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CHCDIV002 Assessment Task 4

CHCDIV002

ASSESSMENT 4

Assessment Task 4: Written questions

Part A: Short Answer

Task summary:

  • You are to answer two questions in this task.
  • You will also be required to demonstrate your knowledge of the following:

Key aspects, and the diversity, of Australia’s Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander cultures, including:

  • concept of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander cultural safety in the community services and health context, and its relationship with:
    • cultural awareness
    • cultural competence
  • own culture, western systems and structures and how these impact on Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people and their engagement with services

You will achieve this by:

  • researching culture and history, the impact of European settlement, loss of land and culture and the importance of law and kinship
  • evaluating ways to improve communication with Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples who may be clients or colleagues.

Resources and equipment required to complete this task

  • Access to your Structured Study Plan
  • Access to assessment template (Learning Portal)
  • Access to textbooks and other learning materials.
  • Access to a computer and the Internet

Instructions:

  • You will do this task in your own time.
  • Please refer to your Structured Study Plan for the scheduled activities and timelines associated with this task.
  • You need to answer all the questions correctly.
  • You must use your computer to type in the answers to the questions.
  • Please refer to each question for the word limit.

1. Answer the following questions. (500 words in total)

a. Define ‘diversity’ and explain the concept of diversity

Diversity includes acceptance and respect, these means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual differences. These can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. So, these differences should be explorated in a safe, positive and nurturing environment. It is very important to protect diversity and conservate different traditions, values, beliefs in regards to cultivate a climate where equity and mutual respect are fundamental.

So, diversity means more than just acknowledging or tolerating difference. Diversity is a set of conscious practices that involve: understanding and appreciating interdependence of humanity, cultures, and the natural environment. Practicing mutual respect for qualities and experiences that are different from our own. Understanding that diversity includes not only ways of being but also ways of knowing; Recognizing that personal, cultural and institutionalized discrimination creates and sustains privileges for some while creating and sustaining disadvantages for others; Building alliances across differences so that we can work together to eradicate all forms of discrimination.[1]

b. Define the meaning of culture.

Culture is the tacit social order of an organization, this can be society, community, towns, countries, etc. It shapes attitudes and behaviors in wide-ranging and durable ways. Cultural norms define what is encouraged, discouraged, accepted, or rejected within a group. When properly aligned with personal values, drives, and needs, culture can unleash tremendous amounts of energy toward a shared purpose and foster an organization’s capacity to thrive[2]

c. State, in your own words, what are the essential aspects of culture and what are important aspects of culture to you?

As the culture is defined as the material and spiritual set that a certain social group is capable of transmitting from generation to generation, in order to preserve group and individual practices, so having this in consideration to me the essential aspects of culture are the worldview of each group, their gastronomy, language, religion, beliefs, customs, cultural festivals, an their symbols such as gestures, words, attitudes among others. These are the principal components or aspects because is what constitutes the culture and what their groups have learnt generations by generations.

2. Describe the concepts of cultural safety and its relationship to:

(500 words in total)

When we talk about cultural safety, we are having in consideration an environment that is safe for people no matters their culture, beliefs, race, religion, ethniticity, background , etc. So, in this environment there is no assault, challenge or denial due to the last characteristics mentioned. So, cultural safety includes a environment where there is respect, shared knowledge and experience of learning, working and living together.

For example in Australia, for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples a cultural safe environment is one where they feel safe and secure in their identity, culture and community[3]

  1. Cultural awareness: This concept is about recognising othe cultural values, beliefs and perceptions of others. This concept contributes to have a better cultural safety developing because when you know others cultures as well as yours it is easier to respect and understand diferents points of view, belief systems, values and ways of doing things.
  2. Cultural competence: The concept of cultural competence refers to the ability to understand and communicate effectively with others as well as having a respectful and good interactions with them who has not my same background. This concept is related to cultural safety because when we are cultural competents develop a way of thinking which makes us respectful and open to different cultural perspectives as well as more understanding and better comunicators.
  3. Community services in a health context: when you are a Community services worker in a heath context is necessary that you are cultural aware and at the same time you need to be cultural competent, this because you are going to work with people from all backgrounds and cultures, specially when you are in a multicultural country as Australia. So, if you possess this characteristics is more likely that you work on a cultural safe environment because you are trained and ready to be more respectful, respond to other´s needs even they are different to yours, Additionally, it is going to be easier to you to identify when someone is not respecting this principles and ensure your clients righ

Assessment Task 4: Written questions

Part B: Minor Research- Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander

Task summary:

You are required to research and answer all the questions on different aspects of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander history and culture.

You will also be required to demonstrate your knowledge of the following:

Key aspects, and the diversity, of Australia’s Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander cultures, including:

  • concept of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander cultural safety in the community services and health context, and its relationship with:
  • cultural awareness
  • cultural competence
  • legislative context for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander cultural safety
  • the diversity of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander cultures
  • historical, social, political and economic issues affecting Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people and their engagement with community services and health systems, including:
  • impact of European settlement
  • loss of land and culture
  • racism and discrimination
  • past and present power relations
  • own culture, western systems and structures and how these impact on Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people and their engagement with services
  • factors that contribute to Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander ill health and common diseases experienced by these groups of people:
  • impact of trauma on individuals’ ability for:
  • decision-making
  • communicating
  • understanding
  • retaining information
  • ways to involve Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people in the planning and delivery of services and programs

You will achieve this by:

  • researching culture and history, the impact of European settlement, loss of land and culture and the importance of law and kinship
  • evaluating ways to improve communication with Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples who may be clients or colleagues.

Resources and equipment required to complete this task

  • Access to your Structured Study Plan
  • Access to assessment template (Learning Portal)
  • Access to textbooks and other learning materials.
  • Access to a computer and the Internet

Instructions:

  • You will do this task in your own time.
  • Please refer to the Structured Study Plan for the scheduled activities and timelines associated with this task.
  • You must use your computer to type in the answers to the questions
  • Please refer to each question for the word limit.

1. For each of the following historical and critical issues, describe what happened, and the impact of this on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities (300-500 words)

Event

What happened?

Impact on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities today

European settlement

1778: Arthur Phillip and 1,500 ore people arrived at Sydney with the objective of stablishing a penal colony n the newly claimed territory. At the same time, the new colony was intended to alleviate overcrowding in British prisons, expand the British Empire.

The indigenous population of Australia was reduced by 90% because of the introduction of new diseases, direct and violent conflict with the colonisers.

Aboriginal land was taken over by British colonists on the premise that the land belonged to no-one. It asserted that Indigenous people were non-human

Pain of occupation, dispossession an lack of recognition

Stereotyping of Indigenous People

Intergenerational Trauma

Crisis of Identity

Social exclusion

Loss of land and culture

Aboriginal land was taken over by British colonists on the premise that the land belonged to no-one. It asserted that Indigenous people were non-human

Policiy of Assimilation

Pain of occupation, dispossession an lack of recognition.

The removal of several generations of children also severely disrupted Indigenous culture, and consequently much cultural knowledge was unable to be passed on.

Importance of law and kinship

The aboriginal people of Australia had a complex system of law long before the establishment of British law in Australia, their system of law is often referred to as “traditional lawTraditional law is and was not a set of laws that all Aborigines throughout Australia used.

Traditional law refers to the common features of acceptable and unacceptable behavior in Aboriginal communities. There were no formal courts like British courts under traditional lore, instead problems regarding traditional law were handled by elders- the oldest people in the community. Despite the complex Aboriginal system of lore(law) that was in place before 1788 England declared Australia terra nullius- not inhabited by peoples with settled laws or customs. When England set up British law in Australia Aborigines were expected to follow it and be bound by it even though they had not agreed to it. At the same time Aborigines expected the British to follow “traditional lore” even though the British had not agreed to it.

The kinship system is a feature of Aboriginal social organisation and family relationships across Australia. It is a complex system that determines how people relate to each other and their roles, responsibilities and obligations in relation to one another, ceremonial business and land. The kinship system determines who marres who, ceremonial relationships, funeral roles and behaviour patterns with other kin.

Stolen generation

This happened between 1910- 1970 and the Indigenous children were removed from their families as part od the policy of Assimilation So, the generations of Children removed became known as the Stolen Generations.This policy vas based on the assumptuin of black inferiority and white superiority.

Children taken from their parents were taught to reject their Indigenous heritage, and forced to adopt white culture. Their names were often changed, and they were forbidden to speak their traditional languages. Some children were adopted by white families, and many were placed in institutions where abuse and neglect were common

The policies of child removal left a legacy of trauma and loss that continues to affect Indigenous communities, families and individuals. These people who experience trauma are more likely to engage in self-destructive behaviours, develop life-style diseases and enter and remain in the criminal justice system.

The high rates of poor physical health, mental health problems, addiction, incarceration, domestic violence, self harm and suicide in Indigenous communities are directly linked to experiences of trauma.

Many members of the Stolen Generations never experienced living in a healthy family situation, and never learned parenting skills. In some instances, this has resulted in generations of children raised in state care.

Introduction of alcohol

After the European Settlement the use of alcohol changed significantly, for example within weeks of the arrival of the first fleet the first pubs were opened. Many aboriginal labourers were paid in alcohol or tobcco.

In the early 1800s a favourite spectator sport of white people in Sydney was to ply Aboriginal men with alcohol and encourage them to fight each other, often to the death.

White settlers also gave alcohol to Aboriginal people to p

ay for sex. Alcohol-induced prostitution harmed child rearing and accelerated the birth rate of mixed descent children, usually rejected by their European fathers.


However, in 1837 laws were passed to prevent the sell of alcoholic beverages to aboriginal Australians, as the drinking was a problem in indigenous communities. Despite this, alcohol was often purchase illegally and there was a trend of rapid consumption of high alcohol content beverages.

Aboriginal people were given the right to drink alcohol in the various states and terrirories between 1957 and 1975, a right that for many aborigines became a symbol of equality, citizenship and status.

Nsw Health says that today statistics show that aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are less likely to drink alcohol than other Australians. But those that do drink are more likely to drink at dangerous levels.

Alcohol, tobacco and illicit substances are widely used by Australians, although substance use plays a significant role in the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians when it comes to life expectancy and health.

Introduction of disease

The most immediate consequence of colonisation was a wave of epidemic diseases including smallpox, measles and influenza, which spread ahead of the frontier and annihilated many Indigenous communities. Governor Phillip reported that smallpox had killed half of the Indigenous people in the Sydney region within fourteen months of the arrival of the First Fleet.

The sexual abuse and exploitation of Indigenous girls and women also introduced venereal disease to Indigenous people in epidemic proportions.

Many Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians, often dying at much younger ages.

Indigenous Australians are more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to have mental health problems and chronic diseases such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease.There is also a continued high occurrence of certain diseases that are now virtually unknown in the non-Indigenous population. Notable among these are trachoma (a bacterial infection of the eye) and rheumatic heart disease.

2. Watch the YouTube videos “Trauma, loss and grief for Aboriginal Children” Parts 1 – 6. ANU TV at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V7roTUe-iPA&nohtml5=False then answer the following, questions ( 150-200 words)

a. Why does Dr Maggie Walter say they are ‘Aboriginal peoples’, not ‘Aboriginal people’ (Part 2)? (150-200 words)

Because she refers to diversity of Aboriginal community as a whole (culture and belief). There are more than 500 tribes and clans across Australia with different cultural practices. Her focus is to disrupt, through empirical and theoretically linked research, the often pernicious assumptions that underpin how Indigenous people are represented. As one of the few quantitative Indigenous researchers in Australia her research has sought to challenge the established practices of Indigenous statistics which continuously focus on deficit indicators. The deficit indicators, and continual marginalisation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples across the spectrum of society, is at the heart of Professor Walter’s research efforts. What she is trying to do is to demonstrate that the disparate position of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia is founded on long-term structural inequality, rather than Indigenous inadequacy, and that we cannot close the gap until those structural issues, such a social and political marginalisation, racism and paternalism are addressed.

b. Why do you think this is important when providing services for Aboriginal children? (150-200 words)

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people cultures are valued and significant in Australia and it's essential for educators to help children understand the history, culture and lives of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. The NQS(Nationl Quality Standart) emphasises the importance of early childhood services forming partnerships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. For non indigenous educators, we are often scared about "getting it wrong" or being "tokenistic" in programming, but the most important thing is to make a start and then keep going. It's important to engage with the culture - have a personal connection and going thorough the proper avenues to gain an understanding of the culture and build relationships with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. If using a national event such as NAIDOC week, it's a good opportunity to start learning, then it provides a good foundation to keep going forward. It's important that we educate ourselves to feel confident in passing on knowledge about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures to all children in a meaningful and informed way. As educators it's vital we increase our knowledge of Aboriginal Australia from past to present which will assist us to create accessible and inclusive environments.

c. What does Professor Mick Dodson say about how unresolved loss and grief affect Aboriginal people (Part 3)? (150-200 words)

It affects their wellbeing about their health and how they feel about them self. Child abuse and neglect associated with Indigenous communities cannot be understood, nor addressed, unless it is viewed from a broad perspective which includes both historical and present day issues. Measures centred around community-based responses which empower Indigenous Australians are needed, in order to protect Indigenous children from the serious levels of abuse which they are presently experiencing. When an Indigenous child or adolescent experiences trauma, loss or grief, there can be extra complexities that need to be taken into account. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians' experiences of loss are multifaceted and complex, and involve the ‘normal’ losses that people experience as well as the other losses that are specific to Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have historical and cultural ways of dealing with loss. These differences should be considered, however, being culturally sensitive should be balanced with best practice principles. This section of the hub gives some useful information and background about child and adolescent trauma, loss and grief from an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander perspective.

d. Why does Adele Cox say that trauma, grief and loss experienced by Aboriginal children are different than for non-Aboriginal children (Part 3)? Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain your answer. (150-200 words)

It is different because of Aboriginal children have different history, cultural identity and make up. Moreover, long history of trauma and grief experienced by the Aboriginal families have changed theirperception of what is norm in grief and loss.I agree with the above statement. The Aboriginal children attended funerals on weekly basis, suchpractices certainly created high level of psychological trauma. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples face grief through the range of losses which confront all people, but added to this are historical losses of country, language, family, culture and traditions. Multiple historical losses for Aboriginal people following British settlement in Australia, Aboriginal populations were decimated initially by introduced diseases. but also by conflict with white settlers who had no understanding of Aboriginal use of, and connection, with their traditional lands. Subsequent disruptions came about through the Stolen Generations. The removal of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children from their families, based on the European view that they would have better opportunities to thrive, has been one of the most difficult and scandalous public policy approaches to First Nations People.1 The impact of this policy on those Aboriginal children, their families of origin and subsequent generations was the subject of an Australian Royal Commission in 1998 entitles “Bringing Them Home“2. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people’s grief is also amplified by the inequalities which currently persist in our society: economic, health issues, employment, education, and a statistically shorter lifespan than non-Indigenous Australians. Although changes have occurred to reduce these inequalities, they still exist, and are critical in a nation finding its way to achieve Reconciliation. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people still die at a younger age than the rest of the Australian population, and have a higher rate of suicide than the population in general. The burden of grief for some Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities can become overwhelming.

e. Dr Margo Weir attributes racism as a significant cause of loss and grief in Aboriginal peoples (Part 3). What examples of racism does she give? (150-200 words)

Tremendous uncertanty if they go for a shopping - How are they going to know if a customer service will treat them properly. Rent a house – How are they going to know if they will manage to rent a house. When Aboriginal people is going to the shop and rent a house not knowing if they will be pleasantly served.

f. Suggest two racist acts that young Aboriginal children might encounter on an everyday basis. (150-200 words)

One in five Australians has experienced racism in the past 12 months, according to one of the biggest ever surveys conducted on racism and prejudice in the country. The survey by the Western Sydney University, found two thirds of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders reported being called names and being treated with a lack of trust and respect. Researchers say the rate of racism in Australia has escalated in the past ten years, and is now a public policy issue that needs urgent attention. More than half of Indigenous Australians experienced racism not only in the workplace but at school, university, shops and restaurants. Nearly 60 per cent also endured racism on public transport. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' experiences of everyday racism was 25 per cent higher than for non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participants. Examples of 2 racist acts that happened before and still happens nowdays:

Dave – Worimi:“One story that sticks out to me was back in High School. I changed schools in year 10 and was really the only black person in the entire school. Sometimes kids would say racist jokes specifically about Aboriginal people and even use the word ‘Abo’… it was in front of the whole room, and people didn’t understand that it was even wrong or classified as racist. They also didn’t know that I was Aboriginal and how much that impacted me.”

Maddie – Gomeroi: “I remember working as a dental assistant and one day, some dental students came in to see if the dentist on duty could do a survey. One of the students was Aboriginal, and the receptionist said that she couldn’t believe it. I asked her why and she said ‘because Aboriginals aren’t that smart’.

g. Part 6 discusses how Australian systems fail Aboriginal children. What are two ‘systems’ that they feel are letting children down and why? (150-200 words)

Systems do not prepare children for lives and they think they may be trated equally. Support families with programs with Aboriginal prospective. The system should change the way they do things. The highest failure rates are in Indigenous schools - those with more than 75 per cent Indigenous attendance. They enrol some 20,000 students, mainly in bush communities on Indigenous lands that have no private sectors or real jobs, and are hence totally welfare dependent. These schools typically have failure rates of more than 90 per cent. More than 40 Homelands Learning Centres in the Northern Territory do not have a qualified teacher all days of the week. Only a handful of Indigenous schools such as the Cape York Partnership 'academies' and three schools run by the Queensland Department of Education have introduced rigorous literacy and numeracy instruction, a full primary curriculum, and after-school 'club' activities. In the few schools with high ethos, where students make progress from day to day and from week to week, attendance booms.

h. Based on the questions a - g what are the long-term cultural trauma effects an individual’s ability to do everyday things, such as making decisions, communicating, understanding issues and retaining information? Explain your answer. (450-500 words)

Increasing evidence suggests that services which implement a trauma-informed approach which draws on ancient wisdom of Indigenous cultures are most successful in facilitating healing and recovery. Furthermore, the connection to land, spirituality, community and ancestry are often seen as protective factors for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people to help manage their wellbeing. Trauma affects every child differently depending on their age, personality and past experiences. Trauma can disrupt the relationships a child has with their family and school staff, as well as affect the development of a child’s language and physical skills, and their social and emotional wellbeing. The support and care children receive from the adults in their lives can help them cope with, and recover from, trauma. Some ways that trauma can affect children are:

Emotions: Experiencing trauma can change the way that children understand, manage their emotions and relate to others. Emotions act as an early warning signal to a child’s brain to be cautious about what is about to happen. Emotions like fear help children respond when they are experiencing trauma in a way that keeps them safe from harm (for example, running away from danger). Children who experience trauma spend a lot of time in this state and they can struggle to feel calm, safe, and in control. This can affect how they learn about and process emotions.

Behaviour: Experiencing trauma can impact on a child’s behaviour. They might become quiet and withdrawn; or their behaviour might become more explosive, aggressive and unpredictable. They might damage furniture, or do things that could hurt others. Sometimes children may also engage in repetitive routines in order to help them to calm and soothe themselves and make themselves feel better.

Attachment: Attachment is the emotional bond between a child and caregiver that is formed in order to establish a sense of security and safety. Secure attachment relationshipsprovide children with a sense that someone will help them when they are distressed, and that they have a safe base to explore the world around them. Experiencing trauma can fundamentally alter a child’s attachment to the people in their lives.

Memory: Sometimes children who have experienced trauma can be overwhelmed by memories of it. Intrusive memories can impact on a child’s learning at school, as they interfere with their ability to retain chunks of information and develop their working memory and process such information. Often children try to avoid memories of trauma, because they are so frightening

2. Research the social, political and economic issues that are affecting Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander people and select two from each of the areas. Write at least two paragraphs describing the issues and its impact on ATSI people accessing services. (150-200 words)

Health Issues: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people suffer greater health burdens compared to the non-Aboriginal population. Durie (1999) explained that the poor health status of Aboriginal peoples is due to economic disadvantage, resource alienation and political oppression.

Economic Issues: Income and education impact on an individual’s ability to ‘engage’ and ‘influence’ society. Indigenous Australians are known to have the lowest economic status of all Australians. Poor socio-economic, education and employment levels have links to financial hardship, poverty, debt, homelessness, family breakdown, social isolation and crime. Indigenous Australians suffer disproportionately high levels of domestic violence and over-representation in the justice system.

Socio-political factors: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people experience extreme levels of racism in Australia. This is typified historically by their exclusion from elite and mainstream power structures, as highlighted by Indigenous people not being recognised as Australian citizens until 1967. Nugent (2003) noted that Aboriginal Australians grow up learning two kinds of histories: memories preserved by family, and a humiliating textbook history taught in schools that does not recognise the depth of Indigenous culture. Behrendt (2003) noted that reconciliation can only occur when sovereignty is acknowledged through the recognition of past injustices, property rights and cultural practices.

3. Describe how you own culture, western systems impact on Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander People’s services. (150-200 words for each cultural custom)

The Continuing Impact of Settlement: It is an alternation of policy even when it addressed the problems raised in the past. The disadvantages like loss of culture land are still experienced by Aboriginals. The availability of Western education, medical skills, and technology has increased contact with Anglo-Australian and the outside world. The increase of satellite communication and televisions in rural areas has somehow added pressure on the life of individuals.

Effect on Traditional Authority: It has been noticed that the Aboriginal customary rules and traditional authority are affected markedly by dispossession and settlement process. The key reason behind the disruption of traditional authority is deeper as compared those due to alcohol or mass media influences. The unknown Aboriginal customary laws are one of the most important factors too. Granting of land rights was a revival for Aboriginal culture and tradition along with the outstation movement. European contact has indeed influenced Aboriginal society, culture, lives, laws, and their places in their community.

Analysing Current Disadvantage: The degree of past separation and dispossession is all around archived, yet it is still more progressively tough to evaluate its effect on current neediness and inconvenience among across the board and different Aboriginal populations. Insights over poverty and disservice are deficient and a hesitance to gather and keep statistics distinguishing Aboriginals as different groups. Additionally, insights will help us to show the side effects, not causes, and assumptions that the result of outside elements can be termed as external factors on Aboriginal populaces.

4. Explain why kinship is so important in Aboriginal culture. (150-200 words)

Kinship is very important in aboriginal society and can be considered as the heart of their culture. Kinship stablishes and defines a person’s relationship to others and to the universe, prescribing their responsibilities towards other people, the land and natural resources. So, it means that someone´s behaviour and responsibilities depends on the Kindship they possess. Traditional kinship structures remain important in many Indigenous communities today. There are over 500 Indigenous nations across Australia. Indigenous nations cover wide geographical areas, and have distinct borders. Within these nations there are clan groups, and within the clan groups there are family groups. Clan groups share a common language and kinship system, which is based on either patrilineal or matrilineal lines of descent. There are three levels of kinship in Indigenous society: Moiety, Totem and Skin Names.[4]

5. List one piece of legislation that protects the cultural safety of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people. Explain the context for the development of the legislation and how it protects cultural safety. (150-200 words)

The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984 (the ATSIHP Act)

This legislation was passed by the parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia to enable the Commonwealth to intervene and, where necessary, preserve and protect areas and objects of particular significance to Australia's Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander peoples from being desecrated or injured. The ATSIHP Act does not apply to all Indigenous heritage, but only to areas and objects that are of particular significance to Indigenous Australians in accordance with their Indigenous traditions.

The Act was established as a 'final resort' to heritage protection where state and territory protections were unsuccessful. As Senator Ryan stated when introducing the bill, "Where a State or Territory has no law capable of providing effective protection, or no action is being taken to give effect to that law, the Commonwealth will act in appropriate cases. This Act defines ‘Aboriginal tradition’ as: “ the body of traditions, observances, customs and beliefs of Aboriginals generally or of a particular community or group of Aboriginals, and includes any such traditions, observances, customs or beliefs relating to particular persons, areas, objects or relationships.”

On the other side, ‘Areas of significance’ can be Australian land- freehold, leasehold, private, national park or crown land- across states and territories, and internal waters or territorial seas. An area is considered injured or desecrated if it is used or treated in a manner inconsistent with Aboriginal traditions, including if a persons presence there would be inconsistent. The threat of injury or desecration must be specific; a declaration cannot be made against acts already taken, or potential acts in the future. The threat of injury or desecration also, cannot compel action such as developing a management plan. [5]

This policy protects the cultural safety of Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islander people because is having in consideration their culture, beliefs, race, ethnicity, traditions and trying to protect it to across the country to ensure that the custodians of the land have the recognition and protection that have been denied through the years. So, wherever they go and no matter the believs, all Australians and residents should guarantee a safe environment for Aboriginal which includes respect, shared tknowledge and experience of learning, working and living together.

6. Trauma is one problem affecting ATSI people’s wellbeing. Describe the impact of trauma on their decision-making, communicating, understanding and retaining information faculties? (150-200 words)

Emotions: Children who have experienced trauma often have difficulty understanding their own feelings. They can find it hard to experience strong emotions (even positive ones) because in the past they were signals that a threat was coming. Also, strong emotions like shame can trigger memories of the trauma itself. Shame may have many different meanings to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people but is often used to describe things that people see as embarrassing or private; or that are associated with stigma and negative connotations. Wanting to avoid shame and embarrassment can also prevent Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and families from seeking and receiving support when they need it. Accordingly, it’s really important that school staff are aware of and sensitive to the things that can cause shame.

Behaviour: Some of the behaviours seen in children who have experienced trauma include:

  • Sudden mood swings: children might appear happy and relaxed one minute and then become frightened the next
  • Outbursts of temper: sudden aggression or rage, including yelling and throwing things
  • Nightmares: calling out in sleep, waking suddenly in the night appearing confused or frightened
  • Sleeping problems: early waking, problems falling asleep, waking up frequently
  • Flashbacks: appearing dazed or confused, a child acts or feels as if they are back experiencing (reliving) the trauma
  • Hypervigilance: being startled easily, appearing ‘jumpy’, always paying attention to what’s going on around them
  • Anxiety or panic: appearing scared, experiencing physical anxiety such as sweating, shaking, nausea, shortness of breath
  • Depression: crying, sadness, no interest in playing with others or engaging in previously enjoyed activities
  • Dissociative experiences: a child’s face and expression appear ‘frozen’ and they behave as if they are thinking intently or listening to something only, they can hear, they appear not ‘present’ or ‘zoned out’
  • Communication problems: it might be selective in whom they speak with.

Attachment: is the emotional bond between a child and caregiver that is formed in order to establish a sense of security and safety. Secure attachment relationships provide children with a sense that someone will help them when they are distressed, and that they have a safe base to explore the world around them. Experiencing trauma can fundamentally alter a child’s attachment to the people in their lives. Children who experience trauma can find it difficult to trust other people, make friendships with their peers and develop relationships with adults in their life (including their teachers). This may mean that they are also reluctant to go to school. Children who have experienced trauma can find the school environment challenging and difficult to navigate. Trauma can affect a child’s learning, memory, relationships and behaviour, making it difficult for them to be at school.

Memory: Sometimes children who have experienced trauma can be overwhelmed by memories of it. Intrusive memories can impact on a child’s learning at school, as they interfere with their ability to retain chunks of information and develop their working memory and process such information. Often children try to avoid memories of trauma, because they are so frightening. However, some memories are intrusive and can impact on a child’s ability to form new memories and stories about themselves and their relationships. Children who have experienced trauma benefit most from relationships that provide the memory resources they may lack.

[1] Queens Borough Community College. Definition of Diversity. Consulted on September 1, 2020. Taken from: https://www.qcc.cuny.edu/diversity/definition.html

[2] Harvard Bussiness review (2018) The Leader’s guide to corporate culture. Consulted on September 1, 2020. Taken from: https://hbr.org/2018/01/the-culture-factor

[3] Australian Human Rights Comission (2011) Cultural safety and and security: tools to address lateral violence. Social Justice Report. Consulted on: 02/09/2020. Taken from: https://humanrights.gov.au/our-work/chapter-4-cultural-safety-and-security-tools-address-lateral-violence-social-justice#Heading56

[4] Australians Together. Indigenous Kindship, The hearth of Indigenous society. Taken from: https://australianstogether.org.au/discover/indigenous-culture/kinship/#:~:text=A%20person's%20position%20in%20the,the%20land%20and%20natural%20resources.&text=Traditional%20kinship%20structures%20remain%20important%20in%20many%20Indigenous%20communities%20today. Consulted on 08/09/2020

[5] Heritage Division Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. INTRODUCTION TO THE ABORIGINAL AND TORRES STRAIT ISLANDER HERITAGE PROTECTION ACT (2010) Taken from: https://www.adelaide.edu.au/legalandrisk/system/files/media/documents/2019-03/Aboriginal_and_Torres_Strait_Islander_Heritage_Protection.pdf

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