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HPV and cervical cancer Nursing Assignment



Introduction: The lowermost part of the uterus is called the cervix which connects to the vagina. When the cervix is affected by cancer then it is called cervical cancer. The main cause of cervical cancer is the Human papillomavirus (HPV).

When there is a mutation in the DNA of a cell can cause cancer. The lifespan of a cell of the body is generally 120 days. But when it comes to mutation the cell divides and redivide uncontrollably and never die. These cells form a mass like structure which is called a tumor. Finally, the tumor converted into cancer in a later stage.

Symptoms:

  • Vaginal blood discharge after intercourse, periods and menopause.
  • Watery or bloody discharge from vagina bad having a foul odor.
  • Lower abdominal and pelvic pain.
  • Pain during intercourse.
  • Swollen legs.
  • Kidney failure.
  • Weight loss.
HPV and cervical cancer

Types: There are two types of cervical cancer which are as follows:

  • Squamouscellcarcinoma: In this case, the lining of the outer part of the cervix which is squamous cells are affected by cancer. This is the most common type of cervical cancer.
  • Adenocarcinoma: Here the glandular cells of the cervical canal is affected by cancer.

Diagnosis:

  • Paptest: The cells of the cervix are collected and examine under the microscope to spot unusual cancer cells.
  • Colposcopy: A harmless dye called acetic acid is inserted to the cervix which makes the cells to see easier. Then the colposcope which is a microscope is inserted into to check any unusual cells.
  • Loopelectrosurgicalexcisionprocedure (LEEP): An electrified loop is used to take a sample of the cervix.

Treatment:

  • Radiationtherapy: Here a high energy beam is used to destroy the cancer cells and the growth of tumors in a targeted area.
  • Internalradiation: The surgeon prescribed radioactive capsules that are used to treat the tumor as well as cancer by the cancer-killing rays.
  • Chemotherapy: A series of medications called chemotherapy is used to treat cancer cells.
  • Immunotherapy: A targeted protein is used to block the protein synthesis in the tumor as well as cancer cells and also restrict their growth.

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