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401005 Human Relationships and Life Transitions : Several Interactions

Discuss about the Human Relationships and Life Transitions, He then diageed to the idea that the mental abilities like the intelligence is a fixed form of trait and are refarded as the development of the cognition as the process



Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development states a fact that every individual moves through a procedure of distinct four different stages of cognitive as well as mental development. It mainly depends upon the understanding about how different individuals gain knowledge and focuses upon the concept about how natural intelligence is asquired by children (Demetriou et al., 2016). He also was of the opinion that they take a very important part  in process of learning by the process of making observations and also learning about the world. With their through interaction with the world, they continuously develop new knowledge, enhance their existing knowledge and also link with the  previously held ideas for accommodation of  new information (Barrouillet, 2015).

The theory of cognitive development by Jean Piaget states that how the child constructs their mental model in the world.

He then diageed to the idea that the mental abilities like the intelligence is a fixed form of trait and are refarded as the development of the cognition as the process that can occur due to the biological form of maturation and the several interactions with the domains of the environment (Bjorklund & Causey, 2017). The other for stages of that are needed to be discussed in relation for the case study is the Preoperational stage that depicts the second stage of the cognitive theory of Piaget. The state begins around the age of 2 years and the last until the age of 7 years. During this stage, the children begins to get themselves engaged in the symbolic form of play and hence they learn to manipulate the essential symbols. However, it has been noted by Piaget that they fail to understand the concrete form of logic.

The pre operational stage minly occurs between the ages 2 to 7. The language development is one of the important aspect in this period. Piaget has noted that the child of this age do not have the ability of concrete form of logic and there are no form of the mental manipulation that can be done by taking into account the view point of the other people that have termed to be egocentrism (Parkay, Anctil & Hass, 2014).

However, during the stage of preoperation, the children becomes increasingly adaptive towards using the symbols that have been evidenced by increasing the playing the pretendence of the various broom is a horse. The phenomenon of role playing becomes on of the vital aspects of this preoperationl stage. The children tend to play “mom”, “dad”, “doctor” and many other charectors at this stage of development.

The changes that takes place at this time that have involved in the phase that are dramatic phase for the learning and the growth where the children can undertake the interactions with the environment that tends to gain new form of discoveries of learning from the various working systems of the world  (Parkay, Anctil & Hass, 2014). The children tend to develop the physical actions such as crawling, walking and the other aspects of the languages that are gathered from the people who are surrounding them. This form of the development of the language has its beginning in the pre operational stages and lasts upto 7years of age. At this age they start to form the capability to think in a symbolical manner. They also tend to connect the words as well as the pictures for the representation of the various objects.

The number of important factors that can be identified that can impact the development of the speeches and the languages for the instant in the particular case study. It has been reported by Jack’s mother who have reported that he only speaks once or twice and most of the times he is blabbering that means that he is trying his best for the communication with the people who are suuroding him. The major cause of the ill development of the speech is the lack of spending a proper form of time with the adults with each case of the mothers as well as the members of the family. It was been found as his mother was always engaged in work Jackhad problem in developing the cognition. The researcher have stated that the toddlers tends to infer that the intent of communication of the speakers. However, they tend to thereby use that form of information that guides the language of the learning. They also infer form the excited tone of the adults.

In addition, there are other reasons that are stated by the researchers is that we have seen that the verbal form of environment influences the language that are learning and therefore the children from one age to age three form of highly verbal families that are professional hear three times more words than the low verbal form of families that are increasing the chances of the proper form of speech development.  

The theory that also holds importance unlike the theory of Piaget, helps in providing light to the development of the psychosocial development of the children is known as the Psychosocial theory of Eric Erikson. Erikson proposed his psychosocial theory that is based on the psychoanalytic theory of Freud. His theory comprised of eight major stages that ranged from infancy to adulthood. During each of the stages of development the individuals tend to experience a crisis that results to the positive or negative outcomes on the development of personality of the individual. In case of the current case study Jack is on the second stage of the eriksons theory thai is autonomy versus shame and doubt.

This stage occurs between the ages of 18 months to approximately age two to three years. The infant develops a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Erikson states it is critical that parents allow their children to explore the limits of their abilities within an encouraging environment which is tolerant of failure. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt (Mooney, 2013).

It has closely been observed that Jack’s mother has been very much concerned about the development of toilet training of Jack. With the growing years, it might have happened that the absence of his mother has had a viatl impact on the personality of Jack. It made him insecure and scared of many things. However, it may so happen that Jack’s mother has never observed the proper toilet training of Jack.

Nonetheless, the act of toileting in the washroom and using of the washroom needed to bedone at the right age. Jack’s mother had a casual approach as she was unawre that improper toilet training can make the child dependent and depressive. They may also inculcate the problem of bed wetting which is a major sign of anxiety and insecurity.

Both the theories of Erikson and Piaget has given a major understanding of the cognitive abd personality development of the children. These theories often acts as a framework for the parents to understand that when is the time of various developments of the child. These theories can also help Jack’s parents to understand is to why is he having the speech problem and as well as the problem of toileting. Therefore, the specialist should provide his parents the proper guideline to train their child. 


Barrouillet, P. (2015). Theories of cognitive development: From Piaget to today.

Bjorklund, D. F., & Causey, K. B. (2017). Children's thinking: Cognitive development and individual differences. SAGE Publications.

Côté, J. E. (2014). The dangerous myth of emerging adulthood: An evidence-based critique of a flawed developmental theory. Applied Developmental Science, 18(4), 177-188.

Darling-Fisher, C., & Leidy, N. (2015). The Modified Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory.

Demetriou, A., Shayer, M., & Efklides, A. (Eds.). (2016). Neo-Piagetian theories of cognitive development: Implications and applications for education. Routledge.

Mooney, C. G. (2013). Theories of Childhood: An Introduction to Dewey, Montessori, Erikson, Piaget & Vygotsky. Redleaf Press.

Parkay, F. W., Anctil, E. J., & Hass, G. (2014). Curriculum leadership: Readings for developing quality educational programs. Prentice Hall.

Sacco, R. G. (2013). Re-envisaging the eight developmental stages of Erik Erikson: The Fibonacci life-chart method (FLCM). Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology, 3(1), 140.

Saxe, G. B. (2015). Culture and cognitive development: Studies in mathematical understanding. Psychology Press.

Siegler, R. S. (2016). Continuity and change in the field of cognitive development and in the perspectives of one cognitive developmentalist. Child Development Perspectives, 10(2), 128-133.

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