Colorectal cancer Nursing Assignment
Introduction: Colorectal cancer is a type of carcinoma which generally found in the colon or rectum of large intestine. The reason behind the colorectal cancer is the cell lining of large intestine grows uncontrollably which forms a cell clump or adenoma. Most of them are benign and not cancerous. But if these clumps are not treated in a proper time then these grows to a cancerous form which can be fatal.
Types: Types of cancer cells are depends upon the distribution of the areas where it grows:
- Analcancer: The end part of the digestive system is called anus and when the cancer cells grows here are called anal cancer.
- Bowelcancer: The cancer grows inside the colon of the large intestine.
- Colorectaladenocarcinoma: Here the cell lining of colon or rectum is affected by cancer.
- Colorectalcancer: In this case both the colon and rectum are affected by cancer.
- Gallbladdercancer: Which affects the gall bladder, a small pouch which collects the bile from liver and thus contribute in digestion.
- Gastriccancer: Affects the cell lining of stomach.
- Isletcellcancer: The pancreatic cells which are also called islets of langerhans are affected by cancer.
- Smallintestinecancer: Here the small intestine is affected which is quite rare.
Symptoms: Symptoms may include:
- Pain in abdomen, cramps.
- Loss of weight.
- Diarrhea, constipation, bloating of stomach.
- Bloody stool.
- Difficulty in passing stool.
Diagnosis: Doctor will suggest the following test to confirm the presence of cancerous cells.
- Faecaloccultbloodtest: The diagnosis of early stage cancer can confirm by faecal occult blood test (FOBT). The test is meant for the presence of blood in stool which may be a reason of early stage of colorectal cancer.
- Colonoscopy: The process includes a thin flexible tube which has a camera known as colonscope which has to be inserted into anus, rectum and colon. During the whole process some tissues are extracted for the confirmation of cancerous cells.
- Other test are like positronemissiontomography (PET), magneticresonanceimaging (MRI).
- Surgery: Colectomy is surgery of removal of cancer in the colon. Depending upon the severity of the cancer, the colon is removed. If the cancer is in it’s early stage then some potion of colon is removed but in some cases whole of colon and rectum are removed.
- Chemotherapy or radiotherapy: The therapy is given to the patient to kill the cancerous cells during surgery or after surgery. It is also given to the patient before surgery to kill the cancerous cells and also removal of tumor.