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42013 Engineering Graduate Project: Solar Air Conditioner

Topic: Solar Air Conditioner

It is a survey paper, not a research paper, it should be a survey paper with surveying a papers of the solar air conditioner and giving a survey, advantages, and disadvantages.

Answer:

Introduction

The increase in the need for cooling has led to the surge in its demand for air conditioners. The air conditioners require electricity which is declining day-by-day due to its heavy usage. It is also difficult to use the conventional fuel such as oil and gas because, they are quite expensive. Moreover, the extensive use of fossil fuels can have greenhouse gas emission that will in turn increase the risks of global warming. The air conditioning refers to continuously processing to decrease the humidity by removal of hot air and purifying the surrounding air in the area. This particular process requires more energy. As the electricity is expensive and the non-renewable energy resources are limited there is a demand for an alternative source, which is fulfilled by solar energy. It is an easily accessible source of energy, which has no harm to the environment. The solar energy is inexpensive and it can be easily replaced with the conventional energy.

The objective of this report is to survey the various types of solar conditioners, where the primary focus includes its advantages and disadvantages. 

The Survey

Scope of the Survey

The survey relates the importance of the solar energies to be used in the scientific field in order to minimize the usage of the natural resources and concentrates on the energies produced by sun in huge amount to sustain the future. Moreover, it is the efficient way of generating the electricity in an efficient way with different environment conditions. The surveyors have agreed to this type of thermoelectric and renewable energies because essentially there was a misunderstanding that it may harm the environmental conditions. It runs on the liquid or gas based fuel which have then cooling capacity of 20 Kilowatt Hertz. The researchers concentrate much on the usage of solar energies as the fossil fuels are among the resources which are extinct on the earth. Since it makes use of heavy components, it is necessary to use the simulation design and fabrication related survey. The components must be able to resist the amount of voltage is being used in the form of solar energies. The pumping of the system is not reversed and the coolant is also used so that the temperature can be under the control. Hence it is important to understand that the coolant really plays important role in bringing back the system to its normal temperature.

According to Thakur et al., (2016), the photoelectric plates and the thermal power system are used in order to maintain the temperature of the system. The process of evaporation is used to cool down the temperature along with the coolant being used. It is really not possible to use the solar air conditioner in the low lying zone which consists of more amount of the moisture in the atmosphere which will not heat the thermal plates to generate the power or electricity


in any mode. Since this is the topic of discussion. Meanwhile scientists have generated electronic devices to fresh up the atmosphere with new turbines being introduced.

Snegirjovs et al., (2016), the photovoltaic plates are useful when the lights falls on, it gets charged. It works as soon as the photoelectric lights stops falling in the absence of solar energy.

According to the scientist A. Fernandez Garcia (2009) a parabolic container is created in resists the temperature of 400 °C where the stream was used to generate the power. Such types of energies are in more demand so that companies can make use of bulk amount of energies, where power cut is not an option. As the days passed, after new technology gets introduced, trough was decreased in sizes, which will lower the cost and increase the efficiencies.

Tyagi et al., (2012) have introduced a hybrid versions photovoltaic or thermal plates in which new elements keep modifying from past 30 years. And thus it is really efficient to manage the temperature on the plates so that the power can be used in different options. It supports and monitors the amount of data being shared and used.

Stefania Proietti and Paolo Sdringols (2009) introduced a multiple cooling system techniques so efficiencies increases. The system must have the efficient amount of work to be carried at all point of time. Because the machines can never be ideal. It mainly relates with the idea that whether the system is providing the optimum amount of the energies and technologies which are being used is accurate for the participation in process. And it will monitor the duration of physical components to be used.

  1. Saidur (2011) carries on his survey in order to describe that different electronic devices have different capacities to carry out the potential. It shows the study that the solar array of installation can provide a supply of more than 44 percentage of energy to the world (Mekhilef, Saidur and Safari, 2011).
  2. Tian (2013) shows how the solar energy batteries can be converted into new upcoming additions technologies. How much of energies can be generated and stored. Also talks about the maintenance being done in the systems. If the material can resist the heat, finding the physical and chemical properties of the solar batteries being used.

Zhai et al., (2011) introduced as solar chimneys in order to lower the carbon content in the atmosphere and reduces the heated content. That’s why we consider this paper to lower the temperature to greater extent and provide the better environment to live in. It is also said that the solar plates emits more amount of energies but it was in olden periods where more amount of energies were emitted which destroyed purity of the environment. Perhaps it is right but in new era, technology make sure that they do not harm the nature in any way.

Umberto Desideri (2009) describes in his paper about the solar cooling in which energies are being obtained from the natural resources in order to save the environment by not emitting and harmful gases. It describes about the installation and the advantages of the systems referred. The same concept is been applied in the solar air conditioner. The operation and the experimental analysis is being made so that optimal process is achieved.

Gang Li, Yunho Hwang, Reinhard Rademacher (2012) the authors describe about the solar storage in which energies are conserved to make the food look healthier for how much days we want to conserve for. Storage medium used are ice, water, paraffin, fatty acids and salt hydrates and others. The moisture has the capacity to convert the food particles into the semi-solid form or in the solid form to maintain it for more than a year. It is really helpful for the peoples staying without family in an isolated region or in order to help their countries in emergencies. The chemical properties may change based in the time passing. All the products are not conserved in such a way, only few food items which can maintain the slurry form are kept in such a conditions.

The solar air conditioner consists of the plates mounted on it where the sun’s ray will directly fall on the transparent plates and after it gets heated the process will start. The liquid propellant is also used in this system so that the process also keeps cooling simultaneously. The building gives the good and positive reply along with the environment inside which is dust free. The normal condition showed the fresh moment inside the building. Whereas in the artificial generated air conditioner, there was more amount of people falling sick. As the atmosphere inside was not satisfactory. Those people have to stay suffered for, long period of time. It also decreases the carbon di oxide content with comfort in the living room. Since it is renewable source of energy it can never be wasted but can only be used in different forms.

The atmosphere in the summer time is too hot but the air conditioner will convert the energy into different formats so that they can use it efficiently. In season when we do not want the cool session the best thing is that it can be converted into the reverse session too. It will also reduce the cost of the cost of the item to greater extent. And no problem of power shortage. In the environment the chemical properties changes but the physical properties more or else do not change. The hydrocarbons tends to change. The bacteria in the preservatives are getting multiplied but don not harm anyone in anyway. And maintain the purity of the food if it is being used in the system. Sometimes, if everyone starts using the solar air conditioner in a particular area then it is obvious that the temperature will increase drastically. It is well known that plates are good mode of conductors so it will increase the temperature leading in greenhouse effects.

Bal, Soni and Sharma (2014), the authors consider energy as an inevitable requirement to survive in the technology oriented world. The authors have found that the energy is more consumed for air conditioning in the conventional air conditioners (ACs) and in the refrigerants. This is believed to increase global warming. The survey proves that the global warming can lead to increase the temperature. The use of exhaustible energy can deplete the exhaustible source of energy. Thus, these are considered as the major reasons to move on to solar energy.  It is available in nature. The authors have researched on the solar assisted cooling techniques which are large usage. The solar absorption techniques are focused. For the solar electrical cooling, solar thermal cooling is preferred, because the solar heat can be collected by using the solar thermal collectors with an efficiency ranging more than 70 percentage (Brumana and Franchini, 2016). But, the same efficiency is not provided by the direct conversion of solar energy into electricity, as it can only provide approximately 35 percentage of efficiency. It is determined that the remaining energy is wasted as heat energy. The heat energy releases gases like CFCs and HCFCs that can deplete the ozone layer. The investigations has determined that the indoor comfort conditions can improve the hybrid AC when compared to the conventional standalone vapour compression AC. The Hybrid solar air conditioner is stated as a state of art technique. The load of the air conditioner is reduced by incorporating desiccant that ensures on the moisture part and decreases the loads of the AC in the humid regions. The hybrid system can decline the consumption of energy for running the compressor (U and K. P, n.d.). It is observed that solar cooling can be a promising application for the solar thermal energy, especially in the places where there is high insolation and high cooling loads. Technique is the noted difference in hybrid and the standalone system, which changes the gas in to liquid that can be reused again.

Khor Jiunn Hao and GhaffarianHoseini (2012), state that increased usage of AC can increase the use of electricity, which lead to energy crisis. The University in Malaysia named as Limkokwing was researched, which determined the results that too much use of AC has increased the consumption of more energy. Therefore, the renewable energy is thought of to solve the excess energy consumption problem with renewable energy. The campus also considered an effective and environmental friendly source for energy to decrease the greenhouse gas emission. The difference between the conventional AC and the solar air conditioner is that the solar AC uses mechanical energies to transfer the heat through the compression and expansion of a refrigerant. Moreover, solar air conditioner absorbs the heat to give a cooling effect. Thus, it is observed that the campus is going through financial crisis and the country is running sort of electricity. Therefore, the cost can be cut down with the implementation of environment friendly energy system for enhancing the quality of life in the cities. 

Choudhury, Chatterjee and Sarkar, (2010), solar-powered based sorption refrigeration systems will not have the greenhouse gas emission problem.

Qdah (2015), mentions that in Saudi Arabia the solar ACs are installed in all the buildings because the outside temperature is too high, especially in summer the temperature raises to more than 410 C. The author focuses on the holy place in Saudi called AlMadinah AlMunawwarah. The solar AC which are integrated with photovoltaic (PV) system are investigated to check its performance. This PV system uses which PV panels, solar charger, inverter and batteries. The PV system are suggested for the areas of AlMadinah where there the electricity cost is too high. The solution is provided with two methods which are based on one other.

Sharma et al., (2009), observed an environmental friendly method to implement AC system. It helps in reserving the fossil fuel reserves and avoiding any kind of risks to the global environment, with Peltier device. The thermoelectricity based AC will have a vital role to play. The solar energy is the source for this AC system. It provides large rage of variation in the temperature. It can be an intelligent system if the signal processing and signal conditioning elements are incorporated.

Kongre, Mahure and Zamre (2014), it is observed that the solar energy can be helpful in reducing consumption of energy and it can also decline the threats to the environment. The primary source of energy for the solar desiccant ACs is solar energy. It helps in thermodynamic heat transfer process as well as heat transfer principles to convert ambient air into cooling air. The major benefit is that it is noise free, cost effective, non-corrosive, environment friendly  and lasts for a long time. 

Sl. No.

Solar Cooling Technologies

Cost Range per 5 TR AC unit

COP

1.

Solar Assisted Vapor Compression System

$10,503 [100]

3-6 [98-99]

2.

Solar Assisted Absorption System (LiBn/H20)

$20,000 [103]

0.76-0_83 [101-105]

3.

Solar Assisted Absorption System(H20/NH3)

$5,000 [107]

0.57-0_62 [101, 102, 104-107]

4.

Solar Assisted Absorption System

$20,000 [108]

0.40-0_61 [101-108]

5.

Solar Assisted Solid Desiccant System

$25,000 [109]

1.06-1_22 [101-109]


Ravi Gugulothu et al. (2015) discussed the overall solar ACs review and the advantages of solar air conditioner is a modernization mainly used for decreasing the operations of electricity for houses and the companies. Solar energy plays a very leading act in the building energy systems.

 Yu et al., (2009), states that the air conditioning energy systems are downloaded in buildings to give good healthy and also productive environment. Which provide the solar air conditioner technology with a high potential to decrease the conventional energy consumption in the building sectors. It contains various type of components and devices which should be in the order of sequential for the purpose of doing all the operations in the air conditioning. Such as, to provide the heat or cool energy, conditioner air should be distributed among the conditioned space, and ease of control and manipulate the enclosed environment at best energy use.

Vijay Kumar. B. Chanashetty (2015), studied once a solar ACs installed I the buildings it can offer so many environmental benefits such as, less grid trade, load switch while in high usage, decrease the electricity costs and also reduce the cool house gas emissions.

Daniel Rowe and Stephen White (2014), investigated the performance of solar ACs, to develop the house resale value. Because, most of the solar user consider a good investment on solar systems. It saves the money to the longer user so you may get a profit via reselling the untapped energy return back to the original state. Incentive programs the total cost of setting a solar air conditioner system in the house or companies at very high rate. But it provide more benefits to the users, and air conditioner reduce the longer usage of electricity cost make the primary expensive worthwhile. But now a days both the state and federal government offer more incentive plans to the user.

Alazazmeh and Mokheimer (2015), observed that the cost-effective technology can be referred to solar cooling. It provides environmental benefits along with the decrease in the demand of the main grid demand and in shifting the load when the use is at peak. It is observed that various solar energy technologies are utilized for achieving the effect of refrigeration.

Vijay Kumar. B. Chanashetty (2015) discusses that the cons of Solar ACs are that they are expensive in the primary stage and also longer usage which meet the initial investment too. It is fully based on the electricity so it is limited to some countries. Because, it contribute the energy in the sunlight only. And while building a solar energy systems is also very expensive. Tracking the sunlight, so the solar panels always positioning towards the sunlight. And also make the adjustments base on the season.

Z.F. Li, K. Sumathy (2000), studied the process of cleaning or purifying is the biggest process in the solar air conditioning system. Keep cleaning the panels which contains the snows and dust. The basic solar systems are normally are basically fixed in the roof of the house, so it is very difficult to clean those solar ACs. It emits the limited amount of power supply because panels have the capacity of 200 watts. So compared to solar systems it gives less amount of power supply. Solar batteries are high expensive to purchase. And those batteries are have trickier in maintaining and it is not in long use.

  1. N. Noor, A. Arshad (2016) established a review on the recent development of solar systems basically harvest by the solar collector. It operates on the two types of methods. That is flat plate collector, it is used for water heating progress and evacuated tube collector is maximizing the efficiency of the radiation.

 C.A. Balaras et al. (2007), discussed about the solar cooling technology. The system is divided into two various department such as close and open cycle system technology. In closed system mainly focusing on the absorption cycle. The simplicity of this type process the high heating temperature and noiseless actions involved.in other hand open cycle systems are used for storing the energy and ability to contain.

Z.F. Li, K. Sumathy (2000) studied the cooling technologies, which divided into various types, single effect absorption AC system, single effect hot water storage 70%-75% of water lowest temperature and 25%-30% water in high volume. And double effect convertible system gives the higher convertible absorption cooling system.

Khaled S. Al Qdah (2015) discussed about the particular country climate and design of the solar powered ACs with the performance of that particular climate season (Gugulothu et al., 2015). They identifies the progress of the methodology. Those are gathering of needed material which, is based on the space and cooling load calculations process on the design of material and the capacity of that material how much temperature it will accept. The important part in this size should calculated based on the temperature. While selecting the correct position of the solar systems depending upon the climate of the sunlight. The connections should be made according to the correct basements. The system need to be tested for the purpose of capacity, it should be tested 8 hours in a day with an adequate capacity.

Khor Jiunn Hao and GhaffarianHoseini (2012), states that the usage of solar energy systems widely increases in summer, which is the effect of high electrical load. So, it causes various problems in the electrical power supply. The energy character may vary according to the building structure and the age. To avoid the economic and as well as environmental problems, the rational energy is required. Solar cooling process is mainly used to increase more cooling and have greater heat exist. It is also synchronized within the companies. Energy destructed can be identified by using the thermodynamics analysis of solar systems. Decrement in the energy losses will provide the optimization of the solar system performance. 

Conclusion

The survey of various researches has been investigated and the appropriate results are determined. Various types of solar conditioners are surveyed. The survey observation show that the solar air conditioners are a method that is cost-effective and helps in saying the environment from global warming threats. The advantages and disadvantages of the solar air conditioners are determined. The advantages of solar ACs is that they are easy to maintain, and it can be beneficial in the places where the cost of electricity is extremely high. The installation of solar energy system provides the use of renewable energy from solar light. It is the cheapest and efficient method (Afshar et al., 2012). It also helps in increasing the performance of the ACs. The disadvantages of the solar ACs is that they are costly and completely relies on solar energy. The use of solar air conditioners varies based on the countries. The solar panel’s position is adjusted based on the season. The process to clean the solar air conditioners is challenging, as they are fixed on the roof which is prone to dust.  The solar batteries are highly expensive to purchase. Moreover, it is challenging to maintain the batteries and it is hardly has long usage.

References

Alazazmeh, A. and Mokheimer, E. (2015). Review of Solar Cooling Technologies. Journal of Applied Mechanical Engineering, 04(05).

Bal, D., Soni, S. and Sharma, D. (2014). Solar vs. Conventional Air-Conditioning Systems: Review of LIMKOKWING University Campus,

Cabrera, F., Fernández-García, A., Silva, R. and Pérez-García, M. (2013). Use of parabolic trough solar collectors for solar refrigeration and air-conditioning applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 20, pp.103-118.

Chan, H., Riffat, S. and Zhu, J. (2010). Review of passive solar heating and cooling technologies.

Khor Jiunn Hao, E. and GhaffarianHoseini, A. (2012). Solar vs. Conventional Air-Conditioning Systems: Review of LIMKOKWING University Campus, Cyberjaya, Malaysia. Journal of Creative Sustainable Architecture & Built Environment, 2.

Kongre, D., Mahure, D. and Zamre, P. (2014). A Review of Solar Desiccant Air Conditioner. International Journal of Engineering Research, 3(4), pp.265-266.

Koroneos, C., Nanak, E. and Xydis, G. (2009). Solar Air-conditioning Systems Impact on the Built Environment – A Thermodynamic Approach. 45th ISOCARP Congress.

Qdah, K. (2015). Performance of Solar-Powered Air Conditioning System under AlMadinah AlMunawwarah Climatic Conditions. Smart

U, V. and K. P, V. (n.d.). GRID INTEGRATION OF WIND AND PHOTOVOLTAIC HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEM. Journal of Electrical Engineering.

Yu, B., Hu, Z., Liu, M., Yang, H., Kong, Q. and Liu, Y. (2009). Review of research on air-conditioning systems and indoor air quality control for human health. International Journal of Refrigeration, 32(1), pp.3-20.

Choudhury, B., Chatterjee, P. and Sarkar, J. (2010). Review paper on solar-powered air-conditioning through adsorption route. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(8), pp.2189-2195.

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Snegirjovs, A., Shipkovs, P., Lebedeva, K., Kashkarova, G., Migla, L., Gantenbein, P. and Omlin, L. (2016). Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning. Latvian Journal of Physics and Technical Sciences, 53(6).

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