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Insulin Therapy Nursing Assignment

Introduction: Insulin, a protein hormone obtained from the Pancreases of pig or by recombinant technology is used to regulate the amount of blood glucose or sugar level. Deviation in blood sugar levels can result in Diabetes mellitus Type1 and Type2, Gestational diabetes. Glucagon, an antagonist hormone to insulin is used by the body to maintain the blood sugar level-so that cells are rejuvenated with enough glucose to gain energy.

Insulin was first used in medical science in 1922 in Canada by Charles Best, James Collip and Fredrick Banting. Taking into consideration it's efficacy and safety in health science, insulin has been listed amongst essential Medicines by World Health Organization.

Types of diabetes:

  • Type1 diabetes: - It's a congenital disorder where a healthy pancreas being attacked by the body immune system is unable to secrete insulin.
  • Type2 diabetes: - It's an acquired disorder that develops among an average age group of 45yrs where the pancreas can't produce enough insulin for body.
  • Gestational Diabetes: - Rarely develops during Pregnancy and is shortly aged but can result in developing Type 2 disorder.

Types of insulin: Depending on its action, onset, duration and peak insulin can be broadly classified into

Sl No

Type of action

The onset of function in minutes

Duration in hours








5 - 8



60 - 180

12 - 16




20 - 26



Combination of rapid or short-acting with that of Long-acting.

Mode of insulin therapy:

A person with Type 1 diabetes needs regular insulin therapy but the treatment regime varies. Insulin delivery may be through

  • Pump: - A mechanical device providing hormone through a port.
  • Pens
  • Inhalers
  • Injections

Doses vary according to the need of the patient and in a few cases, extra shots of rapid and short-acting insulin may be required at mealtime.

Side effects and complications involving the intake of insulin:

Persons might experience few side effects due to insulin therapy, like

  • Hyperglycemia
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Anxiety
  • Allergy

Faulty intake or uncontrolled schedule of insulin intake may lead to

  • Renal Complications
  • Stroke
  • Blurred Sight

Route of administration: Generally, insulin is administered subcutaneously. Depending on variants, it can also be used through Intravenous or Intramuscular route.


As the world is indulged in faulty dietary habits and busy lifestyles, diabetes engulfs a larger proportion of the population under its effect as such Insulin therapy is a boon to medical science. A diabetic person should stick to a controlled schedule regarding insulin intake along with the right type.

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