This report will discuss in detail the Business Improvement Districts (BID’s) across the country but will focus on Sunderland City Centre BID. The report will show how the reuse of historic buildings for a contemporary function is effective, and if the tools are being employed throughout cities all over the world to develop what is on offer in regards to tourism, events, leisure and hospitality.
Strategic visitor development and how it is approached will be identified and evaluated, rationale for industry planning will be expressed, application of the principles and practices strategies and the ability to draw on a range of approaches whilst formulating strategies that are appropriate to the industry. Finally drawing upon a working knowledge of practical constraints while planning strategically in a mixed economy in tourism.
A BID is a new form of private-public partnership that was developed over three decades ago through a realm of local governance now known as business improvement districts (BID). The BID model proliferated across North America, has
in recent years transferred to continents including Africa, Asia and Europe (Hoyt, L.and Gopal-Agge, 2007, pp. 946 - 949). Although it was adopted there was in fact no standardisation or definition for BIDs.
BIDs supplement public services within a particular geographical area which has been defined by boundaries that have been generated by multiyear revenue. There are several benefits of a BID these include; money that is acquired is only used in the area of the BID, increased footfall and retaining of staff, better environment, more events and the promotion of the area,cost reductions to businesses and decisions can be made and directed to what area they choose.
This research report will provide the reader with the information regarding The Antiquities and Monuments Office (AMO) of Hong Kong. The purpose of this research is to provide information about the roles and responsibilities of The Antiquities and Monuments Office situated on the Nathan Road, Hong Kong. We will understand the background and historical record of the AMO and the functions performed by them. We will also understand the various stakeholders that are a part of the tourism and leisure industry and their contribution to the growth of this sector in Hong Kong. It will cover their relationship with the other stakeholders and their responsibilities.
We will also understand the role played by the AMO in the promotion, protection and development of the monuments in Hong Kong and its contribution in the development of the travel and tourism industry and its business. This research also covers the analysis of how the use of historic monuments helps in the development of the tourism and leisure travel and the benefits of using these monuments along with the challenges that come with using them as tourist sites. In the second part of the report, we have studied the advantages and disadvantages of developing historical monuments as tourism sites. While the heritage sites are fascinating and appeal to a lot of people, they also need a lot of care and maintenance (Hong Kong Tourism Board, 2017).
The heritage sites get a lot of attention and attract not just archeologists and historians, but also local and international visitors. People visit such places in large numbers and promote them as the sites for national culture and heritage. The monuments get affected by the unplanned excavations and discoveries. The Antiquities and Monuments Office has to make decisions for to ensure publicity, maintenance and accessibility of the monuments. The monument also needs to be protected against the damage caused by the visitors and the pollution caused.
We have also done a case study of the Hong Kong Clock Tower. We have studied its background and history and its current significance. We have studied the impact that the Clock Tower has on the surrounding areas and the increase or decrease in the visitor number due to the monument. This study covers the role of AMO as a body for the promotion, conservation and protection of the historical monuments in Hong Kong (AMO Team, 2014).
The Antiquities and Monuments Office (AMO)
The cultural heritage of a country is believed to be a symbol of their cultural identity. It provides the nation and its citizens with a sense of belonging and gives the spectators insights into the nation’s past and their unique heritage. It is important that this heritage is conserved and promoted to make the people of not just the nation, but across the world, aware of the rich culture and the history of the country. It must not just be conserved, but also be treasured and promoted for the future generations to be able to enjoy it. For this very purpose,
The Antiquities and monuments office was made in Hong Kong along with the Antiquities Advisory Board for the protection and preservation of the historical monuments of Hong Kong. Both of these bodies were established by the enforcement of The Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance in the year 1976. This was done to make sure that the historic monuments of Hong Kong were restored, protected, developed and promoted as tourist spots or other useful buildings in order to make the best possible use of them.
The Antiquities and Monuments Office (the office) and The Antiquities Advisory Board (the board) were established in 1976 by the ordinance to ensure protection of the monuments of Hong Kong (Hong Kong Tourism Board, 2017). While the board is responsible for the decision making processes and the management and organization, the AMO provides the executive support in the conservation of the places that are of interest to the archeologists and historians. The AMO broadly takes care of the research, identification and protection of the areas and places that are of archeological significance.
The role and function
The very famous businessman and philanthropist Mr. Ho Tung, who later became famous as Sir Robert Hotung donated an amount of 15 thousand dollars to the Hong Kong government in the year 1900 for setting up a school. The building was constructed and officially inaugurated by Blake, who was the governor at that time. This school was initially started as a primary school housing about 60 students, but by the mid 1930s, it was converted into a secondary school and had about 300 students studying there.
The building was known as the Kowloon School at that time. Today this building houses The Antiquities and Monuments Office (AMO) which was established for the protection and preservation of the historic monuments of Hong Kong (Fan & Yim, 2011). The responsibilities of the AMO include identification of the historical monuments, recording their history and significance and researching further about them. They also carry out surveys and excavations in the areas that are of historic and archeological significance. This building is the oldest building of Hong Kong that is still functional and was included in the declared monuments list of Hong Kong on 19th July 1991. It is situated on 136, Nathan Road in Hong Kong. The Antiquities and Monuments Office is managed by The Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD) of the Hong Kong government (McNulty & Koff, 2014).
The functions of the AMO include identification, recording and research conduction related to the historical buildings and items of interest. They also carry out excavations and conduct surveys in areas of archeological significance. They are responsible for the maintenance and development of the writings and pictures of the heritage sites. They conduct regular maintenance, restoration and protection of the monuments of archeological and historical significance. They evaluate and assess any consequences that the development projects might have on the heritage sites and ensure mitigation of these impacts (Rypkema, 2008).
They study and ensure that the functional historic buildings are restored and reused for any suitable purpose. Their responsibilities also include spreading knowledge, awareness and publicity of the heritage sites of Hong Kong and our monuments of historic significance by conducting awareness programs, exhibitions, workshops, tours, lectures etc. They also set up heritage walk trails and tours to the sites to promote them and make the people aware of their historical significance.
There are two bodies under the AMO management office, namely, Hong Kong Heritage Discovery Center and The Ping Shan Tang Gallery cum Heritage Trail Visitors Center. While the former is responsible for the discovery and excavation of the sites of archeological relevance, the latter is a gallery made for the visitors to inform them about the cultural and historic heritage of Hong Kong (Jiang & Homsey, 2008).
The Executive Secretary is the person in charge of the AMO and has highly skilled and professional staff. The Antiquities and Monuments Office comprises of five sections that take care of their designated functions. These sections are Archeology, Education and publicity, Technical and advisory, Historical buildings and Planning and management. They have another section which is made as a support function for the Antiquities and Monuments Office and the Antiquities Advisory Board which is the administrative and secretariat support body (Pedersen, 2002).
The enforcement of the Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance was done in the year 1976. It was done to ensure that the cultural heritage of Hong Kong and its best examples are protected appropriately. Under this ordinance, The Antiquities Advisory Board and Antiquities and Monuments Office was formed. Apart from these, the cultural and archeological heritage conservation in Hong Kong is carried out by various other stakeholders too. This includes The Commissioner for Heritage’s Office that came into being on 25th April 2008 which comes under the Development Bureau, The Hong Kong Government’s Central Conservation Section and The Urban Renewal Authority, which is a semi government body that takes care of the urban development in Hong Kong (Government, 2015).
The Antiquities and Monuments Office works on the values of quality service, customer orientation, research and survey conduction, development and enhancement of the cultural heritage and professionalism. The headquarters of The Antiquities and Monuments Office are located at 136 Nathan Road in Kowloon, Hong Kong. The AMO is headed by the Executive Secretary Ms. Susanna Siu. She takes care of the six departments under the AMO. The first department is the Technical and Advisory Unit which comprises of the architects, project managers, land surveyor, maintenance surveyor, quality surveyor etc.
The Planning and management unit comprises of a Senior manager and manger who are in charge of the planning process of site excavation, restoration and their implementation. The Historic building unit comprises of the archaeology curators that are custodians or guardians of the historic monuments. The next is the Archaeology Unit that also consists of the curators of the archaeological sites of Hong Kong that are listed in the AMO. The Education and publicity unit is responsible for creating awareness and educating the people about the rich cultural heritage of Hong Kong. The last unit is the Administrative unit that takes all the administrative decisions related to the AMO and the projects undertaken by them (Globe Media, 2009).
Private sector in Hong Kong also plays a crucial role in the in the conservation of the cultural heritage of the country. There have been numerous examples of heritage conservation measures that the AMO has only been able to carry out because of the help extended by the private players. The conservation and development of Victoria Prison, the excavation of discoveries from the Ma Wan Island are a few of these examples. The private sector also contributes in the form of heritage funds, clubs and charity trust. The private sector’s contribution in the development and restoration of the heritage monuments has been small but remarkable and it is only going to increase with the coming years (Chan, 2015).
Another reportable mention is of the non-profit bodies and the educational and professional bodies. There are numerous Non-Profit groups in Hong Kong that support the archaeological developments and protection of the heritage sites physically and economically. There are dedicated groups and associations that stand for the preservation of these and have given a helping hand to the AMO whenever required. They provide volunteer services, spread awareness, evaluate existing frameworks and monitor the government actions to ensure the conservation of the heritage monuments and sites. The planning organizations like the Hong Kong Institute of Planners, Architects, Landscape Architects and Surveyors, Center of Urban Planning and Environment Management and Geography Department have also extended support and guidance in the planning process for AMO (Chai, 2013).
Impacts to tourism industry
The Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance is the most comprehensive statutory measure for cultural heritage conservation taken by the Hong Kong government. Travel and tourism industry is an important revenue contributor to the economy of Hong Kong. Since the establishment of the Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance, the tourism industry shifted to a service sector wherein the people offer services, time and knowledge for improved productivity and performance. The number of tourists visiting Hong Kong has escalated and a majority of these are from China and other neighboring countries.
There has been double digit growth in the number of visitors’ percentage over the years and this is only going to increase further with the inclination of people towards travelling. Hong Kong as a travel destination faces tough competition from the other Chinese cities and Macau. Despite the tough competition, Tourism is among the top three contributors to the Hong Kong economy along with international trade and financial services (Turner, 2016).
The AMO has contributed to the growth and development of Hong Kong tourism since its inception. It helps in preserving and promoting the archaeological heritage of Hong Kong. The four major monuments of Hong Kong that have been declared as the monuments for permanent protection under the Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance in the year 2013 are the Cenotaph in Central, Fat Tat Tong in Ha Wo Hang, Yeun Long, Tat Tak Communal Hall in Ping Shan and Bethanie in Pok Fu Lam.
There are in total 114 declared monuments in Hong Kong that are taken care of by the AMO. The Antiquities Authority may consult the Antiquities Advisory Board for their approval for including a historic site in the list of monuments and once the Chief Executive approves of it, it can be included in the list of monuments by the notice in the Gazette. This then gives the AMO the authority to take action for the restoration and preservation of these sites (Legislative Council Secretariat, 2015).
The Antiquities and Monuments department has come with a Young Friends of Heritage Scheme (YFOH) for the students of secondary school. In this scheme, they conduct heritage walks, site visits, lectures, archaeological workshops etc. The members, once registered with the scheme will continue to be a valid member till they turn 18. The recruitment of members is done twice a year. Till date about 300 students have joined the scheme and are a part of this YFOH group. The purpose of this program is to make the children recognize the importance of heritage sites and their preservation and make them realize the importance of these sites. The children are made aware of these at a young age so as to have a greater impact on their minds and to associate them with the cultural heritage of the country (Schwab, et al., 2015).
The Tourism industry of Hong Kong has seen a rise in the number of visitors since the establishment of the AMO. The largest visitor for the country continues to be Mainland China that contributes to about 80% of the total people visiting the country. The other countries contributing to the visitors are the United States, Macao, Philippines and South Korea. While about 65% of the visitors were those of the short haul and returned the same day, the rest of the visitors were overnight visitors or those of the long haul (Hong Kong Tourism Board, 2015).
Benefits and challenges of using historic buildings
Hong Kong has a large number of heritage sites and historical monuments which are a marvel of architecture and history. The inclusion of these monuments and sites in the list of heritage sites is a prestigious and exemplary event. With this inclusion, the place starts getting attention and seeks restoration, maintenance and renovation. It also starts attracting visitors and archaeologists and the AMO is required to ensure accessibility and information about the place readily available. The heritage site at times requires restoration and maintenance which requires funds.
The AMO has to arrange for the same and ensure that the work is completed in a timely manner without much inconvenience caused to the visitors. The Antiquities and Monuments Office has to take care of all this and much more so that the site is properly publicized, promoted and maintained. Thus the inclusion of the sites in the list of declared monuments is not just a moment of pride for the nation but also comes with a lot of responsibility (Jiang & Homsey, 2008).
There are various challenges that come the organization has to face when working with the historic monuments. The biggest challenge that they face is the lack of a designated plan. There is no designated plan for the research and inclusion of these monuments in the list and it is done as per the steps taken by the Antiquities and Monuments Board. The process is time consuming and lacks any clear instructions for the same. The final decision is of the Chief Executive and the AMO office. The next challenge often faced by the archeologists and historians is that of the location. The sites that are newly excavated are sometimes at very far off places and sometimes in the middle of the city. The AMO has to ensure accessibility to the monuments which becomes difficult at times.
The next problem is that of the irresponsible visitors that visit the sites. The popularity of the monuments results in large number of tourists gathering and visiting which can destroy the beauty and the sanctum of the historic site. It is either economically or physically not viable to place guards at every site and the public may cause damage to the monument. Environmental pollution is another major factor that needs to be taken care of for the monuments as the pollution can cause damage to the properties.
This damage can be caused through both natural sources like rain, sand and soil deposits, humus and algae formation etc. and man-made sources of pollution (McNulty & Koff, 2014). The organization needs to address these concerns and ensure the safety of the monuments against all these. The industrial activities and vehicular fumes cause air pollution that sometimes causes temporary and even permanent damage to the monuments of historic significance. They make the air polluted by the pollutants such as carbon dioxide, fly ash, sulphur dioxide, lead etc. These pollutants mixed with the water vapor in the air generate acid and cause acid rain which causes damage to the monuments.
The noise pollution caused by vehicles, industries or even musical concerts can cause permanent damage to the monuments. The light and sound show that have become a common sight at the historic places is also criticized by the historians. The high pitched sounds disturb the bats and birds that are living in most of the historical monuments and the high voltage lights cause heating, cracking or even discoloration of the monuments (Tourism Commission, 2016).
In short, we may conclude that while the historical monuments sure provide a boost to the travel and leisure industry of Hong Kong, there are a lot of things that need to be considered before including these monuments in the list of declared monuments. There are also certain challenges that need to be taken care of for the maintenance and promotion of these monuments as different monuments come with different challenges and need attention for the resolution of the same.
A case study in Hong Kong – The Clock Tower
The Clock Tower which was formerly known as the Kowloon-Canton Railway Clock Tower is in the declared monuments list of The Antiquities and Monuments Office since the year 1990. It is also known as the Tsim Sha Tsui Clock Tower. This tower was built in the year 1915 as a part of the Kowloon Railway Station in Tsim Sha Tsui. The tower was completed in the year 1916 but the clocks were not installed till 1921. This tower is built out of red bricks and granite and is 44 meters tall. The interior of the tower consists of a wooden staircase that helps the people to reach the top of the tower. This tower is the only remnant of the Kowloon station.
This station was a part of the Kowloon-Canton Railway line which was inaugurated on 1st October 1901. Initially, only one side of the clock tower has a clock and the rest three sides were installed with clocks in the year 1920. The Kowloon railway station was moved to the Hung Hom Bay and the building and structures of the Kowloon Railway Station were demolished in the year 1977. The clock tower is now the only remaining part of the ancient Kowloon Railway Station.
The clocks of the tower have been operational since the afternoon of 22nd March 1921 and are running since then, except for the brief halt during the second world war when Hong Kong was invaded by the Japanese. The clock tower has been a spectator of the combat during the war and even bears the marks of the same till this date. The clock tower is a landmark in Hong Kong. It has helped in boosting the visitor numbers and is used to represent Hong Kong as a nation (School, 2014).
One can reach the Clock Tower by road by following the Salisbury Road and taking the subway that takes us to the Hong Kong Cultural Center. The Clock Tower is right next to the prominent hotels and iconic landmarks of the country. The other way of reaching the Clock Tower is through the ferry from Central or the Wan Chai, which is on the southern shore of the Tsim Sha Tsui, Kwoloon. The ferry will take you to the Tsim Sha Tsui Star Ferry Pier, which is also the location of the Clock Tower.
The famous Peninsula Hotel and The Star Ferry Terminal are major sites of tourist attraction. The Kowloon and Canton Railway line played an important part in the development of Hong Kong as a trading hub famous across the world. It allowed the businessmen to travel from and to Beijing, Russia and even Europe. This made trading with these countries more convenient for the Hong Kong traders. Thus the railway line was appreciated a lot by not just the businessmen and traders, but also the common public because it connected Hong Kong to the other countries and made travelling across nations more convenient (Tsui, 2015).
Presently, the Clock Tower is a major sightseeing attraction of Hong Kong with its easy recognition and beautiful backdrops. The very famous Harbour City Shopping Mall only adds to the number of visitors to this site. The site around the Clock Tower is used to carry out special events and for decorating during festivals and new year’s eve. The famous Hong Kong skyline is clearly visible from this place and the Symphony and Lights Show is enjoyed by the masses in the Clock Tower area.
The cultural heritage of a country plays a significant role in the development of the travel and tourism industry. It is important that the cultural and heritage sites are conserved, protected and promoted so that the citizens of the nation feel connected to their history and the people visiting the country come to know of the rich culture and background of the country. In the country of Hong Kong, the responsibility of protection and preservation of the historical monuments lies with the Antiquities and Monuments Office (AMO) of Hong Kong which was made in the year 1976 along with the Antiquities Advisory Board of Hong Kong by the enforcement of the Antiquities and Monuments Ordinance.
The AMO is situated in a building on the Nathan Road, Hong Kong, which was originally the Kowloon School. Their key responsibilities include identification of the historical monuments, recording their history and significance and researching further about them. They also carry out surveys and excavations in the areas that are of historic and archeological significance. The AMO conducts awareness programs, exhibitions, workshops, tours, lectures etc. regularly to involve the people and the visitors and make them aware of the rich heritage of the Hong Kong culture.
The five sections of the Antiquities and Monuments Office are the Archeology department, the Education and publicity department, the Technical and advisory department, the Historical building department and the Planning and management department. The person in charge of the AMO is the Executive Secretary Ms. Susanna Siu. She is the head of the entire Antiquities and Monuments Office and plays a decisive role in the discussions related to the inclusion of monuments in the declared monuments list. The Antiquities and Monuments Office works on the values of quality service, customer orientation, research and survey conduction, development and enhancement of the cultural heritage and professionalism.
The stakeholders in the tourism department and its promotion in Hong Kong are all these government bodies, private players and the not for profit organizations and educational bodies that contribute to the growth of the travel and leisure industry. The Antiquities and Monuments Office has played a very important role in the conservation and promotion of the heritage sites across the country. The number of visitors to the country has increased since its inception and tourism has contributed a fair share to the nation’s economic growth.
The Young Friends of Heritage Schemes have involved children from secondary school into the world of historical monuments and heritage sites. Hong Kong has numerous sites and monuments that tell a tale of its historical journey and rich culture. These sites not only connect the citizens to their past and their cultural background but also attract people from all over the world as visitors and travelers. They help in giving a boost to the travel and leisure industry and also contribute to the economic growth of the nation. There are some things that need to be taken care of when assessing the historic sites and monuments and adding them to the list of declared monuments.
It is a tedious job to get the excavation permits, the process of excavation and the analysis of the ancient monuments as a potential entrant into the list of declared monuments. The monument once included must be taken care of and protected against the pollution, degradation and other factors that may harm the appearance or the built on the site. It must also be protected against environmental damage like rains, corrosion, sand and soil deposits, algae etc. The monuments must be maintained and checked regularly for any signs of damage or repair required. The report concludes with a case study of a historical monument in Hong Kong and its relevance.
We have studied the Clock Tower, which was Kowloon-Canton Railway Clock Tower and is also famous as the Tsim Sha Tsui Clock Tower. It is a 44 meter tall tower made up of bricks and granite and is the only part of the ancient Kowloon Railway Station of the Kowloon-Canton Railway Line. It is located near the Tsim Sha Tsui Ferry pier and is a major tourist attraction and a must visit for the people travelling to Hong Kong. The Clock tower is a sightseeing attraction and the area around the tower is used to conduct events and celebrations. It is decorated at the time of festivals and during the new year’s eve. The Hong Kong skyline is clearly visible from the place and the Symphony and Lights Show is also enjoyed by the visitors.
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