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Motivational Theories

Motivational Theories

The three Motivational theories are as follows

· Maslow’s need hierarchy theory · Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene theory · McClelland’s need theory

1) Maslow’s need hierarchy theory is based on the needs of the people in other words the human needs are properly addressed. he categorized and step wise elaborated the basic needs like Self-actualization, Esteemed needs, Safety needs, Social needs, Phycological Needs.

1) As per Maslow’s need hierarchy the needs are

2) Esteem

3) Physiological needs

4) Social belonging

5) Safety needs

6) Self-actualization

Maslow's Need Hierarchy is a pyramid that defines the needs of the humans and how they get motivated by the fulfilment of the needs.

These needs have a clear precedence as per Maslow and accordingly the people get motivated. It suggests the first need that needs to be fulfilled are Physiological needs, which means a person has food, water etc. as the basic needs and if they do not have that they are motivated till these needs are satisfied. So one Physiological need example is food, so if need of food is not satisfied, it has to be satisfied and it acts as the most important need. So, if a person does not have food and we give him a car service for free, it is worthless.

If these needs are satisfied, only then they look for the higher needs as we go up the pyramid. Then comes the Safety needs, an example of this is security at home, so a person who has his basic needs fulfilled needs a house where he or she is not robbed and so is motivated by security of life.

Belongingness need and love needs, these are the society and friends, needs. So a person wants to live in a peaceful and lively society with friends, and this acts as a motivation.

2) Herzberg’s Motivation hygiene theory

This hypothesis was figured and hovered fundamentally around accountants and engineers who were taken for doing research in Pennsylvania. he primarily centered around the Growth, Advancement, Responsibility, work itself, acknowledgment, accomplishment, organization arrangement and organization, supervision, relational relations, working condition, Salary, Status, security.

3) McClelland’s Needs theory is related with learning hypothesis requirement for accomplishment, Need for power, requirement for alliance.

By and large term these all the three speculations expressed are general in nature and have been broadly trailed by the corporates and the directors every one of the focuses expressed by these creators are general in nature and have been utilized generally by the supervisors for persuading their representatives to get the best outcome. These hypotheses are having general terms which are utilized for advancement of the representatives, Motivational apparatus for workers.

Traits applicable in all situations:

Yes, these traits are applicable in most of the situations because someone with a great personality is more likely to be able to influence others than someone without personality. For e.g.: a highly charismatic superior will be more successful in influencing subordinate behavior than a supervisor who lacks charisma.

The next need is Esteem needs, when the basic needs and friends etc. needs are satisfied, a person looks for esteem, they want respect of others and it acts as a motivation.

The final stage is Self-actualization, when all the respect and money is achieved one needs to get to a self-actualization need where the person looks for peace and tranquility. Identifying own self and indulge in charity and improvement of arts, creativity etc.

3 Theories of motivation Based on Action

1. The carrot and stick approach - As per this theory, people are self-interested and their actions are motivated by a desire to find gain and avoid pain.

2. Reinforcement theory (B.F. Skinner) - As per this theory, people are motivated by external factors and so environment should be made suitable to the individuals.

3. Goal setting theory (Edwin Locke) - As per this theory, proper goal orientation and clear objectives motivates employees to perform better.

The carrot and stick approach can be used on professors. The stick can be the poor performance of his class on a regular basis. This will undermine his competence as a professor. The reinforcement theory can be used to motivate professors by making positive changes in the environment external to the university.

For example, the student community as a whole and parents can put a premium on education, thus motivating professors. The goal setting theory can motivate professors as well. For example, if professors receive a goal to increase the class average CGPA by a minimum of 15%, they will work hard to achieve that mark.

As per the equity theory, people are motivated by their beliefs about the reward structure as being fair or unfair, relative to the inputs. Possible reaction by the OB professor will be that the professor will think that the rewards are not equitable. He will get demotivated and possible reactions could be reduction in quality and quantity of his teaching duties, or leaving the job.

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