For Portsmouth location, the average power consumption per household is 227 kWh/month. To achieve an efficient distributed system, the installed capacity for the PV system should be at least 3924 kWh/ year since average consumption is 2724 kWh/year. A system with a capacity of 3kW will be designed using 30, 100W panels.
The latitude and longitudinal angles for the location are 54^{0}01’ N and 2^{0}02’ W respectively. For maximum irradiation, the panels will be tilted at an angle of 51^{0}31’. At this tilt angle, the average light energy hitting the panels is 3.6kWh/m^{2}/day.
If monocrystalline panels are used with a conversion efficiency of 17%, the annual generated power is given by,
(1) 

(2) 
Roof area required is 2137.25m2
100w panels will be used. To achieve 3 kW output, 2 panels positioned on opposite ends of the roof will be connected in series. Each pair will be connected to one dual charge controller which will be connected to two 10 AH batteries. The outputs from each of the 15 pairs will be connected in parallel to the 24 V inverter for DC to AC conversion.
100w Monocrystalline panels will be chosen for the design. This is because of their higher efficiency under shade conditions compared to polycrystalline panels. [1] model no:9046143
ATTRIBUTE 
VALUE 
V max 
19.55V 
I max 
5.12A 
Power rating 
100W 
Open circuit voltage 
23.15V 
Short circuit current 
5.45A 
Battery bank 
10Ah 
Peak power 
520W 
Type 
Monocrystalline 
Efficiency 
17% 
Dimension 
1055*670*95mm 
*Mounting style 
Surface mount 
Protection type 
Battery overcharge 
Terminal contact type 
Ring 
An MPPT charge controller will be used to monitor the power output of panels. MPPT controllers designed based on incremental conductance algorithm ensure array power output is tracked and maintained at the maximum power point. MPPT controller achieve a higher efficiency compared to PWM controllers. [2]
Since the system is installed on the consumer side of the grid, a single phase pure sine wave inverter will be used. A Sinusoidal pulse width modulated inverter achieves a pure sine wave once filtered using a low pass LC filter.
The charge controllers will be rated for an input 24 V and a maximum current of 10A. Maximum power rating will be 200W. the charge controller selected was the TRITON1206N.
System voltage 
24V 
Maximum PV open circuit voltage 
60V 
Maximum current rating 
20A 
dimensions 
150*80*40mm 
Fig 1. SPWM single phase inverter for an input of 24 V
Fig 2. inverter output at 50hZ.
The inverter output will be stepped up by a transformer of ratio 22:240
Such a design is implemented in this inverter model selected.
Model no: RBP4000SLED
Output type 
Single phase 
Output frequency 
50hZ 
Maximum input voltage 
24V 
efficiency 
0.9 
Maximum output voltage 
240 
dimensions 
550*240*95mm 
Protection type 
Short circuit, low voltage, high voltage 
15, 24V batteries each with a capacity of 20 AH will be connected across each pair. Together they will achieve a total capacity of 20*15=300 AH.
(3) 

(4) 
The batteries will have a capacity of 7200Wh at a voltage of 24V
At no inflation rate, the payback period is 26 years.
the PV model was designed from mathematical equations governing:
(5) 
Fig 3. Saturation current subsystem
(6) 
Fig 4. Shunt current subsystem
(8) 
Fig 5. Photo current subsystem
(7) 
Fig 6. Reverse saturation current subsystem
(9) 
Fig 7. Photo current subsystem
Fig 8. Connected subsystems
Fig 9. IV and PV characteristic generation
Fig 10. IV at 25^{0 }C and G 1000
Fig 11. PV at 25^{0 }C and G 1000
Fig 12. IV at 25^{0 }C and G 200
Fig 13. PV at 25^{0 }C and G 200
Fig 14.IV at 60^{0 }C and G 1000
Fig 15. PV at 60^{0 }C and G 1000
As reflected in the graphs above, the power output of a panel is directly proportional to irradiance and indirectly proportional to temperature.
[1] 
A. Tascioglu, O. Taskin and A. Varder, "A Power Case Study for Monocrystalline and Polycrystalline Solar Panels in Bursa City, Turkey," International journal of photoenergy, vol. 1, 2016. 
[2] 
A. Harish and M. Prasad, "Microcontroller Based Photovoltaic MPPT Charge Controller," Internationall journal of Engineering trends, vol. 1, 2013. 
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