Introduction: Arthroplasty is also known as Orthopaedic surgical procedure where the musculoskeletal joint is replaced, remodelled. It is a procedure to relieve pain and restore function to the joint after damage or degradation or other trauma. The objective of arthroplasty is to restore the function of a stiffened synovial joint and relieve pain. As a surgical procedure, it is usually performed when medical treatment has not improved function in the affected joint. There are two types of arthroplasty surgery:
Joint resection: Joint resection involves removing a portion of the bone from a stiffened joint, increasing the space between the bone and the socket to improve the range of motion. Scar tissue eventually fills the gap, narrowing joint space again. Pain is relieved and motion is restored, but the joint is less stable.
Inter-positional reconstruction is surgery to reshape the joint and add a prosthetic disk between the two bones forming the joint. The prosthesis can be made of plastic, metal, ceramic material, or formed from such body tissue as skin, muscle. When inter-positional reconstruction fails, total joint replacement may be necessary. Joint replacement is also called total joint arthroplasty.
Causes: Osteoarthritis is the most common reason for arthroplasty. Other possibilities may include inflammatory arthritis (e.g, rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis), hip disorders of infancy and childhood, osteonecrosis (avascular necrosis), and trauma.
Signs and symptoms of an infected joint replacement include:
Increased pain or stiffness in a previously well-functioning joint
Orthopaedic surgeons follow up with their patients at regular intervals after surgery with a physical examination and X-rays. This process helps ensure the arthroplasty procedure and devices are performing as expected.
Occasionally, patients develop complications following total joint arthroplasty, such as an infection or a loose implant, and the prosthesis or device needs to be removed along with the surrounding damaged, infected tissues. The procedure to implant a new arthroplasty device in place of the original or primary component is called a revision arthroplasty.