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Accounting Theory and Current Issues


The report will summarize how Bio-Sustainable Feeds Ltd. (BSF) may be able to introduce their main development based research program and skills and basically engaged with research teams on sustainable or proper aqua-culture feeds for the fishes. There were two decades the said Australian comp about any has been sustaining its successful position in the market and provided that sustainable by means of bio-sustainable feeds to the fishes. The report strongly states the continuous research process that is being done by the company BSF so as to examine and assess the use of bacteria for feeding the fishes under water. It has been hereby discussed in the study that with the help of sugar cane remaining, methane gas and wood chips, etc. the fishes are being fed under water. The entire report has also narrated the effective role played by the research and development department of the company and how they have been constantly aiming at improving their operations in a proficient manner by complying with the standards of AASB 13. Thus to sum up, this study has shed light upon the sustainable aqua cultural practices undertaken by BSF for mitigating the environmental issues.

Undertaken by BSF society [Impact of the research]

BSF Ltd. continuously delivering several investigates studies and development of all the basic practices of the research so as to examine basically which kinds of bio sustainable feeds are mainly appropriate for the marine and aqua regional fishes. In order to make the farming much sustainable and effective, the company has incorporated various types of strategies so that the bacteria based feeds can replace the plant based feeds (Williams, et. al., 2000). The prime motto behind conducting this research and development program is to make sure that the ecological balance is well maintained in the marine areas of Australia by ascertaining the improvement and promotion of the ecological footprints of the surrounding environment. With the help of the campaign ‘Sustainable Aquaculture’, the company BSF has focused upon driving the economic conditions of the country in the path of growth and stability.

According to this kind of case study by the researcher it has been basically identified that the basic process of bacteria, algae, yeast, etc. is approved by the environmental experts that narrates that the bio-degradable elements create a lesser value for the society. In other words, this process actually does not pose a positive impact on the society and hence the sustainability and the growth of the Australian economy are unsure. As per the statistical reports of CBC (2016), the low value fish feeds are being used as a replacement of the plant based feeds for the fishes under the water (Crab, et. al., 2012). This has showed a progress and the growth of the economic condition of Australia. As a matter of fact, the conversion rate has been estimated by the aquaculture industry initially as 1/10th. In future, approximately 30 kgs of the normal valued plant or type of based feeds will be produced instead of low valued 10 kgs fishes and for that reason increase the conversion rate by 1/30th.

On the other hand, it has been perceived in the case study that in Australia, the corn based feeds do not bear any kind of environmental footprints which directly ensures the sustainability and profitability of the economy of the country (Tacon and Nates, 2007). In order to promote and uplift the economic condition of the Australia, the less valued bio degradable products such as wood chips, methane gas and sugar cane remaining have been converted into the highly valued fish feeds which will automatically put a positive impact on the society. This transformation will increase the susceptibility of the low valued fishes. Hence it has been observed from the research analysis that this will increase the susceptibility of the lower valued fishes by minimising the prevalence of malnutrition and poverty in all over Australia. By adopting this practice, it can be made ascertain that the rich people can be able to consume high valued fishes whereas on the other hand, the poor or low income group people will be able to consume the low valued fishes. Hence from continuous research and development, the useful and beneficial resources will be beneficial for the people belonging to low income group in the country. In the future, the non-valuable resources to the human beings will be utilised so as to ensure growth and development of the society.

Accounting Theory and Current Issues

Issues and complexities

During the execution of the research done by BSF Ltd, several risks and issues have ushered in the process that have created problems in the accomplishment of the research objectives. In the process of fermenting the yeast, bacteria and algae with the bio-degradable wastes such as wood chips, sugar cane residues, methane gas, etc., the company BSF Ltd. has come across some risks in its financial growth (Tacon and Forster, 2001). The conversion rates have also hampered the aqua lives and almost 1/3rd of the fishes of Australia have died. The piscatorial fishes of approximately AUD $ 120 million also been affected during the research process.

Nature, usage and development of the research

Basic and various new and developed techniques and approaches have been introduced by BSF’s research and development department so as to ensure betterment of the products and services during production process. It is a systematic process that involves knowledge from various significant fields and also encourages new areas of innovation and development. Several commercial and government innovation approaches align with the R&D making it a fruitful research study. Through proper R&D process, the interests of the stakeholders can be fulfilled. This is the research technique of BSF Ltd. is emphasised upon maintaining the ecological balance and ascertaining the good health of the Australian population (New, 1999). It has been also pointed out that there is a wide difference between the research and development. Research simply indicates towards the market surveys and gathering information based on which certain significant innovative ideas can be generated for improvement. On the other hand, development is the extreme phase where the new ideas and innovative perspectives are being utilised to develop new products and services suitable to use by the people.

The main aim of this research is to innovate some skills, pre production of models and prototypes for the organisation by which they can effectively enhances in the market and explore new knowledge and understanding. There are some benefits of research and development those are as follows:

  • Have an effect on the ROI, on the R&D at the time method materialization happened
  • Research and development has a fundamental goal and contribution on the sustainable business procedure
  • Investment in an organisation requires more knowledge and practices for the organisation (Aquaculture, 1996). By the help of effective knowledge and development programme the R&D team can effectively grow for the organisation.
  • To plan the target and to achieve the desired goal for the organisation research and development functions helps a lot
  • This is a display place to investigate the limits and boundaries of thoughts and modernization

Fair market value identifying

At the time registering reasonable estimation of benefits, financial directors more often than not consider a few elements specifically – costs, substitution costs and the expenses of close substitutes (Barnabé and Solbé, 1990). Through the term Fair market values of assets, monetary supervisors and accountant of the organisation allude to legitimate and adjusted estimation of the potential business sector cost of the advantages of an organization. Licenses are accounted under protected innovation rights and are considered as the centre immaterial resource of any business. There are a few directions, which is finding out the estimation of the patent; a few; techniques are taken after:

Cost strategy General estimation has been taken care of through the multiplication expense, which is defended as per the specific valuation. The point of the development of the expenses has to enhance the intellectual properties and the financial qualities. Other expense ought to be required for downplaying the substitution cost in the association.

Market Strategy: For novel thought of the venture, ideas of attainability ought to be resolved. Consequently, utility and innovation is aiding in involving the cost designation through the general exercises of exchange. So as to reinforcing the exercises of the association, it is important to appraise the worth that can be resolved through the Market Based Strategy.

Assumption of the market value

Various suppositions in the AASB 13 shall be observed with at the time measuring the fair value of the patents. All these assumptions are able to be concise as below:

  • Recognition of the patents condition
  • Fair value of the patents needs to be measured by subtracting the price of deal for the benefits
  • Fair value of the patents needs to be decided supported on the main market for the government grant
  • The body needs to have admission to the primary market
  • The reduction quantity of the patents shall be paid in a methodical mode over the helpful being of the benefits
  • The governing body must not fulfil with the situation on trade or employ of the patents

Calculations for fair value of patents

The market value of patents = $ 700 million (approx)

Discount rate will be equals to 8%

Helpful life of the insubstantial asset = 2 years around by the case study it has been determined

Hence, the main basic fair value will be approx $ [700 - (700 million * 8% * 2 years)]

= $ 588 million

Journal entries based on BSF Ltd.

This exact section put together few number of journal entries which are approved by BSF Ltd, planned below ASX.

The list of journal entries for value determined by BSF Ltd. is documented underneath:

1: By cost of research a/c........ Dr
To Cash a/c
(Being the value of research entrenched to involve the in general production of fish in the fisheries)
160 160
2: By cost of development a/c....... Dr
To Cash a/c
(Being value of growth has been determined in order to involve the production of fish in the fisheries of the business of BSF Ltd. In direct to build the possible enlargement for fishes in the fisheries)
200 200
3: By cash a/c.....Dr
To grants received
(Being the money has been obtained from the grant offered by CISIRO in lieu of determining the things that will allow the fishery business)
500 500
4: By alternative feeds a/c.......Dr
To cash a/c
(Being substitute fishes are procured from money in order to cumulate the reviews concerning the effectiveness of the fisheries)
100 100
5: By research costs on plant based feeds a/c......Dr
To cash a/c
(Being expenditure of investigate has been cumulated for the individual observation concerning in general study consequently as to give reason for the point of substitute feeds)
340 340
6: By cash a/c.....Dr
By discount allowed a/c.....Dr
To patent a/c
To profit on sales a/c
(Being the value of research about the sustainable feeds for the fishes has been detained for the aqua cultural point of view for attaining in general revenue for the organisation in command to maintain the commerce in an well-organized way)
700 1300

Administration grant CSRIO

The proceeds that BSF Ltd. has achieved after set up the complete government grant obtained from CISIRO, the belongings were exposed within the Income proclamation of BSF Ltd. pay for alternative feeds has facilitated BSF ltd to uphold the benchmark of continue the in general transparency prices connected with the BSF Ltd.

On the other hand, it can be said that, BSF Ltd has obtained a reduction rate of 8% in excess of the current cost of the grant amount to AUD $ 500 million and that moreover was descript as postponed revenue and for that reason that was take away from the transport charges of the resources (Hollmann, 1984). All the total admission costs from the grant were another time not traced straight in the impartiality and were treated by means of the revenue approach.

Administration grant CSRIO

BSF Ltd. was offer the grant to allow the expenditures of study and growth and compensation of the spending at current and that is why the sum of AUD $ 500 million shall be document in the earnings and loss or it can be said that Income report of business at the period of bring upon the definite charges connected to study and progress. Grants are defined as the contribution or resources of an organisation (Jha, 2010). Especially to enhance the market values in the competitive world every organisation requires proper grants in their business. Government grants are for all time standards as the proceeds for the association. The total sum of grant might fall underneath “Grant for ecological measures in 20X2 – 20X5” and the journal approved for this exact grant is –

By cash a/c........Dr    =  AUD $ 500 million
To Deferred Income a/c   =  AUD $ 500 million
Pl Acc mainly 20x2
By differed income a/c.......Dr	= $ 500 million
To income from grants a/c = $ 500 million


The overall valuing patents amount for the organisation BSF Ltd is approximately AUD $ 700 million within the two years. There are several reasons to value the patents amount of the organisation (Lee, Burtle and Newman, 2005). The organisation discount rate is 8% per annum basis and the reasons of valuing patents are underneath:

  • By the help of additional measurement of the patents, the administration of BSF ltd. might be able to concentrate on several opportunities to exterior monetary and impartiality capital economics alternatives
  • Through the proper revaluation of the patents the organisation BSF Ltd can make effective development plan in their business process. With the help of proper monitoring and control the management can easily untaken their development cost for the organisation
  • With the help of revaluating the patents the organisation BSF Ltd or their management can easily assess their patent portfolio and they can easily assess the financial perception for the organisation (Pandey, Pande and Pandey, 2007).
  • assessment of government grants of AUD $ 500 million needs to be avoid the possibilities of allegation of any type of impractical assertions that may be happen in the method of assessment of patents
  • To supervise granted patents, this is very important that administrations require arriving at well conventional choice and their decision in the upcoming days in their business. On the other hand, as a result that can be demoted as constructive to attain at embedded assessment decisions comprehensive of the deal or trade of the patents, proceedings and permits of the patents
  • With the help of revaluation of the government grants, the administration of BSF Ltd. can efficiently assigning the financial plan and as a result permitting the corporation to discover and produce new plan for their study and growth practices
  • last of all, revaluation of government grants at fair value may be a flourishing way to make easy the tendency to go through into the joint ventures for the organisation

Declaration of recent research program

Patent valuation thinks of some as components and essentials of estimating extending from foreseen devalued qualities to expected future money streams, additionally considering the economic situations. At the same time, BSF Ltd. has chosen to execute the technology regarding the bacteria feed into the administration practices thus far this is viewed as the development for the administration and the patent qualities might be conceptualized in view of the reasonable estimations of the licenses. The declaration in the brochure for alternative feeding system for fishes determined that assessment of patents allows monitoring and controlling the study and progress practices.

By the help of using bacteria based feeds is completely an innovative advancement for the organisation. To create small cost bio-degradable manufactured goods into give to eats for fishes and that during a biodegradable procedure the Government granted around 700$ (million). This process would as a consequence advantage the civilization as the prospect development that is linked with investigate and expansion will only create utilize of assets, which have such no worth to human beings, as a result the arrangement would promote financial growth without damaging the deprived. This certainly would be a procedure of modernization (Terry, 1977).

Implementation of government grants from CISIRO is to some extent as a prospect for BSF Ltd. to discover the techniques through which the organization or the administration can take prepared acts to save water life in addition to promote the communal happiness of the individuals. According to the guidelines of IAS 20 and “Grant for ecological measures in 20X2 – 20X5”, the administration is competent to carry out explores by using low cost assets in the social order with consequences of fermentation of microorganisms, the administration is able to get better the environmental stability in addition to financial advantages for the wealthy and inferior people.

Conclusion and recommendation

According to the above study it can be depicted that, Government grant in this exact case study has allow the organization to improve the height of nonstop control on the research and development programme, therefore a sustainable shift to improve superiority of the fishery production ways. This particular process carried out by BSF ltd. to restore the plant-based-nourishment with small cost recyclable manufactured goods can be a biodegradable procedure which can improve the efficiency and productivity.


Aquaculture. (1996). Aquaculture, 144(4), p.389.
Barnabé, G. and Solbé, J. (1990). Aquaculture. New York: E. Horwood.
Crab, R., Defoirdt, T., Bossier, P. and Verstraete, W., 2012. Biofloc technology in aquaculture: beneficial effects and future challenges.Aquaculture, 356, pp.351-356.
Hollmann, P. (1984). Aquaculture. Washington, D.C.: Science Reference Section, Science and Technology Division, Library of Congress.
Jha, K. (2010). Aquaculture. Delhi: Daya Pub. House.
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New, M.B., 1999. Global aquaculture: current trends and challenges for the 21st century. WORLD AQUACULTURE-BATON ROUGE-, 30, pp.8-13.
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Tacon, A.G.J. and Forster, I.P., 2001. Global trends and challenges to aquaculture and aquafeed development in the new millennium. International Aquafeed-Directory and Buyers' Guide, pp.4-25.
Terry, O. (1977). Aquaculture. Albany: New York Sea Grant Institute.
Williams, M.J., Bell, J.D., Gupta, M.V., Dey, M., Ahmed, M., Prein, M., Child, S., Gardiner, P.R., Brummett, R. and Jamu, D., 2000. Responsible aquaculture can aid food problems. Nature, 406(6797), pp.673-673.

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