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Social Determinants of Health Income and Social Status

Roy, A. L., Godfrey, E. B., & Rarick, J. R. (2016). Do we know where we stand? Neighborhood relative income, subjective social status, and health. American journal of community psychology, 57(3-4), 448-458.

The subjective social status and the neighborhood relative income position influence individuals' mental and physical health. Roy, Godfrey, and Rarick suggest that neighborhood economic is a fundamental determinant of individuals' health system and overall well-being. The relative income of an individual's neighbor affects their livelihood, especially if they lead a low relative income. This study shows that individuals who earn minimal income and live among higher-income neighbors report higher mental and physical health status. On the other hand, low-income individuals living among the same peers in a neighborhood report reduced physical and mental health scenarios.

The researchers aimed to identify the interrelating factors of the relative income between the low and high-income individuals within the same neighborhood. They specifically related their topic with potential factors such as physical and mental health if the adults living in the same community. Roy, Godfrey, and Rarick collectively used 20119 sample representatives of 18 years and older adults through the online survey technique. The survey topics related to relevant issues such as health, criminology, political influence, and technology. Researchers used the analytic approach used to analyze the collected data. The paper's outcome suggested that individuals with lower income incorporated in higher-income neighborhoods affect an individual’s perception of the social stand.

The researchers have achieved a lot of the presentation of this paper. It's providing a great understanding of livelihood setup, income status, and how they affect an individual's perception of health. The strength of this paper is the theoretical models and data collection technique. The Survey technique provides accurate and reliable data for empirical research. The main limitation of this research is that it cannot allow for casual interference due to its experiential nature. Lastly, the paper is creating significant evidence for policing and creating a framework for the SDOH determinant.

Garratt, E. A., et al. (2016). The interactive role of income (material position) and income rank (psychosocial status) in psychological distress: a 9- year longitudinal study of 30,000 UK parents. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 51(10), 1361-1372.

According to Garratt et al., several parents face potential risks of psychological affliction compared to those with no children. On the same line, their level of income is considerably low compared to the non-parenting adults. The researchers are arguing that income, as defined by material and psychological status, impacts on the mental anguish. The psychological condition of every individual depends on the socio-economic position other than their fixed income. In most circumstances, psychological distress among the low-income population is linked to social status perception. Such perceptions are instigating the feeling of inability and defeat in the social setup.

The paper was aiming to ascertain the relationship between income status and the psychological affliction among parenting adults. It was also seeking to identify whether the interaction between the state of income and absolute income impacts on parental adult's mental distress. Garratt et al. employed the fixed effect panel model in determining the longitudinal association between unconditional income and psychological affliction. The accepted data included the 29 107 parents studied from 2003 to 2012. The scholars found out that individuals with high-income status are accompanied by lower psychological affliction and vice vasa. Subsequently, the determinant of parental mental disorders is the psychological aspects and materials related to income.

The presentation and analysis of this paper are equally significant and influential as the authors are attempting to highlight the concept of psychological aspect and individual income. Its strength is based on the longitudinal method and fixed effect approach study and control of uncontrolled and controlled variables. However, the paper has not issued a recommendable approach to the subjective parents in this study. But the article is significant in evaluating the SDOH status among the parents in society. It is a reliable measure in the distribution of clinical resources among the people.

Dennis, E. F., et al. (2012). Subjective social status and maternal health in a low-income urban population. Maternal and child health journal, 16(4), 834-843.

According to Dennis et al., there is substantial evidence indicating the interrelating factors between the poor health results and low social-economic position. However, the criteria for measuring the differences can be cumulative in line with its implications. The socio-economic situation interprets the health challenges to the low socio-economic individuals and its benefits to the high SES people. The researchers used SES conventional indicators such as employment, income, and learning status to evaluate the basis of health to derive their points. The research was dwelling on the examination of the infant and maternal health results in the reduced income individuals in the urban setup.

The researchers were trying to relate how the SSS affects maternal health, specifically in the reduced income individuals in town centers. The multivariate and cross-tabulation approach was employed to study the in-depth and broad relating factors between health results and SSS. The scholars compared the outcome of the study to the conventional derivatives of SES, such as education and income. The study found out that the relationship was more independent, reliable, and consistent between the SES variables and the postpartum health results.

One of the areas that this paper failed to address is in line with the casual context relating to socio-economic positions, as highlighted by the SSS. It has boosted the importance of carrying out self-evaluation to identify an individual's social status and empirically relating to the maternal health result. One of the significant limitations of this research is that it generalized the concept of an impoverished population—the calls mentioned above for the additional studies to provide concert evidence of the said generalizability. The paper can be reliably applied in determining the mode of health service delivery in the areas with poor living standards and income.

Bibliography

Dennis, E. F., Webb, D. A., Lorch, S. A., Mathew, L., Bloch, J. R., & Culhane, J. F. (2012). Subjective social status and maternal health in a low-income urban population. Maternal and child health journal, 16(4), 834-843.

Garratt, E. A., Chandola, T., Purdam, K., & Wood, A. M. (2016). The interactive role of income (material position) and income rank (psychosocial status) in psychological distress: a 9-year longitudinal study of 30,000 UK parents. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 51(10), 1361-1372.

Roy, A. L., Godfrey, E. B., & Rarick, J. R. (2016). Do we know where we stand? Neighborhood relative income, subjective social status, and health. American journal of community psychology, 57(3-4), 448-458.

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