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400210 Health Promotion and the Nurse: Intervention | Mental Health

Essay: Developing the health promotion intervention objectives

The objective for this assignment is to complete a systematic review of the literature in a content area of your choice, concluding with clear and succinct objectives for a new health promotion intervention based on your assessment of the evidence you consider. Choose an area of research that is of interest to you and of arguable public health significance.

Answer:

Developing the Health Promotion Intervention Objectives

Health promotion is a vital process in any society. It basically involves enabling different people to improve and enhance control over their health. Furthermore, it encompasses focusing beyond individual behavior inclusive of environmental and social interventions. This paper seeks to establish a health promotion intervention in regards to mental health. It will precisely consider the psychological health of the youth during their transition process to adulthood in the MENA region in Egypt.

Search Strategy

Data utilized for the study was obtained from SYPE (Survey of Young People in Egypt). An average of 15000 young adults aged between 10 and 29 years were incorporated into the study. The study design involved two waves which were conducted at different times. The SRQ-20 (Self-Reporting Questionnaire) was utilized to get responses and obtain data from the target population. The questionnaire comprised of validated questions to measure general mental health (Liu, Modrek and Sieverding, 2017). The self-reporting questionnaires are effective since they are reliable and data can be collected swiftly and cheaply even from a large sample. Moreover, closed questions are easily quantifiable as they can be organized into graphs and tables and compared. However, self-reporting questionnaires have a reduced response rate and questions might be misinterpreted or misunderstood. The questionnaires also have societal desirability bias and fixed questions have no flexibility.

The most effective strategy when developing a health intervention program is to assess the extent of mental health issues among the young adults. For instance, in refugee camps, there is usually a rapid increase in population although the basic facilities like schools remain constant causing high drop-out rates (Tudor, 2013). Refugees especially the youth easily develop various forms of mental illnesses because there are inadequate human rights and numerous state-imposed restrictions.

 It is, therefore, important to develop and implement mental health intervention strategies. The aim of the policies ought to primarily enhance positive psychological health among young people (Eldredge et al., 2016). In the same token, another aim of health intervention should be to enable the youth to increase their attachment to school programs. Health practitioners have to devise various strategies to attain these goals. Therefore, healthcare professionals should consider advancing evidence-based interventions.

Inclusion and Exclusion criteria

The inclusion criteria were that the target population should have household characteristics and that it should comprise of youths. In the same token, SYPE included extensive modules on family formation, health, labor force contribution and education (Liu, Modrek and Sieverding, 2017). It is significant to have exclusion and inclusion criteria before commencing a research. Typically, both inclusion and exclusion criteria form the eligibility criteria used when finding the target population for a particular study. Inclusion criteria should be in correspondence to the scientific purpose of the study. An appropriate inclusion criterion enhances the research's feasibility, minimizes its cost and subsequent ethical concerns. A relevant inclusion or selection criterion ensures that there is consistency in relation to the sample population. Consequently, it makes sure that confusion is greatly reduced. Germane inclusion criteria increase the likelihood of attaining an accurate relationship between interventions and outcomes applied in the study. The suitable formulation of inclusion criteria boosts both external and internal validity of the research.

The data included for the review focused on evaluating mental health among the youth. It considered the essence of psychological well-being in people which is key to ensuring that the society advances in social, political and economic matters. In addition, the research acknowledged the importance of health advancement and promotion. Health advancement progresses the health status of communities, families, individuals, and nations. It also reduces mortality rates and boosts people's quality of life (Weare, 2013). Likewise, based on prevention, it minimizes both human and financial costs that employers, individuals, insurance companies, families, communities would utilize in seeking medical treatment.

Evidence

The findings from the research reveal that the different aspects associated with the transition to adulthood related to mental health depend on gender and age. Generally, researchers extensively describe gender differences in regards to the concern of deteriorated mental health. The scholars conclude that institutional and social factors make women be greatly socioeconomically disempowered in comparison to men (Liu, Modrek and Sieverding, 2017). Such factors entail being at a higher risk of mistreatment and abuse and also having limited resources. The study reveals that rapidly increasing educational attainments, growing economic opportunities specifically for women, changing hierarchical structures and gender roles lead to increased stress and anxiety for women.

There were several limitations to the analysis in regards to assessing mental health in young adults. In the research, the relationship between transformations in psychological health and changes in employment, education and marital status was done using the first-differencing method. However, it cannot be concluded that the transition regression analysis utilized reveals a causal relationship (Gonzalez et al., 2017). In addition, there may be the existence of time-varying factors which are unobservable which affect mental health status in youth and the possibility of making a paramount life transition. Another limitation of the study is that the relationship between these transformations may be inter-reliant. It is argued that the SRQ-20 is solely one measure of psychological health (Acharya et al., 2013). Nonetheless, there are many other measures which give varied results concerning the distribution and relationship of mental health to life events.

There are various mental health indicators which are imperative in assessing and determining the mental health among the youth. Some of the indicators include evaluating expenditures in regards to mental health, psychotropic prescriptions and the number of deaths caused by mental illness (Fazel et al., 2014). Additionally, it is important to analyze the types and number of mental health-care services available and the frequency of the issuance of insurance covers in relation to mental health.

Conclusions

The existing literature concerning mental health issues of young adults’ experiences during their transition to parenthood or maturity is only focused on high-income countries. The opportunity structures, gender, and age in regards to social roles and institutional structures differ from those in less developed contexts like MENA region (Liu, Modrek and Sieverding, 2017). Similarly, the literature has drawn greatly on socioeconomic aspects of life course theory neglecting the wider developmental origins associated with the approach and the probable linkages between psychological and socioeconomic outcomes. The results suggest that there is a gap in our comprehension of the consequences of the delayed transition to adulthood.

People deserve health care that is easily accessible, patient-centered and timely to be able to lead healthy lives. In regards to the evidence considered, it is paramount to develop and implement health promotion and intervention programs to improve the general health of people. Diverse strategies aimed at preventing disability, disease and premature death have to be formulated (Hope and Henderson, 2014). These strategies can comprise education-driven undertakings and voluntary behavior transformation activities. For instance, providing counseling to youths so that they can value education hence reduce the high probability of dropping out of school. Furthermore, when people are educated they can initiate the formation of policies which will aid reduce the occurrence of the various forms of mental illness, therefore, have better living standards. Education also enables people to learn the techniques of managing stress and depression. Therefore, this will lead to a decline in mental illness occurrences among the youth.

Effective health intervention and promotion programs should involve the development of individual, community, institutional and systematic plans to advance health skills, behavior, attitudes, and knowledge (Landsman, 2013). The main intention of establishing health intervention ought to be to positively inspire and impact the health behavior of communities and individuals as well as working and living conditions which influence the health.

Study objectives from the evidence

There are varied study objectives that arise after the analysis of the paper. The main purpose was to relate the existing limited literature concerning the mental health of young people in the MENA region to contemporary literature in regards to their transition to adulthood. Therefore, this leads to the development of three study objectives. First, it is important to describe the mental health care of the youth in Egypt, comprising relations with sociodemographic predictors. Another study aim is the evaluation of the transformations in psychological health status. It had to be for the years between 2009 and 2014 and also representative of the nationwide young population (Liu, Modrek and Sieverding, 2017). The last study objective was a description of the relations between transformations in mental health and vital life transitions in marriage, employment and education. Comprehending the mental health care concerns of undergoing delayed changes to adulthood is significant (Ritchie, Watson and Friedman, 2015). It provides a clear insight in relation to the level of hopelessness and causes of frustration that is felt by the current Egyptian youthful population.

References

Acharya, A. S., Prakash, A., Saxena, P., & Nigam, A. (2013). Sampling: Why and how of it. Indian Journal of Medical Specialities, 4(2), 330-333.

Eldredge, L. K. B., Markham, C. M., Ruiter, R. A., Kok, G., & Parcel, G. S. (2016). Planning health promotion programs: an intervention mapping approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Fazel, M., Hoagwood, K., Stephan, S., & Ford, T. (2014). Mental health interventions in schools in high-income countries. The Lancet Psychiatry, 1(5), 377-387.

Gonzalez, A., Teräsvirta, T., Van Dijk, D., & Yang, Y. (2017). Panel smooth transition regression models.

Hope, V., & Henderson, M. (2014). Medical student depression, anxiety and distress outside N orth A merica: a systematic review. Medical education, 48(10), 963-979.

Landsman, M. S. (2013). Mental Health Promotion. The Encyclopedia of Cross?Cultural Psychology, 2, 871-873.

Liu, J., Modrek, S., & Sieverding, M. (2017). The mental health of youth and young adults during the transition to adulthood in Egypt. Demographic research, 36, 1721.

Ritchie, E. C., Watson, P. J., & Friedman, M. J. (Eds.). (2015). Interventions following mass violence and disasters: Strategies for mental health practice. Guilford Publications.

Tudor, K. (2013). Mental health promotion: Paradigms and practice. Routledge.

Weare, K. (2013). Promoting mental, emotional and social health: A whole school approach. Routledge.

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