data about individuals in secondary research the individual conducting such research should make the identifying information of such individuals anonymous by using pseudonyms, aggregations or replacements. This process is known as anonymisation. An archive containing all the removals, replacements and aggregations should be made separately and recorded. When it is unavoidable to exclude all identifying data related to the individual subjects the secondary researcher has to take the consent of every such individual, the identifying data of whom is used in the secondary research. When such consent is impossible to be taken, the secondary researcher must make sure that such individual participant’s privacy, as well as the confidentiality of such data, will be protected. Upon being able to convince the ethical board of such reassurance, the secondary researcher may request the board to waive such need for consent. Incorporation of acknowledgment of original data in the secondary research should be effected to avoid issues of plagiarism.

Research Timetable

Months

Month -1

Month - 2

Month - 3

Month – 4

Weeks/ Tasks

W1

W2

W3

W4

W1

W2

W3

W4

W1

W2

W3

W4

W1

W2

W3

W4

Literature review

Developing research objectives & aim; questions

Deciding the research methods (secondary)

Drafting the proposal

Submitting the proposal

Literature review

Data analysis

Obtaining feedback from the professor

Drafting the dissertation

Submitting the dissertation

Reflection

Working on the proposal has provided me with the chance of widening my knowledge in terms of carrying out extensive research. I have improved my skills and sharpened my knowledge on the chosen area, i.e., smoking cessation. I became aware of the various ill effects of smoking as well as the effects it has on the people around the smokers by way of passive smoking. I came to know about various organizations and charities that help smoking addicts get rid of their addiction as well as help those who have contracted diseases directly related to their smoking habit. I became aware of support groups that support smokers in giving up smoking. I also came to know a few ways by which chain-smokers can get rid of their smoking addiction. The next time I would like to incorporate some original research in my project and not depend on only the secondary research procedure. I would also like to consult more sources about the subject of my project the next time. I collect some relevant information from the library such as books, magazines etc. I have also come to know that the ill effect of smoking, affects the young generation in the society especially from 0 to 19 years at England. While carrying out the proposal, I also came to know about the smoking bad effects for not only for the young generation but also for the old generation. Moreover, I also came to know the bad effects from smoking that is respiratory problem, lungs problem and even cause to death. This study helped me to gather a lot of information regarding the smoking problem.

Reference list

Dadhich, P., Genovese, A., Kumar, N. and Acquaye, A., 2015. Developing sustainable supply chains in the UK construction industry: a case study. International Journal of Production Economics, 164, pp.271-284.

Frost, J.E., 2015. Recruitment and Retention: The Influence of General Music Teachers Methodology on Secondary Music Ensembles (Doctoral dissertation, University of Toledo).

Lu, Y., Chen, B., Hayat, T. and Alsaedi, A., 2015. Communal carbon metabolism: methodology and case study. Journal of Cleaner Production.

Mamaril, C.B.C., Mays, G.P. and Branham, K., 2015. Overview of the Cost-Estimation (CE) Methodology for Providing Foundational Public Health Services (FPHS) and a Summary of Preliminary Results from Pre-Testing the FPHS CE Data Collection Instrument in Kentucky and Ohio.

Maziak, W., Jawad, M., Jawad, S., Ward, K.D., Eissenberg, T. and Asfar, T., 2015. Interventions for waterpipe smoking cessation. The Cochrane Library.

Shahab, L., Brose, L.S. and West, R., 2013. Novel delivery systems for nicotine replacement therapy as an aid to smoking cessation and for harm reduction: rationale, and evidence for advantages over existing systems. CNS drugs, 27(12), pp.1007-1019.

Spohr, S.A., Nandy, R., Gandhiraj, D., Vemulapalli, A., Anne, S. and Walters, S.T., 2015. Efficacy of SMS text message interventions for smoking cessation: a meta-analysis. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 56, pp.1-10.

Stead, L.F., Buitrago, D., Preciado, N., Sanchez, G., Hartmann‐Boyce, J. and Lancaster, T., 2013. Physician advice for smoking cessation. The Cochrane Library.

Thangamani, D., 2015. Systematic Methodology for Improving the Resource Efficiency in Manufacturing Industries (Doctoral dissertation, University of Dayton).

US Department of Health and Human Services, 2014. The health consequences of smoking—50 years of progress: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 17.

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